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BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES 



LOYALISTS 



OF THE 



AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 



WITH 



AN HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



BY 

LORENZO SABINE. 



IN TWO VOLUMES. 
VOLUME I. 




UNIVERSITY 



BOSTON: 
LITTLE, BP^WN AND COMPANY. 

1864. 



7 5-0 ? / 

Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1864, by 

LORENZO SABINE, 
in the Clerk s Office of the District Court of the District of Massachusetts. 



RIVERSIDE, CAMBRIDGE: 
PRINTED BY H. O. HOUGHTON AND COMPANY. 




PREFACE 



OF the reasons which influenced, of the hopes and 
fears which agitated, and of the miseries and rewards 
which awaited the Loyalists or, as they were called 
in the politics of the time, the "Tories" of the 
American Eevolution, but little is known. The most 
intelligent, the best informed among us, confess the 
deficiency of their knowledge. The reason is obvi 
ous. Men who, like the Loyalists, separate them 
selves from their friends and kindred, who are 
driven from their homes, who surrender the hopes 
and expectations of life, and who become outlaws, 
wanderers, and exiles, such men leave few me 
morials behind them. Their papers are scattered 
and lost, and their very names pass from human 
recollection. 

Hence the most thorough and painstaking inquirers 
into their history have hardly been rewarded for the 
time and attention which they have bestowed. My 
own pretensions are extremely limited. Yet, as my 
home, for twenty-eight years, was on the eastern fron 
tier of the Union, where the graves and the children 
of the Loyalists were around me in every direction ; 
as 1 enjoyed free and continual intercourse with per- 



iv PREFACE. 

sons of Loyalist descent ; as I have had the use of 
family papers, and of rare documents ; as I have made 
journeys to confer with the living, and pilgrimages to 
graveyards, in order to complete the records of the 
dead ; I may venture to say, that the BIOGRAPHICAL 
NOTICES which are contained in these volumes, will 
add something to the stock of knowledge obtained by 
previous gleaners in this interesting branch of our 
Revolutionary Annals. 

Still, I have to remark, that I have repeatedly been 
ready to abandon the pursuit in despair. For, to 
weave into correct and continuous narratives the 
occasional allusions of books and State Papers ; to 
join together fragmentary events and incidents ; to 
distinguish persons of the same surname or family 
name, when only that name is mentioned ; and to 
reconcile the disagreements of various epistolary and 
verbal communications ; has seemed, at times, utterly 
impossible. There are some who can fully appreciate 
these, and other difficulties, which beset the task, and 
who will readily understand why many of the NOTICES 
are meagre ; and why, too, it is possible for others to 
be, in one or more particulars, inaccurate. Indeed, I 
may appeal to the closest students of our history, as 
my best witnesses, to prove that entire correctness and 
fulness of detail, in tracing the course, and in ascer 
taining the fate, of the adherents of the Crown, are 
not now within the power of the most careful and 
industrious. 

Of several of the Loyalists who were high in office, 
of others who were men of talents and acquirements, 
and of still others who were of less consideration, 1 
have been able, after long and extensive researches, 



PREFACE. v 

to learn scarcely more than their names, or the single 
fact, that, for their political opinions or offences, they 
were proscribed and banished. But I have deemed 
it best to exclude no one, whether of exalted or hum 
ble station, of whose attachment to the cause of the 
mother country I have found satisfactory, or even 
reasonable, evidence. In following out this plan, rep 
etition of the same facts, as applicable to different 
persons, has been unavoidable. That I have some 
times erred, by including among the " Tories " a few 
who finally became Whigs, is very probable. To 
change from one side to the other, both during the 
controversy which preceded the shedding of blood, 
and at various periods of the war, was not uncom 
mon ; and I have been struck, in the course of. my 
investigations, with the absence of fixed principles, 
not only among people in the common walks of 
life, but in many of the prominent personages of 
the day. 

The number of books from which information is to 
be obtained is limited. A few, however, have afforded 
me essential aid : among these, I gladly notice Force s 
American Archives ; Onderdonk s Revolutionary Inci 
dents of the counties of Queen s, Suffolk, and King s, 
New York ; Brewster s Rambles about Portsmouth ; 
Hall s History of Eastern Vermont; Holland s His 
tory of Western Massachusetts ; McRee s Life and 
Correspondence of Iredell ; O Callaghan s Document 
ary History of New York ; Pennsylvania Archives ; 
Gentleman s Magazine; Sprague s Annals of the Amer 
ican Pulpit ; Updike s Rhode Island Bar, and Narra- 
gansett Church ; Wheeler s Historical Sketches of 
North Carolina ; White s Historical Collections of 



vi PREFACE. 

Georgia ; Van Schaack s Life of Peter Van Schaack ; 
Almon s Remembrancer; Shippen Papers; Journals 
of the Provincial Congress of the Thirteen States ; 
Meade s Old Churches, Ministers, and Families of 
Virginia ; Army and Navy Lists ; Miss Caulkins s His 
tory of Norwich ; Lee s War in the South ; Burke s 
British Peerage ; Sparks s Washington ; McCall s His 
tory of Georgia ; Curwen s Journal ; Simcoe s Jour 
nal ; Stone s Life of Brant ; Simms s Life of Greene 
and of Marion ; State Papers of the United States ; 
American Quarterly Register ; and Pamphlets and 
Tracts of the Revolutionary era, both British and 
American. 

So, too, I gladly acknowledge my obligations to 
Winthrop Sargent, Henry Onderdonk, Jr., George 
Chandler, E. W. B. Moody, Porter C. Bliss, Edward 
D. Ingraham, Henry Pennington, William S. Leland, 
Robert H. Gardiner, J. B. Bright, John Watts De 
Peyster, and Edward D. Harris, for contributions of 
materials, or for personal researches in my behalf, 
or for the use of rare papers. 

In conclusion, a word of grateful mention of 
Messrs. Little, Brown & Co., the publishers. Seven 
teen years ago, when the " Tories " had seemingly 
passed into utter and deserved oblivion, these gen 
tlemen published the "American Loyalists," without 
the hope of gain, and with the probability, indeed, 
of actual loss ; and they voluntarily take the risk 
of the present Work under circumstances adverse 
to adequate pecuniary profit. For them and for 
myself I may venture to add, that the principal re 
ward is found in the belief that we have done some 
thing for the cause of human brotherhood, by les- 



PREFACE. vii 

sening the rancor even the hate which long 
existed between the children of the winners, and 
the children of the expatriated losers, in the civil 
war which dismembered the British Empire. 

ROXBURY, MASSACHUSETTS, 
April, 1864. 



CONTENTS 



OF THE 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



CHAPTER I. 

Taxation did but accelerate the Dismemberment of the British Empire. 
Several Causes of Disaffection on the part of the Colonists briefly 
stated. Acts of Parliament which inhibited Labor in the Colonies. 
Opposition to the Navigation Act and the Laws of Trade in the 
Time of the Stuarts. Renewed after the lapse of nearly a Century. 
Mobs and Collisions, Seizures and Rescues, in consequence. The 
Question of "Three Pence" the Pound on Tea discussed. The Bar 
barous Commercial Code of England. The Contraband Trade in Tea, 
Wine, Fruit, Sugar, and Molasses. The Measures of the Ministry 
to suppress it. One fourth part of the Signers of the Declaration 
of Independence Merchants or Shipmasters. Hancock prosecuted 
in the Admiralty Courts to recover nearly Half a Million of Dol 
lars. The Loyalists great Smugglers after removing from the United 
States ... 1-14 

CHAPTER II. 

State of Political Parties in the New England Colonies . . 15-27 - 

CHAPTER 111. 

State of Political Parties in the Middle Colonies .... 28-33 v, 

CHAPTER IV. 

State of Political Parties in the Southern Colonies . . 34-48 ~ 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER V. 

Newspapers in the Thirteen Colonies. Political Writers, Whig and Loy 
alist, North and South. Seminaries of Learning. Condition of the 
Press, &c., at the Revolutionary Era. Means for diffusing Knowledge 
limited , 49-54 



CHAPTER VI. 

Political Divisions in Colonial Society. Most of those in Office adhered 
to the Crown. Charge of the Loyalists that the Whigs were mere 
needy Place-Hunters, answered. Loyalist Clergymen, Lawyers, and 
Physicians .......... 55-61 



CHAPTER VII. 

The Reasons given for Adherence to the Crown. The Published Declar 
ations of the Whigs that they wished for a Redress of Wrongs and the 
Restoration of Ancient Privileges, as found in " Novanglus." Rapid 
Statement of Colonial Disabilities, which the Whig Leaders hardly 
mentioned in the Controversy, and which appear embodied for the 
first time in the Declaration of Independence. Denials of Whig 
Leaders, North and South, that they designed at the Beginning of the 
Controversy to separate from England. Reasons of the Loyalists for 
the Course adopted by them, concluded ..... 62-68 



CHAPTER VIII. 

\ 
Loyalists who entered the Military Service of the Crown 69-74 



* CHAPTER IX. 

Whig Mobs before the Appeal to Arms, and tarring and feathering 
Punishments of Loyalists during the War for overt Acts in favor 
of the Crown, and for speaking, writing, or acting against the Whi"s. 
Proscription, Banishment, and Confiscation Acts of the State Gov 
ernments. The Laws which divested the Loyalists of their Estates 
examined ......... 75-87 



CONTENTS. xi 



CHAPTER X. 

^ The Course of the " Violent Whigs " towards the Loyalists, at the Peace, 
discussed and condemned 88-93 



CHAPTER XI. 

^JDiscussions at Paris between the Commissioners for concluding Terms 
of Peace, on the Question of Compensation to the Loyalists for their 
Losses during the War, by Confiscation and otherwise. Reasons why 
Congress refused to make Recompense, stated and defended. The 
Provisions of the Treaty unsatisfactory in this particular. The Parties 
interested appeal to Parliament. Debates in the Lords and Commons. 
The Recommendation of Congress to the States to afford Relief in 
certain Cases, disregarded 94-103 



CHAPTER XII. 

/The Loyalists apply to Parliament for Relief. The King, in his Speech, 
recommends Attention to their Claims. Commissioners appointed. 
Complaints of the Loyalists on various Grounds. Number of Claim 
ants, and Schedules of their Losses. Delay of the Commissioners in 
adjusting Claims, and Distresses in consequence. Discussion in Par 
liament. Final Number of Claimants, Final Amount of Schedules, 
and Final Award. In the Appeals to their respective Governments, 
the Loyalists fared better than the Whigs .... 104-113 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The Banished Loyalists and their Descendants. Progress of Whig Prin 
ciples in the Canadas, in New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The 
whole System of Monopoly, on which the Colonial System was founded 
and maintained, surrendered. The Colonists now manufacture what 
they will, buy where they please, and sell where they can. England 
herself has pronounced the Vindication of the Whigs. The Heir to. 
the British Throne at Mount Vernon and Bunker Hill. The Colo 
nists claim to hold the highest Places in the Government, in the Army, 
and in the Navy. Effects of the Change of Policy. The Children of 
the Whigs and of the Loyalists, reconciled .... 114-137 



xii CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Introductory Remarks. Principles of Unbelief prevalent. The Whigs 
lose sight of their Original Purposes, and propose Conquests. Decline 
of Public Spirit. Avarice, Rapacity, Traffic with the Enemy. Gam 
bling, Speculation, Idleness, Dissipation, and Extravagance. Want 
of Patriotism. Excessive Issue of Paper might have been avoided. 
Recruits for the Army demand Enormous Bounty. Shameless De 
sertions and Immoralities. Commissions in the Army to men desti 
tute of Principle. Court-martials frequent, and many Officers Cash 
iered. Resignations upon Discreditable Pretexts, and alarmingly 
prevalent. The Public Mind fickle, and Disastrous Changes in 
Congress 138-152 




Of TH) 

UNIVBHSITY 



PRELIMINARY HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



[In this Essay, I avail myself of such parts of my own contributions to the "North 
American Keview " as are pertinent to irp- paii^xe.l 



CHAPTER I. 

Taxation did but accelerate the Dismemberment of the British Empire. 
Several Causes of Disaffection on the part of the Colonists briefly 
stated. Acts of Parliament which inhibited Labor in the Colonies. 
Opposition to the Navigation Act and the Laws of Trade in the Time 
of the Stuarts. Renewed after the lapse of nearly a Century. Mobs 
and Collisions, Seizures and Rescues, in consequence. The Question 
of" Three Pence " the Pound on Tea discussed. The Barbarous Com 
mercial Code of England. The Contraband Trade in Tea, Wine, 
Fruit, Suuar, and Molasses. The Measures of the Ministry to sup 
press it. One fourth part of the Signers of the Declaration of In 
dependence Merchants or Shipmasters. Hancock prosecuted in the 
Admiralty Courts to recover nearly Half a Million of Dollars. The 
Loyalists great Smugglers after removing from the United States. 

THE thoughts and deductions which I shall pre 
sent are essentially my own, and I shall address the 
reader directly and without reserve. Many things 
which are necessary to a right understanding of the 
revolutionary controversy have been, as 1 conceive, 
wholly omitted, or only partially and obscurely stated. 

To me, the lives of the instruments of human prog 
ress run into one another, and become so interwoven 
as to appear but the continuation of a single life. It 

VOL I. 1 



2 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

is so in the history of a country ; and I am weary of 

reading that the stamp duty and the tea duty were 

the " causes " of the American Revolution. Colonies 

become nations as certainly as boys become men, 

and by a similar law. The "Declaration" of the 

fifty-six, at Philadelphia, was but the "Contract" 

signed by the forty-one sad and stricken ones in the 

waters of Provincetown, with the growth of one 

hundred ajul, fifty-six years. The intermediate oc- 

fcuprenc&s w&V s ources of discipline, of development, 

.and.^*yfj3aiafron.; At most, taxation and the kin- 

cffed* fyliest ibns did but accelerate the dismemberment 

of the British Empire, just as a man whose lungs are 

half consumed hastens the crisis by suicide. 

The writers who insist that the Whigs "went to 
war for a preamble," and who confine their views to 
the question of " taxation without representation," 
seem to forget that the conquest of Canada relieved 
the Colonies of all apprehension as related to the 
French, and was the beginning of a series of events, 
which, as we reason of cause and effect, led naturally 
and certainly to freedom. They forget, too, the dis 
cussions on the subject of introducing Episcopal bish 
ops, and giving precedence to the Established Church; 
the misrepresentations in Parliament and elsewhere 
of the principal officers who served in the French 
war ; the plan to consolidate British America, to take 
away the charters of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, 
and Connecticut ; to reduce the whole Thirteen to a 
common system of government, with new boundaries 
to some, and with restrictions to all ; the suggestion 
to create a colonial peerage ; the practice of confer 
ring legislative, executive, and judicial offices on the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 8 

X "^<i. 5 ! i r (. r\ it ^^^^ 

same person ; the neglect of native talenTsm civil 
life, except when connected with officials of English 
birth, or with the "old colonial families;" and the 
denial of promotion to officers of distinguished mili 
tary ability, as well as the studied insult of allowing 
a captain in the " regulars " to rank and to command 
a colonel in the " provincials." 

And let us examine the POLITICAL questions which 
formed elements in the momentous struggle as they 
really were, and as we speak of passing events in 
which we ourselves participate. To me, the docu 
mentary history, the state-papers of the revolution 
ary era, teach nothing more clearly than this, namely, 
that almost every matter brought into discussion was 
practical, and in some form or other related to LABOR, 
to some branch of COMMON INDUSTRY. Our fathers did 
indeed, in their appeals to the people, embody their 
opposition to the measures of the mother country, 
in one expressive term "Taxation" -"Taxation 
without Representation." But whoever has exam 
ined the acts of Parliament which w r ere resisted, 
has found that nearly all of them inhibited Labor. 
There were no less than twenty-nine laws, w r hich re 
stricted and bound down Colonial industry. Neither 
of these laws touched so much as the " southwest side 
of a hair" of an "abstraction," and hardly one of 
them, until the passage of the " Stamp Act," imposed 
a direct " Tax." They were aimed at the North, and 
England lost the affection of the mercantile and mar 
itime classes of the northern Colonies full a genera 
tion before she alienated the South. They forbade 
the use of waterfalls, the erecting of machinery, of 
looms and spindles, and the working of wood and 



4 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

iron ; they set the king s arrow upon trees that rotted 
in the forest ; they shut out markets for boards and 
fish, and seized sugar and molasses, and the vessels in 
which these articles were carried; and they defined 
the limitless ocean as but a narrow pathway to such 
of the lands that it embosoms as wore the British 
flag. To me, then, the great object of the Revolution 
was to release LABOR from these restrictions. Fre e- 
laborers inexcusable in this began with sacking 
houses, overturning public offices, and emptying tar- 
barrels and pillow-cases upon the heads of those who 
were employed to enforce these oppressive acts of 
Parliament ; and when the skill and high intellect 
which were enlisted in their cause, and which vainly 
strove to moderate their excess, failed to obtain a 
peaceable redress of the wrongs of which they com 
plained, and were driven either to abandon the end 
in view, or to combine and wield their strength, men 
of all avocations rallied upon the field and embarked 
upon the sea, to retire from neither until the very 
framework of the Colonial system was torn awav, 
and every branch of industry could be pursued with 
out fines or imprisonment. 

Such are the opinions, at least, that I have formed 
on the questions upon which, among the mass of the 
people, the contest hinged ; which finally united per 
sons of every employment in life in an endeavor to 
get rid of prohibitions that remonstrance could not 
repeal, or even humanize. For a higher or holier 
purpose than this, men have never expended their 
money, or poured out their lifeblood in battle ! 

The claims of the merchants and ship-owners have 
never, as it seems to me, been fully .or fairly stated. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 5 

They were undoubtedly the first persons in America 
who set themselves in array against the measures of 
the ministry. The causes of their opposition have 
already incidentally appeared, but some farther no 
tice should now be taken of their efforts to obtain 
the right of free navigation of the ocean. The 
Stamp Act, and other statutes of a kindred nature, 
have been made, I think, to occupy too prominent a 
place among the causes assigned for that event. The 
irritation which the duties on stamps excited in the 
planting Colonies subsided as soon as the law which 
imposed them was repealed ; and I submit, that, but 
for the policy which oppressed the commerce and in 
hibited the use of the waterfalls of New England, the 
"dispute" between the mother and her children 
would have been "left," as Washington breathed a 
wish that it might be, " to posterity to determine." 

While Cromwell lived, Colonial trade was free ; but 
after his death, the maritime interests of America 
soon felt the difference bet\veen a Puritan and a 
Stuart. Measures were taken by Charles, with all 
possible speed, to restrain and regulate the inter 
course of the Colonies with countries not in subjec 
tion to him, and even that with England herself. At 
the period when his designs were to be executed, 
Massachusetts, foremost in all marine enterprises, not 
only traversed the sea at will, but had her own plan 
of revenue, and a collector of her customs, and ex 
acted fees of vessels arriving at her ports. The mer 
chants of Boston had dealings with Spain. France, 
Portugal, Holland, the Canaries, and even with Guinea 
and Madagascar, and had accumulated considerable 
wealth. The trade of Connecticut, of Rhode Island, 



G HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and of the other Colonies, was small and limited. But 
as a commercial spirit existed everywhere, and as 
every Colony had some share in the traffic which 
was to be checked, or, if possible, to be entirely 
broken up, none were disposed to submit quietly to 
the measures which were meant to effect either of 
these purposes. When, then, the royal collectors of 
the customs came over from England to carry out 
the will of their sovereign, they were met with re 
sistance from one end of the continent to the other. 
In truth, the difficulties with Randolph, in Massachu 
setts, and with Bacon, in Virginia ; the strenuous op 
position to the establishment of a custom-house in 
Maryland, and the killing of Rousby ; the insurrec 
tion in North Carolina, and the imprisonment of Mil 
ler ; the quarrels with Muschamp in South Carolina ; 
the indictment of the Duke of York s collector in 
New York, and the conduct of juries in New Jer 
sey, in prosecutions against smugglers, serve to show 
that the Colonists, when few, scattered, and weak, 
asserted their right to manage their affairs upon the 
ocean according to their own pleasure. In a word, 
the Jirxt effort to fasten upon American merchants 
and ship-owners the Navigation Act and Laws of 
Trade was a signal failure ; and all serious endeav 
ors to arrest the course or restrain the limits of their 
maritime enterprises were discontinued for nearly a 
century. Collectors of the customs were, however, 
continued at all the principal ports ; but they seldom 
interfered to trouble those who embarked in unlaw 
ful adventures, and such adventures were finally un 
dertaken without fear, and almost without hazard. 
In truth, the commerce of America was practically 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 7 

free. Some merchants "smuggled" whole cargoes 
outright; others paid the king s duty on a part, gave 
"hush-money" to the under-officers of the customs, 
and " run " the balance. 

Suddenly, and without warning, there came a 
change. The year 17G1 was iilled with events of 
momentous consequence. We find the merchants of 
the ports of New England, and especially those of 
Boston and Salem, deeply exasperated by the at 
tempts of the revenue officers, under fresh and per 
emptory orders, to exact strict observance of the hiws 
of navigation and trade ; and, by a pretension set up 
under these instructions, to enter and search places 
suspected of containing smuggled goods. To submit 
to this pretension, was to surrender the quiet of their 
homes and the order of their warehouses to the un 
derlings of the government, and the property which 
they held to the rapacity of informers, whose gains 
would be in proportion to their wickedness. Those, 
therefore, of the two principal towns of Massachu 
setts, who were interested in continuing the business 
which they had long pursued without molestation, 
and under a sort of prescriptive right, and in pre 
serving their property from the grasp of pimps and 
spies, determined to withstand the crown-officers, and 
to appeal to the tribunals for protection against their 
claims. James Otis threw up an honorable and prof 
itable station to become their advocate, and, by his 
plea in their behalf, became also the first champion 
of the He volution. 

From this period until the commencement of hos 
tilities, there was no season of quiet in either of the 
Colonies which depended upon . maritime pursuits ; 



8 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and in Massachusetts, the scenes of tumult and wild 
commotion which occurred, were the prelude of open 
war. The nine years which preceded the affray 
absurdly called the ^Boston Massacre" were crowd 
ed with acts, which show to what extent the quarrels 
had spread, and what strength the popular wrath had 
attained. The revision of the " Sugar Act," and the 
exertions to carry ont its new provisions, aided, as 
the revenue officers now were, by ships of war and 
an increase of their own corps, carried consternation 
to every fireside in the North. 

Another step in the controversy, and we stand 
beside the "tea-ships." I have no space to discuss 
the question of the "three-pence the pound duty on 
tea," but I must enter my dissent from the common 
view of it. To me, it was not, as it has been re 
garded, a question of " taxation" but essentially, like 
all the others between the merchants and the crown, 
one of commerce. The statements of Hutchinson, the 
debates in Parliament, and the state-papers and the 
documents which I have examined, all go to prove 
that the object of the mother country was mainly to 
break up the contraband trade of the Colonial mer 
chants Avith Holland and her possessions, and to give 
to her own East India Company the supply of the 
Colonial markets. The value of the tea consumed 
in America was estimated at 300,000 annually. 
Nearly the whole quantity was " smuggled." Penn 
sylvania, New York, and Massachusetts, were the 
great marts. The risk of seizure for many years 
was small ; and it is said, that, at one period, not one 
chest in five hundred of that which was landed in 
Boston fell into the hands of the officers of the cus- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 9 

toms. ome of the merchants of that town had 
become rich in the traffic, and a considerable part of 
the large fortune which Hancock inherited from his 
uncle ] was thus acquired. 

In this condition of things the Company could not 
sell the qualities of tea which, year after year, they 
provided for the American market, and which were 
not wanted anywhere else ; and the result finally 
was, the loss of millions of dollars, the suspension of 
dividends to shareholders, and inability to meet their 
large pecuniary engagements to the government. 
The embarrassments of the Company, in fine, gave 
a shock to commercial credit generally; bankruptcy 
was frequent ; manufacturers stopped work ; thou 
sands of weavers roamed the streets in utter distress, 
and thousands more subsisted on charity. Under these 
circumstances, to break up the contraband trade was 
of vast moment; and the ministry were forced, as they 
reasoned, to assist the Company on grounds of inter 
est and policy. The Dutch tea was inferior to the 
English, as was universally admitted, and the latter, 
if afforded to the consumer at as low a price, would, 
it was thought, expel the poorer, or the smuggled ar 
ticle at once. Opposition to the measure on the part 
of the Colonists, does not seem to have been appre 
hended for a moment. To reduce the duty from a ahil- 
liiif/ the pound, payable in England, to "three-pence," 
payable in the ports to which it should be exported 
from the Company s warehouses, allowed the article 
to be sold in America nine-pence the pound rb upw 
than it had been afforded under the oil rate of duty; 

1 Thomas Hancock s plan of smnjrglinp: was lo put his tea in molasses- 
hogheads, and thus " run " it, or import it without payment of duties. 



10 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

while, by securing the market, it at the same time se 
cured a revenue on whatever quantity might actually 
be entered at the Colonial custom-houses. Such is 
my understanding of the plan, its reasons, and its ob 
jects ; and it is pertinent to remark, that, if the 
"tax" had really been its objectionable feature, it is 
singular that no clamor was raised while the duty 
was four times " three-pence " the pound. At that 
rate, Whig merchants, as well as others, had made 
small importations from England, in order " to cover" 
the larger and illicit importations from Holland and 
her dependencies. It is equally pertinent to observe, 
that the English merchants, who sent tea to parts of 
America where the contraband trade w r as less exten 
sively pursued, were as hostile to a measure which 
threatened them with the loss of their customers, as 
were their commercial brethren in the Colonies, who 
were to be sufferers from the same cause. 

The "tea" which came charged with "three-pence" 
duty, payable on being landed, was disposed of in 
various ways. As a punishment for the destruction 
of that sent to Boston, that port was shut up, and its 
commerce thus struck down at a blow. The cutting 
ofF the fisheries, which were then the very lifeblood 
of New England, soon followed the passage of the 
" Boston Port Bill," and was the crowning act of the 
policy which produced , an appeal to arms. When 
the tidings that no vessels could now enter or leave 
the harbor of the capital of Hie North spread through 
the land, the cry that " Boston is suffering in the 
cause which henceforth interests all America," rose 
spontaneously. Public meetings were held in all 
parts of the country. People met in the open air. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 11 

in churches, and court-houses, to express their horror 
of the oppressors, and their sympathy with the op 
pressed. I have examined the proceedings of no less 
than sixty-seven of these meetings, of which twenty- 
seven were held in Virginia, and all but one in places 
south of New England. The day that the Port Bill 
went into operation was one of gloom and sadness 
everywhere ; and the predictions, on both sides of 
the Atlantic, that it would produce a general confed 
eration, and end in a general revolt, were of rapid 
fulfilment. 

In their opposition to the Navigation Act and 
Laws of Trade, the merchants and ship-owners were 
entirely right. Obedience to humane laws is due from 
every member of the community. But the barbar 
ous code of commercial law, which disgraced the 
statute book of England for the exact century which 
intervened between the introduction and expulsion 
of her Colonial collectors and other officers of the 
customs, was entitled to no respect whatever. 

The commercial code was so stern and cruel, that 
an American merchant was compelled to evade a law 
of the realm, in order to give a sick neighbor an 
orange or cordial of European origin, or else obtain 
them legally, loaded with the time, risk, and expense 
of a voyage from the place of growth or manufacture 
to England, and thence to his own warehouse. An 
American ship-owner or ship-master, when wrecked 
on the coast of Ireland, was not allowed to unlade 
his cargo on the shore where his vessel was stranded, 
but was required to send his merchandise to Eng 
land, when, if originally destined for, or wanted in ? 
the Irish market, an English vessel might carry it 



12 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

thither. At the North, a market for all the dried fish 
which were caught was indispensable to the prosecu 
tion of the fisheries. But the policy of the mother 
country provided penalties, and the confiscation of 
vessel and cargo, for a sale of such proportion of the 
annual u catch" as was unfit for her own ports, or was 
not wanted in her own possessions in the Caribean 
Sea, if carried to the islands which ow r ned subjection 
to France or Spain. These were sonic of the features 
of the odious system which prevailed, and which was 
never abolished, until American vessels went out 
upon the ocean under a new flag. 

Nine tenths, probably, of all the tea, wine, fruit, 
sugar, and molasses, consumed in the Colonies, were 
smuggled. To put an end to this illicit traffic was 
the determined purpose of the ministry. The com 
manders of the ships of war on the American sta 
tion were accordingly commissioned as officers of the 
customs ; and, to quicken their zeal, they were to 
share in the proceeds of confiscations ; the courts to 
decide upon the lawfulness of seiy,ures, were to be 
composed of a single judge, without a jury, whose 
emoluments were to be derived from his own con 
demnations ; the governors of the Colonies and the 
military officers were to be rewarded for their ac 
tivity by sharing, also, either in the property con 
demned, or in the penalties annexed to the inter 
dicted trade. Boston was the great offender; and 
soon twelve ships of war, mounting no less than two 
hundred and sixty guns, were assembled in the har 
bor of that port, for revenue service on the Atlantic 
coast. The merchants of the sea-ports were roused 
to preserve their business; and when the controversy 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 13 

came to blows, lawyers who had espoused their cause 
in the mere course of professional duty, were among 
the efficient advocates for liberty. One quarter part 
of the signers of the Declaration of Independence 
were bred to trade, or to the command of ships, 1 and 
more than one of them was branded with the epithet 
of " smuuro ler." It was fit, then, that Hancock, who, 

oo 

at the shedding of blood at Lexington, was respond 
ent in the Admiralty Court, in suits of the Crown, to 
recover nearly half a million of dollars as penalties 
alleged to have been incurred for violations of the 
statute-book : it was fit that he should be the first to 
affix his name to an instrument which, if made good, 
would save him from ruin, and give his countrymen 
free commerce with all the world. 

In conclusion, a single word more. The Loyalists 
who, at the peace, removed to the present British 
Colonies, and their children after them, smuggled 
almost every article of foreign origin from the fron 
tier ports of the United States, for more than half a 
century, and until England relaxed her odious com 
mercial policy. The merchant in whose counting- 
house I myself was bred, sold the "old Tories" and 
their descendants large quantities of tea, wine, spices, 
silks, crapes, and other articles, as a part of his regu 
lar business. I have not room to relate the plans 
devised by sellers and buyers to elude the officers of 
the Crown, or the perils incurred by the latter, at 
times, while crossing the Bay of Fundy on their pas- 

1 John Hancock, John Langdon, Samuel Adams, William Whipple, 
George Clymer, Stephen Hopkins, Francis Lewis, Philip Livingston, El- 
bridge (Jerry, Joseph Ilewes, George Taylor, Roger Sherman, Button 
Gwinnett, and Robert Morris. 

VOL. i. 2 



14 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

sage homeward. But I cannot forbear the remark, 
that, as the finding of a single box of contraband tea 
caused the confiscation of vessel and cargo, the 
smugglers kept vigilant watch with glasses, and com 
mitted the fatal herb to the sea, the instant a rev 
enue cutter or ship of war hove in sight in a quarter 
to render capture probable. When a spectator of 
the scene, as I often was, how r could I but say to my 
self, " The destruction of tea in Boston, December, 
1773, in principle, how like ! " 



CHAPTER II. 

State of Political Parties in the New England Colonies. 

LEAVING here this course of general remark, 1 pro 
pose to take a view of the revolutionary controversy, 
and of the state of parties, in each Colony separately 
and in course. And first in Massachusetts Colony of 
Maine. Of the immense domains, embracing almost 
the half of our continent, which, in 1620, King James 
conferred upon those gentlemen of his court who, 
in popular language, are known as the " Council of 
Plymouth," Maine formed a part. Among the most 
distinguished members of this Council was Sir Fer- 
dinando Gorges ; to whom, and to John Mason, the 
Council, two years after the date of their own pat 
ent, conveyed all the lands and " fishings " between 
the rivers Merrimack and Sagadahoc. Subsequently, 
and rapidly, other grants covered the same soil, and 
angry and endless contentions followed. But Gorges, 
bent on leaving his name in our annals, obtained of 
Charles the First a grant for himself, individually, of 
the territory between the Piscataqua and Sagada 
hoc, and thence from the sea one hundred and 
twenty miles northward. These were the ancient 
limits of the " Province of Maine." Having now a 
sort of double title, Gorges might reasonably hope 
that his rights were perfect, and that he might pur 
sue his plans without interruption. But Massachu- 



16 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

setts, on the one hand, insisted that her boundaries 
were narrowed by the grants to Mason and himself; 
while the Council, on the other, with inexcusable care 
lessness or dishonesty, continued to alienate the very 
soil which he held, both from themselves and their 
common master. Thu*s he was harassed his life long, 
and went to his grave old and worn out with per 
plexities and the political sufferings and losses of a 
most troubled period. He was a soldier, and a tried 
friend of the Stuarts in their times of need, of which 
their reigns were full, and was plundered and impris 
oned in their wars. 

Thus, then, Maine was not founded by a Puritan. 
But after the death of Gorges, his son deemed his 
possessions in America of little or no worth, and took 
no pains to retain them, or to carry out his designs ; 
and his grandson, to whom his rights descended, gave 
to Massachusetts a full assignment and release for the 
insignificant consideration of twelve hundred and fifty 
pounds sterling; a sum less than one sixteenth of the 
amount which had been actually expended. By this 
purchase, however, Massachusetts acquired only a part 
of Maine as now constituted. France made preten 
sions to all that part lying east of the Penobscot, and 
the Duke of York to the part between the Penobscot 
and the Kennebec ; nor was it until the reign of Wil 
liam and Mary, that disputes about boundaries were 
merged, and the St. Croix and Piscataqua became the 
acknowledged charter frontiers. 

Soon after the bargain was made with Gorges s 
heir, Massachusetts lost her own charter; and it was 
not among the least of the causes of Charles s anger 
against her, that she had thwarted his design of pro- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY, 17 

curing Maine for his natural son, the Duke of Mon- 
mouth. The newly acquired province was thought 
valuable only for its forests of pine, and for the fish 
eries of its coasts. But Massachusetts had objects 
beyond cutting down trees and casting fishing-lines. 
Her " presumption " in crossing the path of royalty 
has often been condemned. But the citizens of 
Maine cannot too often commend the indomitable 
spirit which she evinced in her struggle to root out 
Gorges and the Cavaliers or Monarchists of his plant 
ing, and to put in their place the humbler but purer 
Roundheads or Puritans of her own kindred. Had she 
faltered, when dukes and lords signed parchments that 
conveyed away soil which she claimed; had she not 
sought to push her sovereignty over men and terri 
tories not originally her own ; had she not broken 
down French seigniories and English feofldoms, 
Maine, east of Gorges s eastern boundary, might 
have continued a part of the British empire to this 
hour. This opinion is given considerately, and not 
to round out a period. And whoever will consult 
the diplomacy of 1783, will learn that, crcn as ii was, 
the British Commissioners contended that the Ken- 
nebec should divide the thirteen States from the Col 
onies which had remained true to the crown. 

Yet fishing and lumbering continued to be the two 
great branches of industry in Maine, until the Revo 
lution. The new charter, procured of William and 
Mary, confirmed Massachusetts in her acquisitions 
east of the Piscataqua; but it contained several re 
strictions which bore hard upon both of these inter 
ests. The most prominent I shall briefly notice, be 
cause they had a, direct influence in the formation 



18 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

of political parties. And, first, that instrument pro 
vided, that all pine-trees, of the diameter of twenty- 
four inches at more than a foot from the ground, on 
lands not granted to private persons, should be re 
served for masts for the royal navy ; and that, for 
cutting down any such tree without special leave, 
the offender should forfeit one hundred pounds ster 
ling. This stipulation was the source of ceaseless 
disquiet, and it introduced, to guard the forests from 
depredation, an officer called the " Surveyor-General 
of the King s Woods." Between this functionary, 
who enjoyed a high salary, considerable perquisites, 
and great power, and the lumberers, there was no 
love. The officials of the day, who were now of 
royal appointment, and not, as under the first char 
ter, elected by the people, generally ranged them 
selves on the side of the surveyors, their deputies 
and menials ; while the House of Representatives, as 
commonly, opposed their doings, and countenanced 
the popular clamors against them. Nor were the 
controversies, caused by the efforts of the surveyors 
to preserve spars for the royal navy, confined to the 
halls of legislation in Massachusetts. For, beside 
these, and the frequent quarrels in the woods and at 
the saw-mills, the disputes between the parties were 
carried to the Board of Trade in England. There 
seemed, indeed, in the judgment of several of the 
colonial governors, no way for them to please their 
royal master more, than by discoursing about the 
care which should be exercised over the "mast-trees," 
and about the severity with which the statute-book 
should provide against " trespassers." In a word, 
prerogative and the popular sentiment never agreed. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 19 

Discussions about the forests of Maine again and again 
ended in wrangles. Friendships were broken up, and 
enmities created for life. This is emphatically true 
of Shute s administration, when Cooke, the Counsel 
lor of Sagadahoc, and the champion of the " fierce 
democracy " as his father had been before him - 
involved the whole government of Massachusetts in 
disputes, which, in the end, drove the Governor home 
to England. And so, subsequently, a forged letter, 
probably written by " trespassers " or their friends to 
Sir Charles Wager, first lord of the Admiralty, charg 
ing Governor Belcher with conniving with depreda 
tors, though seemingly aiding the king s surveyor, 
-that "Irish dog of a D unbar," - did its intended 
work. Shirley, Belcher s successor, when he pressed 
upon the House the necessity of further enactments 
to protect the masts and spars for the royal navy, 
and to punish those who obstructed or annoyed the 
royal agents, was tartly told in substance, by that 
body : " Our laws are sufficient ; we have done our 
duty in passing them ; let the crown officers do their 
duty in enforcing them." Hutchinson, for a like call 
upon the House, was in like manner reminded, in 
terms hardly more civil, that there were already 
charter and statute penalties for " trespassers," a sur 
veyor-general and deputies, and courts of law ; and 
that, provided with these, he must look to the pines 
" twenty-four inches in diameter, upwards of twelve 
inches from the ground," for himself. The means for 
dealing with offenders, it must be confessed, were am 
ple : the crown could try them in the Court of Ad 
miralty, where there was no jury ; upon conviction 
for a common trespass, a fine of .100 could be im- 



20 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

posed ; and for the additional misdeed of plunder 
ing the interdicted trees under a painted or disguised 
face, twenty lashes could be laid on the culprit s back; 
while, more than all, convictions could be had on 
probable guilt, unless the accused would, on oath, de 
clare his innocence. 

But there was no such thing as executing these 
laws, when it -was the popular impression that the 
woods were " the gifts as well as the growth of na 
ture ; " and that the king s right to them was merely 
" nominal," at the most. The provision of the charter 
was both unwise and unjust. To reserve to the crown 
a thousand times as many trees as it could ever re 
quire, and to allow all to decay that were not actually 
used, was absurd. Men of the most limited capacity 
saw and felt this ; and to wean them from a power 
which insisted, in spite of all remonstrance, in enforc 
ing the absurdity, was an easy task. And we can 
readily imagine, what indeed is true, that the wood 
men of Maine, when rid, by the Revolution, of the 
presence of surveyor-generals and their deputies, ex 
ulted as heartily as did the peasants of France, when 
the outbreak there abolished forest laws somewhat 
dissimilar, but equally obnoxious. 

Again. The action of Parliament with regard to 

O o 

taxing lumber, admitting it free, or even encourag 
ing its exportation, by bounties, w r as eagerly w r atched. 
The mother country pursued all of these courses at 
different times, and gave dissatisfaction, or created 
discontent, among the getters and dealers in the ar 
ticle, as changes occurred in her policy ; just as she 
does now, with those Colonial possessions which yet 
remain to her. The "mast-ships" at the North, like 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 21 

the " tobacco-ships " at the South, -were tlie common, 
and oftentimes the only, means for crossing the ocean; 
and royal governors and other high personages were 
occasionally compelled to embark in them. In these 
clumsy, ill-shapen vessels, also went ladies and lovers 
to visit friends in that distant land, which some Amer 
icans yet call " home." Merchandise, fashions, and 
the last novel had a slow voyage back ; but men and 
maidens were models of patience, and the arrival of 
the eleven weeks " mast-er" gave as much joy when 
all was safe, as does the eleven days steamer now. 
In port, while loading, the " mast-ships " were objects 
of interest, and their decks and cabins the scenes of 
hilarity and mirth. We read of illuminations and 
firings of cannon, of frolics and feasts. 

The mast-trade was confined to England ; and the 
transportation of spars thither, and of the sawed and 
shaved woods required by the planter, to islands in 
the West Indies possessed by the British crown, was 
about the only lawful modes of exporting lumber for a 
long period. By the statute-book, the "king s mark 
was as much to be dreaded by the mariner and the 
owner of the vessel, as by the " logger " and the "mill- 
man." But the revenue officers caused less fear than 
the surveyors of the woods, until fleets and armies 
were employed to aid them ; when the interdicted 
trade with the French and Spanish islands, which had 
been carried on by a sort of prescriptive right, was 
nearly, if not entirely, broken up. No enactments of 
the mother country operated to keep down Northern 
industry so effectually, poorly as they were obeyed, 
as the navigation and trade laws; and on none did 
they bear more severely than on that portion of the 



22 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

people, whose position or necessities left them no 
choice of employments. There were some, nor were 
they few, who were obliged to plunder the forests, 
and to work up trees into marketable shapes, or 
starve. Included with these inhabitants of Maine, 
were those who lived upon the coasts the mari 
ners and the fishermen. The interests of all these 
classes were identical ; and to them the maritime pol 
icy of the government of England was cruel in the 
extreme ; since it robbed unremitting toil of half 
its reward. Lumber and fish were inseparable com 
panions in every adventure to the islands in the Car 
ibbean sea. Enterprises to get either were hazard 
ous, at the best ; and, as practical men can readily 
perceive, all who engaged in obtaining them, were 
obliged then, as they are now, to seek different mar 
kets ; so that to shut some marts, when access to all 
would barely remunerate the adventurers, was, in 
effect, to close the whole. These employments were, 
as they still are, among the most difficult and severe 
in the whole round of human pursuits ; and attempts 
to alleviate the burdens of parliamentary legislation 
upon both were made in Massachusetts, long before a 
whisper of discontent was elsewhere uttered in Amer 
ica. The discussions in that Colony, in behalf of her 
citizens at home and of those in Maine who were en 
gaged in getting and transporting the products of the 
forest and of the sea, though commenced without ref 
erence to separation from the mother country, took 
fast hold of the public mind. When, then, Otis at 
length spoke out, thousands who never heard or read 
his reasonings, and might not have felt their force if 
they had, were ready, at the first call, to clear the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 23 

woods, and docks, and warehouses, and decks of ves 
sels of the "swarms of officers" who "harassed" them, 
and u eat out their substance." 

The troubles which I have now enumerated, the 
disputes which grew out of the question, whether, as 
the territories purchased of Gorges had never revert 
ed to the crown, the surveyor-general s duty did, in 
fact, require him to mark and protect the mast-trees 
within their limits, and especially the charter inhibi 
tion of grants east of the Kennebec without the king s 
consent, kept out settlers, held titles in suspense, and 
were sufficient not only to alienate the affections of 
the people from the British crown, but to confine 
them to a narrow belt of country. 

As may be supposed, the body of the people were 
Whigs. Still, Maine had a considerable number of 
Loyalists or Tories. To afford them a place of refuge 
and protection was the principal object, as I have been 
led to conclude, of establishing a military post at the 
mouth of the Penobscot. The descendants of Loyal 
ists who found shelter in the garrison at Castine, rep 
resent that it was thronged with adherents of the 
crown and their families ; and, after the discomfiture 
of Saltonstall and Lovell, they were left in undis 
turbed quiet during the remainder of the war. The 
names of all the Tories of Maine who were proscribed 
and banished under the act^of Massachusetts, as well 
as many others, will be found in their proper connec 
tions. 

~~j 

In passing from Maine to New Hampshire, 
shall find the general state of things very similar. 
The occupations of the people of the two Colonies 
were much alike. New Hampshire, though not an 



24 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

appendage of Massachusetts in 1775, had been twice 
annexed to the mother of New England, and had thus 
acquired much of her spirit. Collisions between the 
revenue officers and the mariners and ship-owners of 
Portsmouth, and between the guardians of the "king s 
woods " and the lumberers of the interior, had been 
frequent, Indeed the " loggers " and " sawyers " had 
whipped the deputies of the surveyor-general so often 
and so severely, that the term " sivamp-laiv " was quite 
as significant a phrase as that of " lynch-law " in our 
own time. Yet, as will appear, the Whigs had many 

( and powerful opponents in the Colony planted by 
Mason, the associate patentee of Gorges. 

With regard to Massachusetts, it seems to have 
been taken as granted, that, because here the Revo- 

lution had its origin; because the old Bay State fur 
nished a large part of the men and the means to carry 
it forward to a successful issue; and because, in a word, 
she fairly exhausted herself in the struggle, the people 
embraced the popular side, almost in a mass. A more 
mistaken opinion than this has seldom prevailed. 

The second charter, or that granted by William 
and Mary, had several obnoxious provisions besides 
those which had peculiar reference to Maine, and its 
acceptance was violently opposed. And Phips, the 
Earl of Bellarnont, Shute, Burnet, Belcher, Shirley, 
and Pownall, the several governors who were ap 
pointed by the crown under one of these provisions, 
encountered embarrassments and difficulties, and some 
of them were actually driven from the executive chair 
by the force of party heats. In fact, the "old-charter." 
or "liberty-men," arrayed on the one side, and the 
" new-charter," or " prerogative-men," on the other. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 25 

kept up a continual warfare. When, then, in the 
quarrel, which was commenced with Bernard, which 
was continued with Hutchinson and Gage, his suc 
cessors, and which finally spread over the continent 
and severed the British empire, the terms "Whig" 
and " Tory " were employed, they were not used to 
distinguish new parties, but were simply epithets bor 
rowed from the politics of the mother country, and 
did but take the place of the party names which had 
previously existed, and under which political leaders 
had long moved and trained their followers. As the 
Revolutionary controversy darkened, individuals of 
note did indeed change sides ; but, though some 
of our writers have hardly mentioned that such a 
state of things preceded the momentous conflict, the 
general truth was as I have stated. 

As some further details of the state of parties in 
Massachusetts will be given in another connection, a 
brief notice of the Loyalists who abandoned their 
homes and the country will serve my present pur 
pose. Of this description, upwards of eleven hun 
dred retired in a body with the royal army at the 
evacuation of Boston. This number includes, of 
course, women and children. Among the men, how 
ever, were many persons of distinguished rank and 
consideration. Of members of the council, commis 
sioners, officers of the customs and other officials, 
there were one hundred and two ; of clergymen, 
eighteen ; of inhabitants of country towns, one him. 
dred and five ; of merchants and other persons who 
resided in Boston, two hundred and thirteen ; of 
farmers, mechanics, and traders, three hundred and 
eighty-two. 

VOL. I. 3 



26 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Other emigrations preceded and succeeded this ; 
but they consisted principally of individuals, or small 
parties of intimate friends, or families and their im 
mediate connections. But the whole number who 
embarked at different ports of Massachusetts, pend 
ing the controversy and during the war, w^ere, as I 
am inclined to believe, two thousand, at the lowest 
computation. The names and the fate of a consider 
able proportion of them will be found in these pages. 
Most of them took passage for Halifax, Nova Scotia, 
where they endured great privations. Many, how 
ever, subsequently went to England, and there passed 
the remainder of their lives. 

Ehode Island and Connecticut may be considered 
together. There is but little to detain us in either. 
Both were governed by charters like Massachusetts, 
and both w r ere " pure democracies," since, says Chal 
mers, " the freemen exercised without restraint every 
power, deliberate and executive. Like Eagusa and 
San Marino, in the Old World, they offered an exam 
ple to the New, of two little republics embosomed 
within a great empire." In 1704, Montpesson, the 
Chief Justice of New York, wrote to Lord Notting 
ham, that when he "was at Rhode Island, they did in 
all things as if they were out of the dominions of the 
crown." Of Connecticut, at the same period, Chal 
mers remarks, that, " being inhabited by a people of 
the same principles though of a different religion, 
they acted the same political part as those of Rhode 
Island;" and he quotes from a dispatch of Lord Corn- 
bury to the Board of Trade, the pithy saying, that 
the inhabitants of these Colonies " hate everybody 
that owns any subjection to the Queen" [Anne]. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 27 

The Revolution, which so essentially affected the 
governments of most of the Colonies, produced no 
very perceptible alteration in those of either Rhode 
Island or Connecticut. After Wanton, the governor 
of the first, was deposed, the Whigs succeeded to 
power without turmoil, and in the ordinary course 
of legislative action. Trimibull, the governor of the 
latter, was a sound Whig, and occupied the executive 
chair from 1769 to 1783. The charters of both Col 
onies were admirably adapted to their wants and con 
dition, whether regarded as dependencies or as free 
States ; and while Connecticut continued without any 
other fundamental law until the year 1818, Rhode 
Island has but lately recovered from the disquiets 
and animosities occasioned by the adoption of a Con 
stitution. 

Yet, though less restrained by charter provisions 
than Massachusetts, and though in theory " pure 
democracies," and bearing " hate " towards all who, 
in Queen Anne s time, acknowledged her authority, 
there was no greater unanimity of sentiment on the 
questions which agitated the country in 1775, than 
elsewhere in New England. Indeed, I feel assured 
that, in Connecticut, the number of adherents of the 
crown was greater, in proportion to the population, 
than in Maine, Massachusetts, or New Hampshire. 
This impression is warranted by documentary evi 
dence, and is fully sustained by facts, which have 
been communicated to me by descendants of Loyal 
ists of that Colony. 



CHAPTER III. 

State of Political Parties in the Middle Colonies. 

IN passing from New England, we are to speak of 
American Colonists of different origin, and who lived 
under different forms of government, Thus, New 
York had no charter, but was governed by royal in 
structions, orders in council, and similar authority, 
communicated to the governors by the ministers " at 
home." The governor and council were appointed 
by the king, but vacancies at the council board were 
filled by the governor. The people elected the popu 
lar branch, which consisted of twenty-seven members. 
To say that the political institutions of New York 
formed a feudal aristocracy ^ is to define them with tol- 
/ erable accuracy. The soil was held by a few T . The 
masses were mere retainers or tenants, as in the mon 
archies of Europe. Nor has this condition of society 
bee_n e _ n JrreJy changed, since the "anti-rent" dissen 
sions of our own time arose from the vestige which 
remains. 

.Such a state of things was calculated to give the 
king many_ adherents. The fact agreed with the 
theory. Details may be spared. One circumstance 
will prove the preponderance of the royal party be 
yond all doubt ; namely, that soon after the close of 
the Revolution, a bill passed the House of Assembly, 
which prohibited persons who had been in opposition 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 29 

from holding any office under the State. This bill, 
on being sent to the other branch of the legislature, 
was rejected, and on the ground principally, that 
if allowed to become a law, no elections could be 
held in some parts of the State, inasmuch as there 
were not a sufficient number of Whigs, in certain 
sections, to preside at or conduct the election meet 



ings. 



While so large a proportion of the people of New 
York preferred to continue their connection with the 
mother country, very many of them entered the mili 
tary service of the crown, and fought in defence of 
their principles. Whole battalions, and even regi 
ments, were raised by the great landholders, and 
continued organized and in pay throughout the 
strugghjXjii hne, New York was undeniably the 
Loyalists stronghold, and contained more of them 
than any other colony in all America. I will not say 
that she devoted her resources of men and of money 
to the cause of the enemy; but I do say, that she 
withheld many of the one, and much of the other, 
from the cause of the right. Massachusetts furnished 
67,007 Whig soldiers between the years 1775 and 
1783; while New York supplied but 17,781. In ad 
justing the war balances, after the peace, Massachu 
setts, as was then ascertained, had overpaid her share 
in the sum of 1,248,801 dollars of silver money ; but 
New York was deficient in the large amount of 
2,074,846 dollars. New Hampshire, though almost a 
wilderness, furnished 12,496 troops for the continental 
ranks, or quite three quarters of the number enlisted^, 
in the " Empire State." 

These facts show the state of parties in this Colony 



SO HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

iii a strong light. One other incident, which presents 
the wavering, time-serving course that prevailed, even 
after Washington had been appointed to the com 
mand of the army, and when, of course, the whole 
country was committed to sustain him, will suffice. 
On the 25th of June, 1775, a letter was received by 
the New York Provincial Congress, which communi 
cated intelligence that the Commander-in-chief was 
on his way to headquarters at Cambridge, and would 
cross the Hudson and visit the city. " News came at 
the same time," says Mr. Sparks, "that Governor 
Try on was in the harbor, just arrived from England, 
and would land that day. The Congress were a good 
deal embarrassed to determine how to act on this 
occasion; for though they had thrown off all allegiance 
to the authority of their governor, they yet professed 
to maintain loyalty to his person. They finally or 
dered a colonel so to dispose of his militia companies, 
that they might be in a condition to receive either 
the General, or Governor Try on, tvhichever should first 
arrive, and fait on loth as well as circumstances would 
allow Events proved less perplexing than had been 
apprehended, as General Washington arrived several 
hours previous to the landing of Governor Tryon." 
That a Congress of Whigs should have been so irreso 
lute and timid, after the blood of their brethren had 
been poured out at Lexington and on Breed s Hill, is 
unaccountable. If such was their conduct, what must 
have been the state of feeling among the Tories, 
what the courage and confidence which animated 
them ? 

New Jersey, says Chalmers, was " a scion from New 
York, and either prospered or withered, during every 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 31 

season, as the stock flourished or declined." Again 
he says, that planted by Independents from New 

EnglandrT)X_^2Y^l ian ^ ers fr m Scotland, by conspir 
ators Jmm-Eiigland, such scenes of turbulence were 

exhibited, .... age after age, as acquired 

the characteristic appellation of The Revolutions. 
Chalmers was fond of strong and pointed expressions, 
and some of his statements are to be received, there 
fore, with allowance. Tie saw as the students of 
our history well know designs to throw off alle 
giance, to " set up for independency," and to effect 
"Revolutions," in the common quarrels between the 
Colonial Assemblies and the Governors, and in the 
ordinary petitions to the mother country, for redress 
of real or supposed wrongs. 

New Jersey was indeed politically annexed to New 
York, and the connection was dissolved and renewed 
several times prior to 1738. So, too, that part of it 
which was originally known as " East Jersey," at one 
period was assigned to William Penn ; while both 
"East and West Jerse}^" were subsequently added 
to the jurisdiction of New England. In 1702, the 
"Jersies" were united under one government, and 
received the present name ; ( and from 1738 to the 
Revolution, New Jersey had a separate Colonial 
government. The losses of New Jersey, in propor 
tion to her population and wealth, were greater, 
probably, than those of any other member of the 
Confederacy. Her soldiers, who entered the service 
of Congress, gained enviable renowTi ; and within her 
borders are some of the most memorable battle 
grounds of the Revolution. It w r as in New Jersey, 
that Washington made his best military movements, 



32 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and displayed his highest qualities of character ; it 
was there that he encountered his greatest distresses 
and difficulties, and earned his most enduring laurels. 

We come now to the " proprietary government " 
of Pennsylvania ; and a proprietary government in 
America was a monarchy in miniature. 

The proprietary governors were not, generally, 
had men, but the rapacity of some of them was un 
bounded. Chalmers quotes the remark as a shrewd 
saying, that "a dignitary of this description had two 
masters : one who gave him his commission, and one 
who gave him his pay ; and that he was, therefore, 
on his good behavior to both." ] Several, I suspect, 
cared very little for either of their two masters ; and 
he who said, that they had three things to attend to, 
" First, to fleece the people for the king, then for them 
selves, and lastly, for the proprietaries, their employ 
ers," told more truth, and had more wit, than the 
person cited by our well-informed but much preju 
diced annalist, 

It is perhaps true, that as a body, the party of 
which Franklin was a member in these dissensions, 
was the Whig party of the Revolution. Yet, there 
were exceptions ; and some of his warmest personal 
and political friends were found among the adherents 
of the crown ; while old opponents ranged themselves 
by his side, and did good service during the trying 
scenes which preceded deeds of hostility. For a 
time, the course of Pennsylvania was extremely 
doubtful. Besides the differences which existed else- 

1 The reader will find some further particulars of the nature of the 
political institutions of Pennsylvania, in the biographical notice of John 
Penn. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 33 

where, the religious faith of the people was opposed 
to_ the adoption of forcible means to dissolve their 
connection with the mother country. Hence, as in 
New York, timidity and indecision were evinced 
among the most prominent Whigs. To me, the line 
of conduct pursued by John Dickinson is a perfect 
riddle. His various, eloquent, and able tracts and 
essays, and the important papers and addresses 
which came from his pen, between the ^ Stamp-act 
Congress" in 1765 and the close of the first Con 
tinental Congress in 1774, gave him a wide and just 
fame. But in the Congress of 1770, he opposed the 
passage of the Declaration of Independence with 
great zeal ; and, as John Adams was its " great pillar 
and support," and " its ablest advocate and cham 
pion," so he, of all others, was the uncompromising 
antagonist of the lion-hearted patriot of the North. 

Unless Galloway a name often to appear in this 
work was mistaken, the Loyalists of the Middle 
Colonies were ready to enter the military service of 
the crown in large numbers. His statement is, that, 
had Sir William How r e issued a Proclamation when in 
Philadelphia, 3,500 men would have repaired to his 
standard; that, in that city, in New Jersey, and in 
New York, he could have embodied quite 5,000; that 
upwards of fifty gentlemen went to his camp to offer 
their services in disarming the disaffected, but, fail 
ing to obtain even an interview, retired in disgust; 
and that, under Sir William s successor. 5.000 actually 
appeared in arms for the defence of the city of New 
York. 



CHAPTER IV. 

State of Political Parties in the Southern Colonies. 

I HAVE been able to ascertain so little of a definite 
character of the political condition of Delaware and 
Maryland, at the period to which these remarks re 
late, that I shall detain the reader in neither; and 
pass to the "Old Dominion." Virginia, like New 
York, was a feudal aristocracy. But there a large 
proportion of the landholders, unlike those of New 
York, were Whigs, and, of course, favored the revo 
lutionary movement. Yet, it does not appear, that, 
upon the questions of dissolving her relations with the mother 
country, she was as ready as, from her early and firm 
opposition to the Stamp Act, might be expected. In 
deed, there is the highest possible evidence for be 
lieving that Virginia broke her Colonial bonds with 
hesitation. Early in March, 1776, Colonel Joseph 
Eeed, of Pennsylvania, in a letter to Washington, 
observed, that there was " a strange reluctance in 
the minds of many to cut the knot which ties us 
to Great Britain, particularly in this Colony and to the 
southward" In writing again on the 15th of the same 
month, he was more explicit. "It is said,"- are his 
words. " the Virginians are so alarmed with the idea of 
independence, that they hare sent Mr. Braxton on purpose 
to turn the vote of that Colony, if any question on that sub 
ject should come before Congress! Washington, in his 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 35 

reply to the letter of the 15th, admits that the people 
of Virginia, "from their form of government, (did stcady\ \/ 
attachment heretofore to royalty, fill conic reluctantly into I 
the idea of Independence ; " but says, that " time and per 
secution bring many wonderful things to pass," and 
that, by private letters which he had lately received, 
he found Paine s celebrated essay, called " Common 
Sense," (which recommended separation,) was "work 
ing a powerful change in the minds of many men." 

This correspondence, as will be seen, occurred but 
a little more than three months previous to the time 
when Congress actually declared the Thirteen Colo 
nies to be free and independent States ; and the 
opinions of persons so well informed, so intimate in 
friendship, and occupying so responsible public sta 
tions, are to be regarded as decisive. 

Yet Washington, Henry, the Lees, Jefferson, and 
Bland, were, undoubtedly, the true exponents of her 
principles. 

The institutions of North Carolina were decidedly 
monarchical from the first. Political or social disorder 
seems to have prevailed, to some extent, throughout 
her colonial existence. Martin, the last royal govern 
or, stated, in 1775, that literature was hardly known, 
and that there were but two schools in the whole 
Colony. After the final overthrow of the Stuarts, 
many of the adherents of the last of that name who 
sought the British throne, fled for refuge to America, 
and settled within her borders. And it was singular 
that most of them were Loyalists; that men Avho 
had become exiles for the part which they had taken 
ayaimt the House of Brunswick should here, and in v 
another civil war, espouse its cause, and, a second 



30 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

time the losers, go a second time into banishment. 
Equally remarkable in the politics of this Colony was 
the course of those who, in 1771, rose in insurrection, 
and were known as " Regulators." These men com 
plained of various oppressions, but especially of those 
which attended the practice of law ; they appeared 
in arms, and were determined to prostrate the gov 
ernment. Governor Try on totally defeated them, 
and left three hundred of their number dead on the 
field. They were the earliest revolutionists in Amer 
ica as far as hostile deeds were concerned and, 
it might be reasonably concluded, became Whigs. 
But disappointing expectation, like the followers of 
the Pretender above mentioned, a large majority 
joined the royal party, and enlisted under the king s 
banner. 

North Carolina, then, originally monarchical, and 
adding to her native Loyalists the survivors of the 
large emigration from Scotland, was nearly divided. 
Some of her leading Whigs, as well as their descend 
ants, have endeavored to prove that the popular party 
was much in the majority. Facts, as it seems to me, 
hardly sustain them. 

How was it with a portion of the Whigs ? There 
is proof that many were as unstable as the wind. If 
the sky was bright, and a Whig victory had been ob 
tained somewhere, and if, above all, no king s troops 
were near, why, then these changing men were stead 
fast for the right ; but if news of reverses reached 
them, or the royal army came among or near them, 
then they " supported," and, by their own account, 
" always had supported, their lawful sovereign, his 
most gracious Majesty." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 37 

I would willingly do the Whigs of North Carolina 
no injustice ; on the other hand, 1 would relieve them 
from all imputations which cannot be sustained by 
ample and the most unobjectionable testimony. It is 
in this spirit that I dissent from some of the declara 
tions of Mr. Jefferson. That distinguished man, in 
a written statement made a few years before his de 
cease, distinctly alleges, that William Hooper, one of 
the delegates in Congress from that State in 1776, 
was a rank and out and out Tory. Mr. Hooper was 
born in Massachusetts, and was educated at Harvard 
University. His father, and nearly all of his rela 
tives, were, indeed, Loyalists : but he was a student of 
James Otis, and imbibed his political sentiments ; nor 
did he leave New England until after parties Avere 
formed and the " Stamp-Act " difficulties had passed 
away. 1 have read several of his confidential letters 
to his friends, while he was in .Congress letters in 
which, if he possessed the political sympathies attrib 
uted to him by Mr. Jefferson, the inclinations of his 
mind would have been shown. That he was a timid 
man, like Morton of Pennsylvania, is very probable. 
Yet, I submit that no defence is necessary. Hooper 
signed the Declaration of Independence ; and of all 
documents to which a " Tory " would have affixed his 
name, t/iat, certainly, was among the very last. 

It is grateful, now, to turn to the brighter side, and 
to bestow words of praise. The original Whig party 
of North Carolina embraced a large proportion of the 
wealth, virtue, and intelligence of the State. In the 
county of Bute, especially, the king had no friends, 
except a few_Scotcli merchants and vagrant pedlers ; 
while the number of wavering Whigs was so small., 

VOL. I. 4 



38 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

that the county was nearly unanimous in favor 
of the change which the leaders advocated, and put 
their fortunes and lives at hazard to obtain. Nor 
should it be forgotten that, in the comity of Meck- 
lenburgh, a Declaration of Independence was passed 
more than a year before the more celebrated instru 
ment of the same name was adopted by the Conti 
nental Congress at Philadelphia. As late as the year 
1819, Mr. Jefferson made a labored argument to prove 
that no such document exists. But that such a paper 
was written, considered, signed, and promulgated, is 
now as well established as is any event in our history. 
It is known, moreover, that Colonel Thomas Polk 
originated the measure, and that the Declaration it 
self was from the pen of Dr. Ephraim Brevard. 

I pass to speak of the political condition of South 
Carolina. The statements in the first edition of this 
work exposed me to much reproach as a gentleman, 
and to sharp criticisms as a student of history. On 
the discovery of a single but grave error, 1 which I 
took pains in my correspondence North and South to 

1 I said ..." it is hardly an exaggeration to add, that more Whigs 
of New England were sent to her aid, and now lie buried in her soil, 
than she sent from it to every scene of strife from Lexington to York- 
town." The fact, however, is. that no troops belonging to New England 
went to South Carolina, nor, as far as I know, south of the country about 
the James River, in Virginia. The common opinion is otherwise. Even 
Mr. Webster, in his reception-speech at Charleston, remarked that, "New 
England blood has moistened the soil where we now stand, shed as read 
ily as at Lexington, or Concord, or Bunker Hill." Again, at Savannah, 
" The blood of New England, in her turn, was freely poured out upon 
Southern soil, and her sons stood shoulder to shoulder with those of Geor 
gia in the common cause." Still again, the Hon. B. F. Hunt, in address 
ing Mr. Webster, at Charleston, said, " Every battle-field of our State 
contains beneath its sod the bones of New England men, who fell in defence 
of the South" Webster s Works, vol. 2, pp. 377, 380, 403. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 39 

correct, and in 1848, soon after the attack of the 
"Southern Quarterly Review," I examined my princi 
pal authorities anew; and I performed the same duty 
in 1856, immediately after reading the speech of 
Mr. Keitt in the House of Representatives, and the 
speeches of Messrs. Evans and Butler in the Senate 
of the United States. 1 I did not try to make out a 
case against South Carolina ; nor do I believe that 
candid readers have ever pronounced my strictures 
upon her delinquencies more severe than those which 
I littered against the several though quite differ 
ent faults and crimes of Massachusetts herself 1 
did, indeed, detest the heresy of " Nullification " with 
all my heart, and as I now abhor the damnable doc 
trine of " Secession ; " but still felt to do as exact 
justice to the State of Laurens, father and son, 
- of Gadsen, of Slimier, of Moultrie, and Pickens 
and Marion, and other noble Whigs, as exact jus 
tice to South Carolina as to my own native New 
Hampshire. And besides, I remembered in 1847, as 
I shall still endeavor to bear in mind, that the com 
mand, " Thou slialt not bear false witness against 
thy neighbor," is obligatory at all times and under 
all circumstances. 

All honor to South Carolina, for the band of Whigs 
who favored the dismemberment of the British em 
pire at an early day ; all honor, for being the first of 
the Thirteen States to frame an independent constitu 
tion ; all honor, for the payment of $1,^05,978 more 
than her proportion of the expenses of the war; 

1 See Southern Quarterly Rei letc, July and October numbers, 1848; 
and the Speeches, Conyrexxional Globe, 1st Session, 34th Congress, pp. 625, 
702, 833. 



40 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and all honor, for her mercy, at the close of the 
struggle, to the unhappy, the ruined adherents to 
the crown. 

And now I reaffirm, that South Carolina, at first, 
x and for about half a century, was a proprietary gov 
ernment, and, like Pennsylvania, was a sort of mon 
archy in miniature; that, in 1719, the people abol 
ished this form, took from the proprietors the power 
of appointing the governor, and erected a temporary 
republic ; that, two years after, a regal government 
was established which continued until the Eevolution. 
I again say, that, in all the essential features, the 
British constitution was the model, and that, of con 
sequence, the institutions of South Carolina were 
thoroughly monarchical. 

The public men of that State, of the present gen 
eration, claim that her patriotic devotion in the Rev 
olution was inferior to none, and superior to most, of 
the States of the confederacy ; and I again aver that, 
as I have examined the evidence, it was not so. .The 
great body of the people were emigrants from Swit 
zerland, Germany, France, Great Britain, and the 
Northern Colonies of America, and their descend 
ants ; and were opposed to a separation from the 
mother country. I renew the accusation, that she 
failed to meet the requisitions of Congress for troops 
to the extent of her ability ; and repeat, that her 
remissness compares sadly, sadly enough, with the 
enlistments elsewhere, especially in New England. 

Charleston was the great mart of the South, and, 
as Boston still is, the centre of the export and import 
trade of a large population. In grandeur, in splendor 
of buildings, in decorations, in equipages, in shipping, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 41 

and in commerce, that city was equal to any in Amer 
ica. 1 reaffirm, that, with troops from other States to 
aid her, South Carolina could not, or would not, save 
her own capital ; that, so general was the defection 
after the capitulation by Lincoln, persons who had 
refused to enlist under the Whig banner, flocked 
to the royal standard by hundreds ; that those who 
had enjoyed Lincoln s confidence and participated in 
his councils, bowed their necks anew to the yoke of 
colonial vassalage ; that Sir Henry Clinton considered 
the triumph complete, and informed the ministry that 
the whole State had submitted to the royal arms, and 
had become again a part of the empire ; that, to the 
women of South Carolina, and to Marion, Sumter, and 
Pickens, who kept the field without the promise 
of men, money, or supplies, it was owing that Sir 
Henry s declaration proved untrue, and that the spirit 
and name of liberty did not become utterly extinct. 

I reaffirm, that the Whigs and their opponents did 
not always meet in open and fair fight, nor give and 
take the courtesies, and observe the rules, of civilized 
warfare ; but that, on the contrary, they murdered 
one another ! General Greene and Chief- Justice 
Marshall are rny authorities. " The animosities be 
tween the Whigs and Tories," wrote the first, " ren 
der their situation truly deplorable. The Whigs 
seem determined to extirpate the Tories, and the 
Tories the Whigs. Some thousands have fallen in 
this way in this quarter, and the evil rages with more 
violence than ever. If a stop cannot be put to these 
massacres, the country will be depopulated in a few 
months, as neither Whig nor Tory can live." " The 
people of the South," remarks the eminent jurist, 



42 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

in bis Life of Washington, "felt all the miseries 
which are inflicted by war in its most savage form. 
Being almost equally divided between the two con 
tending parties, reciprocal injuries had gradually 
sharpened their resentments against each other, and 
had armed neighbor against neighbor, until it had 
become a war of extermination. As the parties al 
ternately triumphed, opportunities were alternately 
given for the exercise of their vindictive passions." 
And I state here, as in the first edition, that it were 
a hard task to determine, by an examination of the 
accounts of the time, which party perpetrated the 
greatest barbarities ; and that, whatever the guilt of 
the Tories, the Whigs disgraced the cause and the 
American name. 

And while I thus retain the substance of the origi 
nal averments against South Carolina, the grave 
error once mentioned excepted, and while, too, I 
insert the obnoxious Table ] of the " Continentals " 
furnished by the several States, in a new form but 
without alteration as relates to results, 1 add, that 
though the battles of Fort Moultrie, of Stono, of the 
Siege of Charleston, of Camden, of Hanging Rock, of 
Musgrove s Mill, of Blackstock s, of Georgetown, of 
Black Wings, of Cow^pens, of Fish-Dam Ford, of Nine 
ty-Six, of Fort Galpin, of Fort Watson, of Fort Mott, 
of Hobkirk s Hill, of Granby, of Cedar Spring, of 
Hammond s Store, of Quimby, of Eutaw, of Rocky 

1 CONTINENTAL ARMY. 

In 1790, General Henry Knox, Secretary of War, communicated to 
Congress a Report of" Troops, including Militia, furnished by the several 
States, during the War of the Revolution," from which I have compiled 
the following Table. As relates to the " Regulars," he remarks, that the 
numbers are " stated from the oflicial returns deposited in the War Office, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 48 

Mount, of Port Royal, of Tulafinny, of Coosahatchie, 
of Waxhaw, of Cloud s Creek, of Hay s Station, of 

and u may be depended upon." The army of the Northern Department 
was discharged November 5th, 1783, and of the Southern Stales, just ten 
days later. 



State. 


Number of Troops F 


un islied. 


1 Year 1775. 


Year 1776. 




i 2,824 




3,019 
13,372 
798 
6,390 
3,629 
3,193 
5,519 
609 
637 
6,181 
1,134 
2,069 
351 


Massachusetts 
Rhode Island 


16,444 
1,193 




4 507 


New York 


2,075 








400 


Delaware 


















South Carolina 




Georgia 




27,443 
In September, 1776, quotas were fixed by Congrt 
during the war. 

State. Quota Required. Troops Furnished. 


46,901 
j ss for three years, or 

Strength of the Regular 
or Continental Army. 


Year. 


Troops. 


New Hampshire 
Massachusetts 

Rlimlc Tsliiul . 


10,194 
52,728 
5,694 
28,336 
15,734 
11,396 
40,416 
3,974 
26,608 
48,522 
23,994 
16,932 
3,974 


6,653 
38,091 
3,917 
21,142 
12,077 
7,534 
19,689 
1,778 
13,275 
20,491 
6,129 
4,348 
2,328 


1775 
1776 
1777 
1778 
1779 
1780 
1781 
1782 
1783 


27,443 
46,901 
34,820 
32,899 
27,694 
21,015 
13,292 
14,256 
13,476 




"Mow Ynvlf 




Pennsylvania 
Delaware 




North Carolina 
South Carolina 
Georgia 

Add Continental "] 

17 7 R 


288,502 
roops for yeai 


157,452 
27,443 
46,901 


Add Continental Troops for yeai 






231,796 




231,796 



It thus appears that the number of Continental troops from New Eng 
land, was 118,350; from the Middle States, 54,116, and from the South- 



44 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Kettle Creek, and of Buck s Defeat, I add, that 
though these battles, thirty in all, were fought within 
the limits of South Carolina, the Tories were not 
subjugated ; bat, on the other hand, after the fall of 
Charleston and until the peace were in the ascend 
ant. 

A word, finally, respecting the alleged attempt of 
South Carolina " to secede " when Charleston was in 
vested by the British general, Prevost. The explana 
tion of late years is, that the proposition was a mere 
artifice to gain time. If the fact is so, how strange 
that Henry Lee, a Virginian, an officer in service, 
and an intelligent observer and chronicler of mili 
tary events, how strange that lie did not know it ? 
He records, in his "History of the War in the South," 
that, after a day s negotiation to adjust terms of sur 
render, " the correspondence closed with the pro 
posal, on our part, of neutrality to the town and 
State during the war, the peace to fix its ultimate 
condition." Again, in commenting upon Prevost s 
rejection of this chivalrous overture to desert the Con 
federacy : " No British force would have been retained 

crn States, 59,330. So, too, it appears that Massachusetts furnished 
67,907, and 13,791 more than the aggregate from New York, New Jer 
sey, and Pennsylvania, And 8,577 more than the aggregate from Delaware, 
Maryland, Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia. The accu 
racy of this Table has been disputed. Some inquirers suppose that 
231,796 different individuals enlisted, forgetting that the army, when the 
strongest, consisted of only 46,901 men, and that, as is well known, the 
same soldier reenlisted once, twice, and in some cases, thrice, and in the 
aggregate of 231,796, is counted accordingly. Again, other persons are 
sceptical as to the existence of General Knox s Report ; such are referred 
to the History of Congress, where it is recorded that it was submitted to 
that body, May 11, 1790, and to tin; 12th vol. p. 14, of the American 
Stale Papers, folio edition, where it is inserted entire. I respectfully re 
quest those who have questioned my figures, to examine for themselves. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 45 

from the field to preserve the neutral State ; and the 
sweets of peace, with the allurements of British com 
merce, would probably have woven a connection with 
Great Britain, fatal in its consequences to the inde 
pendence of the Southern States." Thus early, if 
we may believe Lee, was the germ of " Secession," 
thus early the germ of the war which is now waged 
against a government so gentle, so motherly even, as 
never to have roughly, unjustly touched the hair of 
a cotton-planter s head. 

Georgia, the remaining Colony, was in its infancy, 
and Oglethorpe, its founder, lived until after it became 
an independent State. The designs of himself and 
his associates in its settlement, were highly benevo 
lent and generous ; and the public purse contributed 
a considerable sum to aid their undertaking. By 
their charter, the king was to model the government 
at the end of twenty-one years ; and accordingly, in 
1752, at the expiration of this period, a royal gov 
ernment was established similar to that in the Caro- 
linas, which existed until the Revolution. Georgia 
sent no delegates to the first Continental Congress ; 
and that she was represented in the second, was 
owing, I am led to conclude, principally to the zeal 
and exertions of Lyman Hall, a native of Connecti 
cut, who, having graduated at Yale College and fitted 
himself for the practice of medicine, removed to Sun- 
bury. His ardor in the Whig cause exposed him to 
the indignation of his opponents, and after the royal 
army penetrated Georgia, his property was seized 
and confiscated. The Rev. Dr. Zubly, another of the 
delegates, proved himself unworthy of confidence, 
and lost his estate at the hands of his former friends 



46 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and associates. To form a party of "liberty-men" 
within the borders of Georgia, to organize this party 
and commit it in favor of the " rebellion/ which was 
fast hastening to " treason " and Revolution in other 
parts of the continent, was attended with difficulty, 
and required time and labor. But such a party finally 
existed and acted ; and the AMERICAN CONFEDERACY 
was thus completed. 

Though overrun by the king s troops, and governed 
by military law during a considerable part of the 
war, Georgia overpaid her quota of money in a small 
sum, and furnished 2.679 men for the Continental 
service. If, then, it be considered, that her popula 
tion was small, her resources limited ; that Sir James 
Wright, the last royal governor, was an able and 
popular man, and rallied a considerable body of Loy 
alists ; and that, in the course of events, the Whigs 
were compelled to flee into the neighboring States 
for safety, her efforts and sacrifices are entitled to 
commendation. 1 

^From this rapid survey of the Thirteen Colonies, it- 
has appeared that the adherents of the crown were 

1 Georgia was, however, regarded as highly loyal. One of the ablest 
and best informed of the Loyalists, thus speaks: " Georgia had not only 
been recovered out of the hands of the insurgents, in 1779, but the prov 
ince was put at the peace of the king by his Majesty s Commissioners, and 
the king s civil government restored, and all the loyal inhabitants required 
by proclamation to return to their settlements, and an Assembly called, 
and actually subsisting, and all the civil officers in the exercise of their 
functions, when orders came in 1782, to evacuate the country, and deliver 
it up to the rebels, which was done accordingly, without any stipulation in 
favor of the attainted Loyalists, or their confiscated properties, although 
the rebel force in that country was so inconsiderable, that the Loyalists 
offered to the king s general to preserve tlie province for his Majesty, if 
he would Icai e them a single regiment of foot, and the Georgia Rangers, 
to assift them." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 47 

more numerous at the South, and in Pennsylvania 
and New York, than in New England. Neither in 
the regulations of the crown, nor in the enactments 
of parliament, had there been much either to offend 
the_ feelings or check the industry of the planters and 
agriculturists. Towards the Colonies that sold raw 
produce, the policy of the mother country had been 
mild, perhaps liberal. They were the Round-heads, 
and not the Cavaliers, who met her upon the ocean 
and in the workshop; hence, it was to them that she 
showed the most odious features of the Colonial sys 
tem. But taunted, for a century and a half, witli the 
heresy of their faith, and impeded in all their enter 
prises ever after the death of Cromwell, the people 
of the North were driven to invoke the sympathy of 
their Colonial brethren whose religion and pursuits 
had been the more favored objects of her regard ; and 
when their joint appeals to her justice and magnan 
imity failed to shake her purposes, then, by the union 
of counsel, arms, and effort, all the Colonies together 
broke from her dominion. If, therefore, the war of 
the Revolution had its origin in a long course of ag 
gression upon the rights of the North, its successful 
issue was due in some measure to the more meri 
torious, because more disinterested, exertions of the 
South. If, too, this course of aggression gradually 
diffused a spirit of resistance throughout the country, 
so that Episcopal and monarchical Virginia at last fur 
nished a commander for the Puritan and Republican 
soldiers of Massachusetts, the conclusion becomes 
irresistible, that the wrongs which united men of so 
different characters and pursuits, were far too deep 
and grave to be excused or extenuated. \ 



48 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

The examination, now completed, of the political 
condition of the Colonies, and of the state of parties, 
leads to the conclusion that the number of our coun 
trymen who wished to continue their connection with 
the mother country was very large. In nearly every 
Loyalist letter or other paper which I have examined, 
and in which the subject is mentioned, it is either 
assumed or stated in terms, that the loyal were the ma 
jority ; and this opinion, I am satisfied, was very gen 
erally entertained by those who professed to have a 
knowledge of public sentiment. That the adherents 
of the crown were mistaken, in this particular, is cer 
tain. 



CHAPTER V. 

Newspapers in the Thirteen Colonies. Political Writers, Whig and Loy 
alist, North and South. Seminaries of Learning. Condition of the 
Press, &c., at the Revolutionary Era. Means for diffusing Knowledge 
limited. 

OF the thirty-seven newspapers which were pub 
lished in the Colonies, in April, 1775, if the result of 
my inquiries he correct, seven or eight were in the 
interest of the crown, and twenty-tlu ee were devoted 
to the service of the Whigs. Of these thirty-seven, 
however, one on each side had little or no part in dis 
cussing the great questions at issue, as they were es 
tablished only in the preceding month of January ; 
and of those which did participate in these discus 
sions and maintain the right, no less than five went 
over to the Loyalists in the course of the war. Of 
the number first named, two were printed in German, 
and one in German and English ; and, as another of 
the thirty-seven was commenced in April, there were, 
in fact, but thirty-one newspapers in the vernacular 
tongue at the close of 1774. Up to the beginning of 
the strife, printing had been confined to the capitals 
or principal towns; but hostile deeds, interfering with 
all employments, caused the removal of some of the 
public journals to places more remote, and were the 
means of interrupting or wholly discontinuing the 
publication of others. Those that existed at the pe- 

VOL. 1. 5 



50 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

riod of which we are speaking, were very unequally 
distributed ; thus Maryland, Virginia, the two Caro- 
linas, and Georgia, taken together, had but one more 
than Pennsylvania, and but three more than Massa 
chusetts. In New Hampshire, the Gazette " was 
alone ; while Rhode Island had both a " Gazette " and 
a ^ Mercury." Of the editors and proprietors who 
originally opposed the right, or became converts to 
the wrong, several sought refuge in Nova Scotia and 
New Brunswick, where they established newspapers, 
which were the first published in these Colonies. 

From what has now been said, it is evident that a 
very considerable proportion of the professional and 
editorial intelligence and talents of the Thirteen Col 
onies was arrayed against the popular movement. 
This volume contains notices of more than two hun 
dred persons who were educated at Harvard College, 
or some other American or foreign institution of learn 
ing : and could the whole number of Loyalists who 
received college honors be ascertained, it would be 
found, probably, that the list is far from being com 
plete. It was alleged, however, by a distinguished 
adherent of the crown in New Jersey, that " most of 
the colleges had been the grand nurseries of the re 
bellion;" and, in a plan which he submitted for the 
government of the Colonies after the suppression of 
the revolt, he proposed to check their pernicious in 
fluence by introducing several reforms. But if, in 
connection with the facts above named, it be con 
sidered that, in 1761, there were but six colleges in 
America, and only nine at the commencement of hos 
tilities, we shall hardly find reason to believe that the 
loyal had cause to complain of them. It is said, on 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 51 

what appears to be good authority, that, as late as 
174G, there were but fifteen liberally educated per 
sons in the whole Colony of New York. The in 
crease between that period and the Revolution could 
not have been very considerable ; and, of the number 
named, several were alive in 1776, and belonged to 
the ministerial party. But whatever was the relative 
strength of the two parties in the single particular 
of graduates of colleges, the Whigs far exceeded their 
opponents in effective writers. Among the newspa 
per essayists in Massachusetts, on the royal side, were 
Joseph Green, a wag and a wit ; Samuel Waterhouse, 
an officer of the customs, who was stigmatized as the 
"most notorious scribbler and libeller" of the time; 
Lieutenant-Governor Oliver ; Jonathan Sewall ; and 
Daniel Leonard. The last wrote a series of papers 
entitled " Massachusettensis," and had John Adams 
for his antagonist, over the signature of " Nov-Ang- 
lus." Mr. Adams attributed these papers to his friend 
Sewall, but the fact that Leonard was the author is 
now well established. None of these "government- 
men " were so effective, as popular writers, as Samuel 
Adams, and his single pen was probably a, match for 
them all. Ilutchinson was so annoyed by his pecul 
iar tact, and his power to agitate and move the public 
mind, as to declare that, of all persons known to 
him, he was the most successful " in robbing men of 
their characters." But, besides the two Adamses, 
James Otis was the author of four political tracts, 
and Oxen bridge Thacher, Chauncy, and Cooper were 
continually transmitting their thoughts in popular 
forms ; while Josiah Quincy, junior, often gave his 
countrymen the effusions of his rich, pure, and clas- 



52 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

sical mind, and his " Observations on the Boston Port 
Bill " is to be regarded not only as a clear and cogent 
political essay, but as a finished specimen of the litr 
e rat ure of the period. 

Among the Loyalists of New York who contrib 
uted to the press, were the Rev. Samuel Chandler, 
the Rev. John Yardill, and Isaac Wilkins. The oppo 
nent of the latter was the youthful Hamilton. 1 In 
the South, I am disposed to conclude that the crown 
commanded no writer of ability except Daniel Du- 
lany, the attorney-general of Maryland, who was in 
the field against Charles Carroll. I know of no min 
isterial writer in Virginia. Those on the Whig side 
were, it is believed, limited to three; namely, Jeffer 
son, Richard Bland, and Arthur Lee. Some of the 
popular leaders in the planting Colonies conducted 
an extensive correspondence, but others seem to have 
been almost silent. It is someAvhat remarkable, that 
the only editor and best biographer of Washington 
found, or has preserved, but three letters in which the 
disputes that agitated the country are incidentally 
mentioned; and but three others in which the subjects 
in controversy are fully and explicitly discussed. At 
the North it was essentially different, and the letters 
of Massachusetts Whigs contain full and valuable ma 
terials for history. 

In concluding the topic, it may be remarked; that, 
while the number of the highest seminaries of learn 
ing was small, the other means of disseminating 

1 Hamilton s own sympathies were at first on the royal side, as he him 
self adtntts in his reply to Wilkins ; and his biographer relates that a 
visit to Boston changed the current of his thoughts: 1 may add, the 
whole course of his life. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 58 

knowledge were extremely limited. It suited the 
views of the mother country to keep the Colonial 
press shackled ; and it seems hardly credible that 
the accomplished Addison, when a minister of state, 
should have directed the governors in America to 
allow of no publications and of no printing, without 
license. For a considerable period the most rigid 
censorship prevailed in the Colonies, and even alma 
nacs were subject to examination. 1 The result of this 
state of things was, that, prior to the Revolution, most 
of the books were imported from England. As in 



1 In 1719 it was deemed necessary to obtain a license from Governor 
Shute, to publish a pamphlet upon the very harmless subject of providing 
Boston with market-houses, of which the town was then destitute. The 
pulpit was, however, free, and Dr. Colman preached a sermon the same 
year on " the reasons for a market in Boston." Censorship of the news 
papers, at this period, continued to be enforced so rigidly that, four years 
after, matter intended for publication in them was required to be examin 
ed by the Colonial Secretary. Though no particular officer may have 
been charged with the duty of supervision later than the year 1 730, a 
publisher was sent to prison in 1754, upon suspicion of having printed re- 
marks derogatory to some members of the Colonial government. 

It ma) - not be without interest to show what was thought of the freedom 
of the newspaper press fifty years ago. In February, 1812, the attorney- 
general and solicitor-general of Massachusetts state, in an official report 
to Governor Gerry, that, in their judgment, there had appeared in the 
Boston papers, since the preceding first of June, no less than two hundred 
and jifty -three libellous articles, to wit: in The Sconryc, ninety-nine; The 
Centinel, fifty-one; The Repertory, thirty-four; Tlie (lazctte, thirty-eight; 
The Palla<1ium, eighteen ; The Mfsscnr/er, one; The Chronicle, eight; and 
The Patriot, nine ; while in The Yankee there had been none. The re 
port gives the dates of the papers, and divides the libellous matter into 
two kinds: that in which the truth could be, and that in which it could not 
be, given in evidence to justify the party accused. These law-officers state, 
moreover, that their examinations had not embraced complete files of all 
these prints ; and that they had not included in their list calumnious pub 
lications against foreign governments or distinguished foreigners, nor libels 
of the editorial brethren against each other. It appears that the inquiry 
was instituted at his Excellency s request. 
5* 



54 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

other respects, however, the statute-book was some 
times disobeyed while this system was in force, and 
works were published which bore the English imprint, 
and which closely resembled the English copies used 
in the publication. Besides, provision for educating 
the people was seldom made, and reading and writing 
in some sections of the country were " rare accom 
plishments." The system of free-schools in New Eng 
land, of schools to be ordained and continually main 
tained by law, was established at an early period- but 
in Virginia, it is believed education was never a sub 
ject of legislation, during the whole course of her 
Colonial existence. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Politic-til Di\isionsin Colonial Society. Most of those in Office adhered 
to the Crown. Charge of the Loyalists that the Whins were mere 
needy Place-Hunters, answered. Loyalist Clergymen, Lawyers, and 
Physicians. 

WE enter now upon a brief inquiry to show the 
divisions in the different classes and avocations of 
Colonial society. And first, those who held office. 
Nearly all the officials of all grades adhered to the 
crown. This was to have been expected. Men who 
lived in ease, who enjoyed all the consideration and 
deference which rank and station invariably confer, 
especially in monarchies, and who, therefore, had noth 
ing to gain, but much to lose, by a change, viewed 
the dissensions that arose between themselves and 
the people, in a light which allowed their self-love and 
their self-interest to have full play. "They were ap 
pointed and sworn to execute the laws, and, in obeying 
the instructions of the ministry at home to enforce 
the statutes of the realm, they did but perform com 
mon acts of duty." These were the arguments, and 
they were neither the first nor the last persons in of 
fice who have reasoned in the same manner, and who 
have kept their places at the expense of their patriot 
ism. Besides, they affected to believe that the Whig 
leaders were mere needy office-hunters, and that the 
contests between them were in some measure per 
sonal. The descendants of Loyalists, whose homes 



5f> HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

are across our northeastern border, in conversations 
with citizens of the republic continue to repeat the 
tale. They have been answered, that, were the charge 
true, our fathers were still the more patriotic of the 
two ; since, upon this issue, it would seem that theirs, 
who were the fat and sleek possessors, would not give 
up the much-coveted stations to the lean and hungry 
expectants and claimants, even to preserve the Brit 
ish empire from dismemberment, It has been said, 
too, that if it be admitted that the younger Otis ac 
tually did vow he would set Massachusetts in flames, 
though he should perish in the fire, because his father 
was not appointed to a vacant and promised judge- 
ship ; that, as has been alleged, John Adams was at a 
loss which side to take, and became a " rebel " because 
he was refused a commission in the peace ; that 
Samuel Adams was a defaulting collector of taxes, 
and paid up his arrears of money in abuse of honest 
men ; that, as his enemies say, Hancock possessed 
neither stability nor principle, and that wounded van 
ity caused his opposition to the king s servants ; that 
Joseph Warren was a broken man, and sought, amid 
the turmoils of civic strife, to better his condition ; 
that Washington was soured because he was not re 
tained in the British army, in reward for his services 
in the French war; that the Lees were all unsound 
men, and that Richard Henry was disappointed in not 
receiving the office of stamp distributor, which he 
solicited ; that Franklin was vexed at the opposition 
to his great land-projects and plans for settlements on 
the Ohio; and that a large majority of the prominent 
Whigs of every Colony were young men who had 
their fortunes to make, and distinction to win, that, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 57 

if all this be admitted, what then ? The argument is 
as two-edged as the first, and, though it he granted 
that one side of the blade wounds the Whigs, the 
other still cuts deep the Tories. For, upon this 
ground it may be asked, what claim to perpetuity 
had the institutions which denied to a man like John 
Adams the humble place of a justice of the peace; 
and to George Washington, an opportunity to display 
to qualities of character on the great field which the 
Being who made him intended for him ? And if the 
thought ever obtruded itself upon John Marshall, 
that, by living and dying a Colonist, he should live 
and die undistinguished and without leaving his name 
in his country s annals, I know not that the emotion 
was blamable. The destiny marked out for him, was 
to found the jurisprudence of a NATION; and has the 
world been the loser because he fulfilled it? 
( The children of the Loyalists, though thus met, 
jcomplain because the offices, at the close of the con- 
flict, passed from the " old families " into the hands of 
1" upstarts. It has been replied to this, that, revolu 
tion or no revolution, it was high time the persons 
stigmatized as " upstarts " had a share of the royal 
patronage : first, to break up the practice of bestow 
ing upon the son, however unworthy or incompetent, 
the place held by the father ; and, secondly, to intro 
duce faithfulness and responsibility, and to dismiss 
arrogant and disobliging incumbents. 

The allegations thus noticed are proved, as those 
who make them sagely imagine, by the fact that the 
Whigs, at the peace, received the executive chairs of 
the several States, the judgeships, the collectorships, 
the great law-offices, and other public situations, pre- 



58 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

viouslv held by their opponents. This argument is 
sufficient to disturb the gravity of a man who never 
smiled in his life ; and vet it is sometimes soberly 
urged by the intelligent and well informed, and en 
forced in strong and impassioned tones. 

But, it is time to inquire, what became of the 
office-holders whom the Revolution expelled ? Did 
thev, did the adherents of the crown, generallv, 

i/ 7 i/ 

evince an unconquerable aversion to public employ 
ment, after their retirement or banishment from the 
United States ? The answer to these questions will 
be found in these pages. It will be seen, that they 
not only filled all the principal offices in the present 
British Colonies, but that their places descended to 
their sons, connections, and relatives. In no point 
of view, then, are the Loyalists entitled to become the 
accusers of the Whigs ; since^it is the innocent only 
who can properly cast stones at the offending or the 
faulty. Nor is it to be overlooked, that offices under 
the British crown are, in many respects, of the nature 
of life-estates or life-annuities; since the practice which 
prevailed in the old thirteen, 1 of perpetuating offi 
cial distinctions in families, still continues to a very 
great extent, and since, too, while places are not 
thus lost and won at every turn of the political wheel 
as with us, the salaries, fees, and emoluments are 
much greater than are paid either under our state 
or national governments. Instead, therefore, of our 
being compelled to defend the Whigs against the 
charge of undue or of improper love of office, the 
Loyalists, and those of their descendants who repeat 
their fathers accusations, are to be turned upon in 
quiet good nature, and to be put upon their own defence. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 59 

Our attention, now, will be directed to the profes- ^ 
sional classes. It has often been asserted that nearly 
all the clergy were Whigs. The truth of this may 
admit of a doubt ; since most of those of the Episco 
pal faith not only espoused the adverse side, but 
abandoned their flocks and the country. 1 need not 
say, that, at the period of the Revolution, the clergy 
possessed vast influence. In the early settlement of 
the country, as is well known, the duty of the minis 
ters was not confined to instructions in things spirit 
ual, but embraced matters of temporal concern; and, 
on questions of pressing public exigency, their coun 
sel and advice were eagerly sought and implicitly 
followed. This deference to their office and to their 
real or supposed wisdom, though less general than at 
former periods, had not ceased ; and clergymen, both 
Whigs and Tories, often made a recruiting house of 
the sanctuary. Some of those of both parties disre 
garded the obligations of Christian charity, and sacri 
ficed their kindly affections as men, in their earnest 
appeals from the pulpit. Generally, the minister and 
his people were of the same party ; but there were 
still some memorable divisions and quarrels, separa 
tions, and dismissions. 

We pass to members of the bar. I incline to be 
lieve that a majority of the lawyers were Whigs, and 
for several reasons. First, because in the course of 
my researches I have found but comparatively few 
who adhered to the crown; secondly, because of the 
well-known fact, that a large part of the speakers 
and advocates on the popular side were educated to 
the law ; and, thirdly, because one of the objects of 
the " Stamp Act " was to drive from the profession 



IK) HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

those members of it who annoyed the royal govern 
ors and other officials, and who, as a member of the 
House of Commons said, were mere pettifoggers." 
Besides, many gentlemen of the bar, on being retained 
by the merchants, became impressed with the enor 
mities of the commercial code, and, in advocating the 
cause of clients who claimed to continue their con 
traband trade on the ground of usage and prescrip 
tion, thev were impelled to follow the example of 
Otis, .and to take the lofty stand that commerce 
should be, and, on principles of justice, really was, as 
open and as free to British subjects in the New World, 
as it was to those in the Old. 

Still, the ministry had their partisans among the 
barristers-at-law, and some of them were persons of 
great professional eminence. In fact, the " giants of 
the law " in the Colonies were nearly all Loyalists. 
As in the case of the clergy, many of them were 
driven into exile. Several entered the military ser 
vice of the crown, and raised and commanded com 
panies, battalions, and even regiments. At the 
peace, a few returned to their former abodes and 
pursuits ; but the greater number passed the re 
mainder of their lives either in England, or in her 
present possessions in America. The anti-revolu 
tionary bar of Massachusetts and New York fur 
nished the admiralty and common-law courts of New 
Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Canada, and the Bermudas, 
with many of their most distinguished judges. 

The physicians who adhered to the crown were 
numerous, and the proportion of Whigs in the pro 
fession of medicine was less, probably, than in either 
that of law or theology. But, unlike persons of the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. J1 

latter callings, most of the physicians remained in 
the count r} , and quietly pursued their business. 
There seems to have been an understanding that, 
though pulpits should be closed, and litigation be 
suspended, the sick should not be deprived of their 
regular and freely chosen medical attendants. I have 
been surprised to find, from verbal communications 
and from various other sources, that, while the " Tory 
doctors " were as zealous and as fearless in the ex 
pression of their sentiments as " Tory ministers " and 
" Tory barristers," their persons and property were 
generally respected in the towns and villages, where 
little or no regard was paid to the bodies and estates 
of gentlemen of the robe and the surplice. 1 Some, 
however, were less fortunate, and the dealings of the 
" sons of liberty " were occasionally harsh and ex 
ceedingly vexatious. A few of the Loyalist physi 
cians were banished ; others, and those chiefly who 
became surgeons in the army or provincial corps, set 
tled in New Brunswick or Nova Scotia, where they 
resumed practice. 

1 Since writing this passage, I have met more than once with the sug 
gestion, that the physicians owed their safety to " the exigencies of the 
ladies." 



VOL. I. 



CHAPTER VII. 

<The Reasons given for Adherence to the Crown. , The Published Declar 
ations of the Whigs that they wished for a Redress of Wrongs and the 
Restoration of Ancient Privileges, as found in " Novanglus." Rapid 
Statement of Colonial Disabilities, which the Whig Leaders hardly men 
tioned in the Controversy, and which appear embodied for the first time 
in the Declaration of Independence. Denials of Whig Leaders, North 
and South, that they designed at the Beginning of the Controversy to 
separate from England. {.Reasons of the Loyalists for the Course 
adopted by them, Concluded. . 

THE concluding number of " Novanglus," by John 
Adams, was sent to press only two days before the 
shedding of blood at Lexington, and we are to con 
sider it as an authorized exposition of the avowed 
sentiments of the Whig leaders. But yet, its aim is 
limited to a degree that has often caused me to muse, 
and to ask, Why were discussions on the subject 
of Colonial inabilities so carefully avoided ? 

The private and the professional life of Mr. Adams 
afford us a fair illustration of these disabilities; and 
why did he not once mention them ? 

If his horse flung a shoe, the stinging, insulting 
declaration of Pitt, that an American could not, of 
right, make so much as the nails required to set it, 
rung in his ears. If he entered the Court of Admi 
ralty to defend the "smugglers," or illicit traders, 
who were prosecuted by the Crown officers, he was 
reminded that his countrymen were forbidden by 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 63 

statute to make a voyage to Asia or Africa, to South 
America, to all the foreign islands in the Caribbean 
Sea, to nearly all continental Europe, or even to Ire 
land, on pain of confiscation of ship and cargo. If 
he bought a hat, the legislation against Colonial, and 
in favor of British, hatters, occurred to him. If, in 
journeying to the courts of Massachusetts and Maine, 
he passed waterfalls running to waste, he mused upon 
the acts of Parliament which secured the Colonial 
market in monopoly to the manufacturers of Man 
chester. If he entered a public office, he met the 
pampered functionaries who, " English born," or mem 
bers of the "old families," held their places by life 
tenures, and by descent from father to son. If he 
walked the streets, the chariots of the high officers 
of the customs, sent over to revive obsolete, and to 
enforce new r , laws of trade, rolled in grandeur by him. 
If he had traffic with his neighbor, he was compelled 
to remember that, while the mother-country drained 
all America of coin, the Board of Trade a curse to 
the New England Colonies from beginning to end 
had suggested, and Parliament had enacted, not 
amendments in the manner of emitting and redeem 
ing a paper currency, as bound to do, but its sup 
pression. Nor, if he read the speeches of British 
Whigs, did his keen eye see more in behalf of his 
country than an opposition to particular measures, 
and to the party in power ; for there stood out in 
characters of fire, the bold, unqualified statement of 
Burke, that the sole purpose of Colonies was to be 
" serviceable " to the parent State. In a word, with 
him, and everywhere around him, were the humil 
iating evidences that an American was, politically, 



64 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

socially, and commercially, the inferior of an English 
man. 

If neither the author of "Novanglus" nor any other 
Whig addressed the American people on these mo 
mentous wrongs and denials, which, for generations 
had palsied the arm of New England and had rankled 
in the universal American heart, and which, in less 
than fifteen months, were embodied in stirring 
array --in the Declaration of Separation, the Loy 
alists are to be excused for acting in conformity with 
the grievances stated by their opponents. 

The denial that independence was the final object, 
was constant and general. To obtain concessions. and 
to preserve the connection with England, was affirmed 
everywhere ; and John Adams, years after the peace, 
went farther than this, for he said : " There was not 
a moment during the Revolution, ivhen I would not have given 
every thing I possessed for a restoration to the stale of things 
before the contest began, provided ive could have had a suffi 
cient security for its continuance" If Mr. Adams be 
regarded as expressing the sentiments of the Whigs, 
the// were willing to remain Colonists, provided they 
could have had their rights secured to them ; while 
the Tories were contented thus to continue, without 
such security. Such, as it appears to me, was the 
only difference between the two parties prior to hos 
tilities ; and many Whigs, like Mr. Adams, would have 
been willing to rescind the Declaration of Indepen 
dence, and to forget the past, upon proper guarantees 
for the future. This mode of stating the question 
and of defining the difference between the two parties 
- down to a certain period, at least cannot be ob 
jected to, unless the sincerity and truthfulness of some 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 65 

of the most eminent men in our history are directly 
impeached ; and, if any are prepared to dispute their 
veracity, it may still be asked, whether the Tories ought 
not to be excused for believing them. Franklin s testi 
mony, a few days before the affair at Lexington, was, 
that he had " more than once travelled almost from 
one end of the continent to the other, and kept a 
variety of company, eating, drinking, and conversing 
with them freely, [and] never had heard in any conver- N 
sat ion from any person, drunk or sober, the leaxt expression 
of a ivishfor a separation, or a hint that sucli a thine/ would 
be advantageous to America" Mr. Jay is quite as ex 
plicit. "During the course of my life," said he, "and 
until the second petition of Congress in 1775, I never , 
did hear an American of any class, or of any description, 
express a ivish for the independence of the Colonies" " It 
has always been, and still is, my opinion and belief, 
that our country was prompted and impelled to inde 
pendence by necessity, and not by choice? Mr. Jeffer 
son affirmed, " What, eastward of New York, might 
have been the dispositions towards England before 
the commencement of hostilities, I know not ; but 
before that I never heard a whisper of a disposition 
to separate from Great Britain ; and after that, its pos 
sibility ivas contemplated with affliction by all." Washing 
ton, in 1774, fully sustains these declarations, and, in 
the "Fairfax County Resolves," it was complained, 
that ^malevolent falsehoods" were propagated by the 
ministry to prejudice the mind of the king: " partic 
ularly that there is an intention in the American Colonies to 
set up for independent States" Mr. Madison was not in 
public life until May, 1776, but he says, "It has 
alw r ays been my impression, that a r establishment of 



66 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

the Colonial relations to the parent country, as they tvere 
previous to the controversy, was the real object of every 
class of the people, till the despair of obtaining 
it," &C. 1 

I have to repeat, that the only way to dispose of 
testimony like this, is to impeach the persons who 
have given it. I am of Whig descent, and am proud 
of my lineage. With the principles of men who, 
when it was ascertained that a redress of grievances 
could not be obtained, preferred to remain British sub 
jects, I have neither communion nor sympathy ; and 
I may be pardoned for adding that I have watched 
the operations and tendencies of the Colonial system 
of government too long and too narrowly, modified 
as it now is, not to entertain for it the heartiest dis 
like. Yet I would do the men who were born under 
it, and were reconciled to it, justice simple justice ; 
and if, as Mr. Jefferson says, a "possibility" of the 
necessity of a separation of the two countries, " was 
contemplated with affliction ly all" and if the state 
ments made by Franklin, Adams, Jay, Madison, and 
Washington, are to be considered as true and as deci 
sive, I renewedly ask, what other line of difference 
existed between the Whigs and Tories, than the terms 
on which the connection of the Colonies with England should 
be continued. 

My object in the attention bestowed on this point 
has been to remove the erroneous impression*. which 
seems to prevail, that the Whigs proposed, and the 
Tories opposed independence, at the very beginning 
of the controversy. Instead of this, we have seen, 

1 See Sparks Washington, Vol. II. pp. 498, 500, 501. The italics 
arc my own, except in the extract from the "Fairfax County Resolves." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 67 

that quite fourteen years elapsed before the question 
was made a party issue, and that, even then, " neces 
sity," and not " choice," caused a dismemberment of 
the empire. Since it has appeared, therefore, from 
the highest sources, that the Whigs resolved finally 
upon revolution because they were denied the rightsx 
of Englishmen, and not because they disliked mon- \" 
archical institutions, the Tories may be relieved from i 
the imputation of being the only " monarchy-men " 
of the time. 

Again, and to conclude : Intelligent loyalists, when 
asked why they adhered to~~the Crown, have said, 
that those who received the name of " Tories " were 
at first, indeed for some years, striving to preserve 
order and an observance of the rights of persons and 
property ; that many, who took sides at the outset as 
mere conservators of the peace, were denounced by 
those whose purposes they thwarted, and were finally 
compelled, in pure self-defence, to accept of royal 
protection, and thus to become identified with the 
royal party ever after. Again, it has been stated, 
that, had the naked question of independence been 
discussed before minor, and in many cases, local, 
events had shaped their course, many, who w r ere 
driven forth to live and die as aliens and outcasts, 
would have terminated their career far differently ; 
that many were opposed to war on grounds purely 
religious ; that some thought the people enjoyed 
privileges enough ; that others were influenced by 
their official connections or aspirations ; that another 
class, who seldom mingled in the affairs of active life, 
loved retirement, and would, had the Whigs allowed 
them, have remained neutrals ; that some were timid 



68 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

men, some were old men ; and that tenants and de 
pendents went with the landholders without inquiry, 
and as a thing of course. All of these reasons, and 
numerous others, have been assigned at different times, 
and by different persons. But another cause, quite as 
potent as any of these, operated, it would seem, 
upon thousands ; namely, a dread of the strength and 
resources of England, and the belief that successful 
resistance to her power was impossible ; thnt the 
Colonies had neither the men nor the means to carry 
on war, and would be humbled and reduced to sub 
mission with hardly an effort. 

That motives and considerations, hopes and fears, 
like these, had an influence in the formation of the 
last Colonial parties, cannot be disputed, and the un 
prejudiced minds of this generation should be frank 
enough to admit it. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

Loyalists who entered the Military Service of the Crown. 

As 1 have preferred connection of subject to mere 
chronological order, some of the details belonging to 
this branch of our inquiry have been given, in order 
to complete the questions already discussed. 

We are now to speak of the Loyalists who opposed 
the Whigs in the field. Upon this topic, our writers 
of history have been almost silent ; and it is not im 
possible that some persons have read books devoted 
exclusively to an account of the Revolution, without 
so much as imagining that a part, and a considerable 
part, of the force employed to suppress the " rebel 
lion "was composed of our own countrymen. The 
two wars between England and France, which imme 
diately preceded the revolt of the Colonies, were 
caused principally by disputes about rights of fishing, 
and by unsettled questions of maritime and territo 
rial jurisdiction in America; and in these wars the 
American people had taken a distinguished part, In 
fact, in aiding to put down French pretensions, our 
fathers acquired the skill necessary to the successful 
assertion of their own. 

The age was decidedly military. Ollice in the 
militia was even a qualification for civil employments. 
The number of colonels, majors, and captains that 



70 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

appear as members of the colonial assemblies, and ? 
subsequently, of provincial congresses, startles us- 
The quarrels about rank in the Congress of the con 
tinent disgust us. 

And of what account the newspaper essays and 
letters of Samuel Adams and others ? the eloquent 
appeals in Fanueil Hall, and in the House of Eur 
o-esses of Virginia ? What of the success of the 

o 

revolutionary movement everywhere, but for the 
military skill and experience acquired in the seven- 
years war with France ? The Colonies furnished in 
that war quite twenty-eight thousand men in more 
than one of the campaigns, and every year to the 
extent of their ability. 

In fine, it is literally true that, for years together, 
more troops, in proportion to population, w r ere raised 
in America than in England; while, on the ocean, full 
twelve thousand seamen were enlisted in the royal 
navy and in the Colonial privateers. Without the 
aid of the survivors of these, resistance, or the 
thought of it, would have been downright madness. 
And the unanimity and alacrity with which those 
who had fought at Ticonderoga, Crown Point, du 
Quesne, Niagara, and Quebec, espoused the popular 
cause at first, and rallied under the Whig banner in 
the last resort, w r as one of the most honorable inci 
dents of the era. 

But, on the other hand, several officers of merit, 
and some of very considerable military talents, ad 
hered to the royal side. 

It may not be possible to ascertain the number of 
the Loyalists who took up arms, but, from the best 
evidence which 1 have been able to obtain, I con- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 71 

elude there were twenty-five thousand at the lowest 
computation ; and, unless their killed and wounded 
in the different battles and affrays in which they were 
engaged were unusually large, I have put their 
aggregate force far too low. Thus, in the fight at 
Bennington, or, more properly, Hoosiek ; in the enter 
prise of Sullivan at Staten Island ; in the adventure 
of Nelson at New Jersey ; in the affray of Pickens 
with a band of Tories who were on their way to the 
British camp in Georgia ; in the battle of King s 
Mountain ; in four actions of Colonel Washington, 
Marion, Lee, and Sumter, the aggregate of slain, 
wounded, and prisoners, was upwards of twenty- 
three hundred, or nearly a tenth part of my estimate. 
That, in the various conflicts of the illustrious com- 
mander-in-chief ; in those of Greene, Lincoln, and 
Gates, in the South ; in the rencounters of Marion, 
Lee, and Sumter, not mentioned above; in the losses of 
Try on, Simcoe, De Lancey, Johnson, and Arnold ; in 
their various actions with the Whig forces or hast 
ily assembled neighborhoods ; in the strifes between 
Whigs and Tories, hand to hand, and in cases where 
neither had authorized or commissioned leaders, 
another tenth part of twenty-five thousand met with 
a similar fate is nearly certain. At the time of Corn- 
wallis s surrender, a portion of his army was com 
posed of native Americans, and his Lordship evinced 
great anxiety for their protection. Failing to obtain 
special terms for them in the articles of capitulation, 
he availed himself of the conceded privilege of send 
ing an armed ship northerly, without molestation, to 
convey away the most obnoxious among them. Bur- 
goyne had been spared this trouble ; for, as his diffi- 



72 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

culties had increased and his dangers thickened, the 
Loyalists had abandoned him to his fate. 

And yet again : In an address of the Loyalists who 
were in London in 1779, presented to the king, it is 
said that their countrymen, then in his Majesty s army, 
" exceeded in number the troops enlisted [by Congress] to 
oppose them" exclusive of those who were " in service 
in private ships of war." In a similar document, 
dated in 1782, and which was addressed to the king 
and both houses of Parliament, the same declaration 
is repeated, though in stronger terms, since the lan 
guage is, that " there are many more men in his Maj 
esty s provincial regiments than there are in the 
continental service." These last addresses declare, 
moreover, that " the zeal " of the Loyalists must be 
greater than -that of the "rebels;" for "the desultory 
manner in which the war has been carried on by first 
taking possession of Boston, Ehode Island, Philadel 
phia, Portsmouth, and Norfolk in Virginia, and Wil 
mington in North Carolina, and then evacuating them," 
had ruined thousands, and involved others in the 
greatest w r retchedness, and had rendered enlistments 
tardy under " such " discouragements and " very une 
qual circumstances." The descendants of Loyalist 
officers who entered the military service early in the 
struggle, and continued in commission until its 
close, entertain the general views expressed in these 
extracts ; and the opinion that Americans in the 
pay of the crown were quite as numerous as those 
who entered the army of Congress, is very commonly 
held by persons with whom I have conversed. Still, 
I doubt whether either the written or verbal state 
ments are to be relied on implicitly, and for the rea- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 78 

son, that, in the former, I am sure there are exaggera 
tions on other subjects, and the latter rest on the 
assertions of men who were equally ready to attribute 
the success of the Whigs and their own ruin to the 
inefficiency and bad management of Sir William 
Howe and other royal generals. The names of these 
various corps/ and the names of hundreds of officers 
who were attached to them, will be found in these 
volumes. The impression that the revolutionary con- 

1 The King s Rangers; the Royal Fencible Americans; the Queen s 
Rangers; the New York Volunteers ; the King s American Regiment; 
the Prince of Wales s American Volunteers; the Maryland Loyalists; 
De Lancey s Battalions; the Second American Regiment; the King s 
Rangers Carolina; the South Carolina Royalists; the North Carolina 
Highland Regiment ; the King s American Dragoons ; the Loyal Ameri 
can Regiment ; the American Legion ; the New Jersey Volunteers ; the 
British Legion ; the Loyal Foresters ; the Orange Rangers ; the Pennsyl 
vania Loyalists ; the Guides and Pioneers ; the North Carolina Volun 
teers ; the Georgia Loyalists ; the West Chester Volunteers. These corps 
were all commanded by colonels or lieutenant-colonels; and, as De Lan 
cey s Battalions and the New Jersey Volunteers consisted each of three 
battalions, here were twenty-eight. To these, the Loyal New Englanders, 
the Associated Loyalists, and Wentworth s Volunteers, remain to be added. 
Still further, Col. Archibald Hamilton, of New York, commanded at one 
period seventeen companies of loyal militia. 

Again, at different periods, several battalions were in the field at the 
South. The officers of twenty-one corps were considered entitled to half- 
pay, as will be seen by the proceedings in the House of Commons, June 27, 
1783. 

" The order of the day for going into a Committee of Supply being 
moved and carried, 

" Lord North rose to move that it be an instruction to the said Commit 
tee to receive and take into their consideration a proportion of half-pay 
to the officers of certain American corps, raised to serve in America dur 
ing the late war. His Lordship said, that the half-pay for the whole of 
the officers of the twenty-one corps would amount to 31,783. 5s. IQd. ; 
but that he would, in the Committee, move only for 15,000 towards, and 
on account of, half-pay to these corps. 

" The question was carried without a division. The House then went 
into the Committee of Supply, and voted the half-pay without any debate." 



VOL. I. 



74 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

test should have terminated differently was very 
common, and in many it was very strong. That they 
- " the loyal, the true " - should have been the 
losers in the strife ; and " the false and the rebellious " 
the winners ; and that the former should have been 
driven from the country in which they were born, to 
commence life anew in unbroken forests, were circum 
stances over which they continually brooded, and to 
which they were never reconciled. They insisted, 
and those who have inherited their names and pos 
sessions, and many of their prejudices and opinions, 
still insist, that either Sir William Howe, or Sir Henry 
Clinton, his successor, could and should have quelled 
"the rebellion," and that the former, especially, is 
wholly inexcusable. If, by their course of reason 
ing, Sir William had occupied Dorchester Heights and 
the highlands of Charlestown, as a sagacious general 
would have done, and as his force and park of artil 
lery allowed him to do, all the disasters to the royal 
arms which followed would have been prevented. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Whig Mobs before the Appeal to Arms, and tarring and feathering. 
Punishments of Loyalists during the War for overt Acts in favor of the 
Crown, and for speaking, writing, or acting against the Whigs. Pro 
scription, Banishment, and Confiscation Acts of the State Governments. 
The Laws which divested the Loyalists of their Estates examined. 

WE pass to take a rapid view of the measures 
which were adopted by the Whigs to awe and to 
punish their adversaries. I find some things to con 
demn. And first, the " mobs," a large part of which 
were in Massachusetts. That a cause as righteous as 
men were ever engaged in lost many friends by the 
fearful outbreaks of popular indignation, is not to be 
doubted. The wise man of Israel said, " A brother 
offended is harder to be won than a strong city." 
Those who took upon themselves the sacred name of 
" Sons of Liberty," needlessly, and sometimes in 
their very wantonness, " offended," beyond all hope 
of recall, persons who hesitated and doubted, and 
who, for the moment, claimed to occupy the position 
of " neutrals." The practice of a tarring and feath 
ering," however reprehensible, had, perhaps, but little 
influence in determining the final choice of parties. 
This form of punishment, though so frequent as to 
qualify the saying of the ancient, that man is a two- 
legged animal without feathers, was borrowed from the 
Old World, where it has existed since the Crusades ; 



76 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and was confined principally to the obnoxious custom 
house officers, pimps, and informers against smuggled 
goods, who adhered to the Crown. 

But what " brother/ upon whose vision the break 
ing up of the Colonial system and the sovereignty of 
America had not dawned, and who saw as even 
the Whigs themselves saw with the eyes only of 
a British subject, was won over to the right by the 
arguments of mobbing, burning, and smoking ? Did 
the cause of America and of human freedom gain 
strength by the deeds of the five hundred who 
mobbed Sheriff Tyng, or by the speed of the one 
hundred and sixty on horseback who pursued Com 
missioner Hallowell ? Were the shouts of an excited 
multitude, and the crash of broken glass and demol 
ished furniture, fit requiems for the dying Ropes ? 
Were Whig interests promoted because one thousand 
men shut up the Courts of Law in Berkshire, and 
five thousand did the same in Worcester, and mobs 
drove away the judges at Springfield, Taunton, and 
Plymouth ? because, in one place, a judge was 
stopped, insulted, and threatened ; in another, the 
whole bench were hissed and hooted ; and, in a third, 
were required to do penance, hat in hand, in a pro 
cession of attorneys and sheriffs ? Did the driving of 
Ingersoll from his estate, of Edson from his house, 
and the assault upon the home of Gilbert, and the 
shivering of Sewall s windows, serve to wean them, 
or their friends and connections, from their royal 
master? Did Ruggles, when subsequent events 
threw his countrymen into his power, forget that the 
creatures which grazed his pastures had been painted, 
shorn, maimed, and poisoned ; that he had been 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 77 

pursued on the highway by day and night ; that his 
dwelling had been broken open, and he and his family 
driven from it? What Tory turned Whig because 
Saltonstall was mobbed, and Oliver plundered, and 
Leonard shot at in his own house ? 1 Was the 
kingly arm actually weakened or strengthened for 
harm, because thousands surrounded the mansions 
of high functionaries, and forced them into resigna 
tion ; or. because sheriffs were told that they would 
perform their duties at the hazard of their lives ? 
Which party gained by waylaying and insulting, at 
every corner, the " Rescinders," the " Protesters, and 
the " Addressers ? " which, by the burning of the 
mills of Putnam ? Had widows and orphans no addi 
tional griefs, because the Probate Courts were closed 
by the multitude, and their officers were driven under 
cover of British guns ? Did it serve a good end to 
endeavor to hinder Tories from getting tenants, or to 
prevent persons who owed them from paying honest 
debts ? On whose cheek should have been the blush 
of shame, when the habitation of the aged and feeble 
Foster was sacked, and he had no shelter but the 
woods ? when Williams, as infirm as he, was seized at 
night, dragged away for miles, and smoked in a room 
with fastened doors and a closed chimney-top ? What 
father, who doubted, wavered, and doubted still, 
whether to join or fly, determined to abide the issue 
in the land of his birth, because foul words were 

1 Many Loyalists were confined in private houses, some were sent to 
jails, and others to " Simsbury Mines." But the prisons were hardly 
proper places for the confinement of such people ; and it is believed that 
a large proportion of the persons whom it was deemed proper to arrest 
preferred banishment to the loss of liberty, even though they were sure 
to be comfortably quartered in the families or houses of Whigs. 
7 * 



78 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

spoken to his daughters, or because they were pelted 
when riding, or moving in the innocent dance ? Is 
there cause for wonder that some who still live should 
say, of their own or of their fathers treatment, 
that " persecution made half of the king s friends ? " 
The good men of the period mourned these and sim 
ilar proceedings, and they may be lamented now. 
The warfare waged against persons at their own 
homes and about their lawful avocations is not to be 
justified ; and the " mobs " of the Eevolution are to 
be as severely and as unconditionally condemned as 
the " mobs " of the present day. 

The acts of legislative bodies for the punishment 
of the adherents of the Crown were numerous. In 
Rhode Island, death and confiscation of estate were 
the penalties provided by law for any person who 
communicated with the ministry or their agents, or 
who afforded supplies to the forces, or piloted the 
armed ships of the king. 

In Connecticut, the offences of supplying the royal 
army or navy, of giving them information, of enlist 
ing or procuring others to enlist in them, and of pilot 
ing or assisting naval vessels, were punished more 
mildly, and involved only the loss of estate, and of 
personal liberty for a term not exceeding three years. 
To speak or write or act against the doings of Con 
gress, or the Assembly of Connecticut, was punisha 
ble by disqualification for office, imprisonment, and 
the disarming of the offender. 

In Massachusetts, a person suspected of enmity to 
the Whig cause could be arrested under a magistrate s 
warrant, and banished, unless he would swear fealty 
to the friends of liberty ; and the selectmen of towns 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 79 

could prefer charges of political treachery in town- 
meeting, and the individual thus accused, if convicted 
by a jury, could be sent into the enemy s jurisdiction. 
Massachusetts also designated by name, and generally 
by occupation and residence, three hundred and eight 
of her people, of whom seventeen had been inhab 
itants of Maine, who had fled from their homes, and 
denounced against any one of them who should re 
turn, apprehension, imprisonment, and transportation 
to a place possessed by the British ; and, for a second 
voluntary return, without leave, death, without bene 
fit of clergy. 

New Hampshire passed acts similar to these, under 
which seventy-six of her former citizens were prohib 
ited from coming within her borders, and the estates 
of the most obnoxious were declared to be for 
feited. 

Virginia passed a resolution to the effect that per 
sons of a given description should be deemed and 
treated as aliens, and that their property should be 
sold, and the proceeds go into the public treasury for 
future disposal ; and also a law prohibiting the migra 
tion of certain persons to that Commonwealth, and 
providing penalties for the violation of its provis 
ions. 

In New York, the county committees were author 
ized to apprehend, and decide upon the guilt of such 
inhabitants as were supposed to hold correspondence 
with the enemy, or had committed some other speci 
fied act ; and they might punish those whom they 
adjudged to be guilty with imprisonment for three 
months, or banishment. There, too, persons opposed 
to liberty and independence were prohibited from 



80 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

practising law in the courts ; and the effects of fifty- 
nine persons, of whom three were women, and their 
rights of remainder and reversion, were to pass, by 
confiscation, from them to the " people." 

In New Jersey, one act was passed to punish trai 
tors and disaffected persons ; another, for taking charge 
of and leasing the real estates, and for forfeiting the 
personal estates, of certain fugitives and offenders ; 
a third, for forfeiting to and vesting in the State 
the real property of the persons designated in the 
second statute ; and a fourth, supplemental to the act 
first mentioned. 

In Pennsylvania, the number of persons who were 
attainted of treason to the State by special acts, or 
by proclamations of the President and Council, was 
nearly five hundred. 

The act of Delaware provided that the property, 
both real and personal, of certain persons who were 
named, and who were forty-six in number, should be 
forfeited to the State, " subject nevertheless to the 
payment of the said offenders just debts," unless, as 
in Pennsylvania, they gave themselves up to trial for 
the crime of treason in adhering to the royal cause. 

Maryland seized, confiscated, and appropriated all 
property of persons in allegiance to the British crown, 
and appointed commissioners to carry out the terms 
of three statutes which were passed to effect these 
purposes. 

In North Carolina, the confiscation act embraced 
sixty-five specified individuals and four mercantile 
firms ; and, by its terms, not only included the 
"lands." of these persons and commercial houses, but 
their " negroes and other personal property." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 81 

The law of .Georgia, which was enacted very 
near the close of the struggle, declared certain 
persons to have been guilty of treason against that 
State, and their estates to be forfeited for their 
offences. 

South Carolina surpassed all other members of. the 
Confederacy, Pennsylvania and Massachusetts ex- 
cepted. The Loyalists, whose rights, persons, and 
property were affected by legislation, were divided 
into four classes. The persons who had offended the 
least, who were forty-five in number, were al 
lowed to retain their estates, but were amerced twelve 
per cent, of their value. Soon after the fall of 
Charleston, and when disaffection to the Whig cause 
was so general, two hundred and ten persons, who 
styled themselves the " principal inhabitants " of 
the city, signed an address to Sir Henry Clinton, 
in which they state that they have every inducement 
to return to their allegiance, and ardently hope to be 
readmitted to the character and condition of British 
subjects. These " Addressers " formed another class. 
Of these two hundred and ten, sixty-three were ban 
ished, and lost their property by forfeiture, either for 
this offence or the graver one of affixing their names 
to a petition to the royal general, to be armed on the 
royal side. Eighty persons, composing another class, 
were also banished and divested of their estates, for 
the crime of holding civil or military commissions 
under the Crown, after the conquest of South Caro 
lina, And the same penalties were inflicted upon 
thirteen others, who, on the success of Lord Corn 
wall is at Camden, presented his Lordship with their 
congratulations ; and still fourteen others were ban- 



82 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

ished, and deprived of their estates, because they were 
obnoxious, y> 

In discussing the expediency and justice of the 
laws which drove or kept the Loyalists in exile, as 
well as those which alienated their estates, two points 
present themselves ; namely, whether the Whigs 
were right in opposing the pretensions of England, 
and whether they did more than others have done in 
civil wars, wars which are always the most bitter 
and unrelenting, always the most obstinate and 
difficult to terminate. The question suggested by 
the first query is no longer open to dispute ; for the 
mother-country has herself admitted that she w r as 
wrong in her treatment of the thirteen Colonies. 

If, now, the Whigs were in the right, they might do 
everything necessary to insure success ; and we are thus 
brought to the second point of inquiry. The ques 
tion of the banishment of the Loyalists addresses 
itself to me in two forms: that of the temporary and 
that of the permanent exile of the men who suffered 
it. Among these men were many persons of great 
private worth, who, in adhering to the Crown, were 
governed by conscience and a stern regard to duty ; 
and the offences of others consisted merely in a 
nominal attachment to the mother-country, or in a 
disinclination to witness or participate in the horrors 
of a civil war. Yet they were Loyalists ; and it so 
happened that the best men of that party were, of all 
others, those who could do the Whigs the greatest 
mischief; since, if they remained at liberty, their 
character and moderation rendered their counsel and 
advice of vast service to their own, and of vast harm 
to the opposite party, amidst the doubts and fears 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

which prevailed, and had a direct tendency to pro 
long and embitter the contest, It became necessary, 
therefore, to secure them either by imprisonment or 
by exile. The first course, while requiring a consid 
erable force to guard them, which the Whigs could 
not spare, would have been far less merciful than the 
other, and banishment, consequently, was best for 
both parties. Again, a considerable proportion of 
those who were proscribed, voluntarily abandoned the 
country, and were absent from it at the passage of 
the banishment acts ; and this was especially the case 
in Massachusetts. To prevent the return of these 
persons was as necessary to accomplish the objects of 
the struggle, as it was to secure those who remained 
at or in the neighborhood of their homes. 

Still it may be wished that greater discrimination 
had been exercised in selecting those who were 
deemed fit objects of severity. Persons whose crimes 
against the country and against humanity deserved 
death, escaped the banishment acts of the States to 
which they belonged ; while, on the other hand, these 
acts embraced persons who, from the circumstances of 
their condition, were utterly powerless, who had done, 
and could do, no evil. It may be wished, also, that 
those who were deemed fit objects of severity had 
been allowed the forms of trial. Courts of Admiralty 
were established for condemning prizes, and men 
might reasonably claim that, while their property 
was dealt with according to the established rules of 
society, their persons should not be more summarily 
disposed of. Means for the trial of Loyalists were 
abundant. It is our boast, indeed, that, unlike the 
usual course of things in civil war, civil government 



84 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

was maintained throughout the whole period of our 
Revolution, with hardly an interruption anywhere. 
This is a fact as honorable as it is remarkable. " I 
will maintain as long as I live/ said Dupin, the great 
French advocate, " that the condemnation of Marshal 
Ney was not just, for his defence was not free." Per 
haps posterity will entertain something of the same 
sentiment with regard to the course pursued by our 
fathers in not allowing their opponents an opportu 
nity to appeal to the tribunals. In this particular, 
Pennsylvania and Delaware, as it will be remembered, 
adopted a mode less objectionable than that of some 
other States, inasmuch as they " summoned " the per 
sons against whom they proceeded, to appear and 
" surrender themselves for trial." Besides, it was 
common, during the war, for the military commanders 
to order courts-martial to take cognizance of the of 
fences, and to fix the punishment of Tories ; and a 
future generation may possibly ask, why, when the 
sword was suspended amid the turmoils of the camp, 
to hear the defence of the accused, that weapon was 
so wielded in the hands of civilians as to " transform 
them into persecutors, and into martyrs those whom 
it smote." 

The laws which divested the Loyalists of their es 
tates demand a moment s examination. Keeping in 
view that the Whigs were right in resisting the pre 
tensions of the mother-country, and that, there 
fore, they might very properly use every necessary 
means to insure success, we shall find no difficulty in 
admitting that the property of their opponents could 
be rightfully appropriated to aid in the prosecution 
of the war.; They devoted their own fortunes, they 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 85 

importuned several of the powers of Europe for loans, 
and they entailed upon their posterity a large debt ; 
and it would indeed be strange, if they could not have 
made forced levies upon the estates of those who 
not only refused to help them, but were actually in 
arms, or otherwise employed against them. To eman 
cipate the American continent was a great work: 
the Whigs felt and knew, what is iio\v everywhere 
conceded, that the work was both necessary and right 
eous ; and requiring, as its speedy accomplishment 
did, the labor of every hand and contributions from 
every purse, the throwing into the treasury the jewels 
of women and the holiday allowances of children, 
they are to stand justified for a resort to the seques 
tration of the possessions of those who assisted in the 
vain endeavor to subdue them, and to renew the 
bonds which had bound them. The property of those 
who held commissions in the king s army and in the 
Loyalist corps was the property of enemies, and, as 
such, could be converted to public uses ; while that 
of others, who made their election to accept of ser 
vice in civil capacities, is to be regarded in the same 
light. The "Absentees," or those who retired from 
the country and lived abroad in privacy, w r ere a differ 
ent class ; and it may be doubted w r hether the same 
rule was applicable to them, and whether fines or 
amercements were not the more proper modes of 
procedure against the estates which they abandoned 
in quitting the country. The Whigs assumed, how 
ever, that " every government hath a right to com 
mand the personal services of its own members, when 
ever the exigencies of the State shall re quire, espe 
cially in times of impending or actual invasion ; " 



VOL. I. 



86 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

and that " no member thereof can then withdraw 
himself from the jurisdiction of the government, 
without justly incurring the forfeiture of his prop 
erty, rights, and liberties, holden under and derived 
from that constitution of government, to the sup 
port of which he hath refused his aid and assistr 
ance." 

It is to be further urged in defence of the principle 
of confiscation, that in civil conflicts the right of one 
party to levy upon the other has been generally ad 
mitted ; that the practice has frequently accorded 
with the theory ; and, what is still more to the pur 
pose, that the royal party and king s generals exer 
cised that right during the struggle. Thus, then, 
the seizure and confiscation of property in the Rev 
olution was not the act of one side merely, but of 
both. 

But, as has been remarked, there was not with us. 
as there commonly has been in similar outbreaks, a 
transition- period between the throwing off of one gov 
ernment and the establishment of another ; and the 
regret that was expressed with regard to the indis 
criminate banishment of persons, is equally applica 
ble to the disposal of their estates ; and I cannot but 
feel, that, inasmuch as the Whigs when compared 
with other revolutionists, " were without spot or 
wrinkle, or any such thing," so they will be held 
to a stricter accountability by those who shall here 
after speak of them ; and that we shall be asked 
to show for them, why, with tribunals established 
and open for the trial of prizes made upon the sea, 
the fundamental rule of civilized society, that no 
person shall be deprived of "property but by the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 



87 



judgment of his peers/ was violated ; and why, 
without being " confronted by witnesses," and with 
out the verdict of a " jury " and decrees of a 
court, any man in America was divested of his 
lands. 




CHAPTER X. 

The Course of the " Violent Whigs " towards the Loyalists, at the Peace, 
discussed and condemned. 

AT the peace, a majority of the Whigs of several 
of the States committed a great crime. Instead of 
repealing the proscription and banishment acts, as 
justice and good policy required, they manifested a 
spirit to place the humbled and unhappy Loyalists 
beyond the pale of human sympathy. Discrimination 
between the conscientious and pure, and the unprin 
cipled and corrupt, was not perhaps possible during 
the struggle ; but, hostilities at an end, mere loyalty 
should have been forgiven. When, in the civil war be 
tween the Puritans and the Stuarts, the former 
gained the ascendency, and when, at a later period, 
the Commonwealth was established, Cromwell and 
his party wisely determined not to banish nor inflict 
disabilities on their opponents ; and so, too, at the 
restoration of the monarchy, so general was the am 
nesty act in its provisions, that it w r as termed an act 
of oblivion to the friends of Charles, and of grateful 
remembrance to his foes. 1 The happy consequences 
which resulted from the conduct of loth parties and 
in both cases, were before the men of their own 

1 At the restoration of Charles the Second, so general was the adhe 
sion to that monarch, that historians pause to express wonder, and to 
inquire what had become of the Cromwell or Commonwealth men who 
had overturned the monarchy. 



I 

u 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 89 

political and religious sympathies, the Puritans of the 
North, and the Cavaliers of the South, in America. 

All honor to Theodore Sedgwick for staking his 
popularity in behalf of his countrymen who adhered 
to the Crown to Natlianiel_ Greene, for the senti 
ment " that it would be the excess of intolerance to 
persecute men for opinions which, but twenty years 
before, had been the universal belief of every class 
of society ; " to Alexander Hamilton, for his earnest 
and continued efforts to induce the Whigs to forget 
and forgive ; to John Jay, for the letter in which he 
said that he " had no desire to conceal the opinion, 
that, to involve the Tories in indiscriminate punish 
ment and ruin, would be an instance of unnecessary 
rigor and unmanly revenge without a parallel, except 
in the annals of religious rage in times of bigotry 
and blindness ; " to James Iredell, for the " hearty 
wish that the termination of the war could have been 
followed with an oblivion of its offences ; " to Chris 
topher Gadsen and Francis Marion, who, with every 
personal reason to be inexorable, bravely contended 
for the restoration of the rights of tlieir fallen, expa 
triated countrymen. 

In North and South Carolina, the Whigs and Tories 
waged a war of extermination. Seldom enough did 
either party meet in open and fair fight, and give 
and take the courtesies and observe the rules of 
civilized warfare. But these States, at the peace, 
exceeded all the rest in moderation and* mercy. On 
the other hand, Massachusetts, Virginia, and New 
York adopted measures of inexcusable severity. In 
the latter State, such was the violence manifested, 
that, in August, 1783, Sir Guy Carleton wrote to the 



90 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

President of Congress that the Loyalists "conceive 
the safety of their lives depends on my removing 
them ; " that, "as the daily gazettes and publications 
furnish repeated proofs, not only of a disregard to 
the articles of peace, but barbarous menaces from 
committees formed in various towns, cities, and dis 
tricts, and even at Philadelphia, - - the very place 
which the Congress had chosen for their residence, 
I should show an indifference to the feelings of hu 
manity, as well as to the honor and interest of the 
nation whom I serve, to leave any that are desirous 
to quit the country, a prey to the violence they 
conceive they have so much cause to apprehend." 
From another source, it appears that, when the 
news of peace was known, the city of New York 
presented a scene of distress not easily described ; 
that adherents to the Crown, who were in the army, 
tore the lappels from their coats and stamped them 
under their feet, and exclaimed that they were 
ruined ; that others cried out they had sacrificed 
everything to prove their loyalty, and w^ere now 
left to shift for themselves, without the friendship of 
their king or their country. Previous to the evacua 
tion, and in September, upwards of twelve thousand 
men, women, and children embarked at the city, at 
Long and Staten Islands, for Nova Scotia and the 
Bahamas. Some of these victims to civil war tried 
to make merry at their doom, by saying that they 
were " bound to a lovely country, where there are 
nine months winter and three months cold weather 
every year ; " while others, in their desperation, tore 
down their houses, and, had they not been prevented, 
would have carried off the bricks of which they were 
built. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 91 

Those who came North landed at Port Roseway 
(now Shelburne) and St. John, where many, utterly 
destitute, were supplied with food at the public 
charge, and were obliged to live in huts built of bark 
and rough boards. 

These volumes contain the names of most who 
embarked in the " September fleet " for Nova Scotia, 
and of many who wont to that province and to Can 
ada subsequently. 

Among the banished ones thus doomed to misery 
were persons whoso hearts and hopes had been as 
true as Washington s own ; for, in the divisions of 
families which everywhere occurred, and which 
formed one of the most distressing circumstances of 
the conflict, there were wives and daughters, who, 
although bound to Loyalists by the holiest ties, had 
given their sympathies to the right from the - begin 
ning; and who now, in the triumph of the cause 
which had had their prayers, went meekly - - as 
woman ever meets a sorrowful lot into hopeless, 
interminable exile. 

1 have stood at the graves of some of these wives 
and daughters, and have listened to the accounts of 
the living, in shame and anger. If, as Jefferson 
said, separation from England was " contemplated with 
affliction by all ; " if, as John Adams testified, Whigs 
like himself " would have given everything they 
possessed for a restoration to the state of things 
before the contest began, provided they could have 
had a sufficient security for its continuance ; " and on 
the ground of policy alone, how ill-judged the mea 
sures that caused the settlement of the hitherto nei*;- 

o 

lected possessions of England in this hemisphere, 



92 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Nova Scotia. By causing the expatriation of many 
thousands of our countrymen, among whom were the 
well-educated, the ambitious, and the versed in poli 
tics, we became the founders of two agricultural and 
commercial Colonies ; for it is to be remembered, that 
New Brunswick formed a part of Nova Scotia until 
1784, and that the necessity of the division then 
made was of our own creation. In like manner we 
became the founders of Upper Canada. The Loyal 
ists were the first settlers of the territory thus de 
nominated by the act of 1791 ; l and the principal 
object of the line of division of Canada, as estab 
lished by Mr. Pitt, was to place them as a body by 
themselves, and to allow them to be governed by 
laws more congenial than those which were deemed 
requisite for the government of the French on the 
St. Lawrence. For twenty years the country border 
ing on the great lakes was decidedly American. 

Dearly enough have the people of the United 
States paid for the crime of the " violent Whigs " of 
the Revolution ; for, to the Loyalists who were driven 
away and to their descendants, we owe almost en 
tirely the long and bitter controversy relative to our 
northeastern boundary, and the dispute about our 
right to the fisheries in the Colonial seas. 

The mischief all done, thousands ruined and ban 
ished, new British colonies founded, animosities to 
continue for generations made certain, the "violent 

1 It was in a debate on this bill that Fox and Burke severed the ties of 
friendship which had existed between them for a long period. The scene 
was one of the most interesting that had ever occurred in the House of 
Commons. Fox, overcome by his emotions, wept aloud. Burke s pre 
vious course with regard to the French Revolution had rendered a rupture 
at some time probable, perhaps certain. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 93 

Whigs " of Massachusetts, New York, and Virginia, 
were satisfied ; all this accomplished, and the statute- 
book was divested of its most objectionable enact 
ments, and a few of the Loyalists returned to their 
old homes: but by far the greater part died in ban 
ishment. 



CHAPTER XI. 

Discussions at Paris between the Commissioners for concluding Terms of 
Peace, on the Question of Compensation to the Loyalists for their Losses 
(luring the War, by Confiscation and otherwise. Reasons why Congress 
refused to make Recompense, stated and defended. The Provisions 
of the Treaty unsatisfactory in this Particular. The Parties interested 
appeal to Parliament. Debates in the Lords and Commons. The 
Recommendation of Congress to the States to afford Relief in certain 
Cases, disregarded. 

THE subject of restitution and compensation to the 
Loyalists, was a source of great difficulty during the 
negotiations for peace. The course of the matter 
may be learned better from the negotiators them 
selves, than from any words of mine ; and I there 
fore make some extracts from the Journal of Mr. 
Adams/ who was one of them : 

1 The full conversations occupy several pages of Mr. Adams s Journal. 
Tn making these Extracts, I have always given the substance of what was 
said ; but I have sometimes compressed a passage, or changed a word. 

The Articles of the Treaty which relate to the Loyalists are the fourth, 
;fifth, and sixth : 

ART. 4. " It is agreed, That Creditors on either side shall meet with 
no lawful impediment to the recovery of the full value in sterling money 
of all bond fide debts heretofore contracted." 

AIIT. 5. " It is agreed, That the Congress shall earnestly recommend 
it to the Legislatures of the respective States, to provide for the Res 
titution of all Estates, Rights, and Properties which have been confis 
cated, belonging to real British subjects ; and also of the Estates, Rights 
and Properties of those Persons, residents in Districts in Possession of his 
Majesty s Arms, and who have not borne arms against the said United 
States ; and that Persons of any other description shall have free liberty 
to go to any part or parts of any of the Thirteen United States, and 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 95 

November 3d, 1782. Dr. Franklin, on Tuesday last, told 
me of Mr. Oswald s demand of payment of debts, and com 
pensation to the Tories ; he said his answer had been, we had 
not the power, nor had Congress. I told him I had no notion 
of cheating anybody. The question of paying debts, and 
compensating, were two. I had made the same observation 
that forenoon to Mr. Oswald and Mr. Stracliey." 

November 10. [Mr. Adams waited on Count Vergennes.] 
" The Count asked me how we went on with the English. I 
told him we divided on the Tories and the Penobscot. The 
Count remarked that the English wanted the country there 
4 for masts. I told him I thought there were few masts there ; 
but that I fancied it was not masts, but Tories, that again 
made the difficulty. Some of them claimed lands in the terri 
tory, and others hoped for grants there." 

November 11. " Mr. Whiteford, the secretary of Mr. 

therein to remain Twelve Months unmolested in their endeavors to obtain 
the Restitution of such of their Estates, Rights, and Properties, as may 
have been confiscated ; and that Congress shall also earnestly recommend 
to the several States, a Reconsideration and Revision of all Acts or Laws 
regarding the Premises, so as to render the said Laws or Acts perfectly 
consistent, not only with Justice and Equity, but with that spirit of Con 
ciliation, which, on the return of the blessings of Peace, should univer 
sally prevail. And that the Congress shall also earnestly recommend to 
the several States, that the Estates, Rights, and Properties of such last- 
mentioned Persons shall be restored to them, they refunding to any Per 
sons who may be now in possession, the bond fide price (where any has 
been given) which such Persons may have paid on purchasing any of the 
said Lands, Rights, or Properties, since the Confiscation. And it is 
agreed, That all Persons who have any Interests in Confiscated Lands, 
either by Debts, Marriage Settlements, or otherwise, shall meet with no 
lawful impediment in prosecution of their just Rights." 

ART. 6. " That there shall be no future Confiscations made, nor 
any Prosecutions commenced against any Person or Persons for or by 
reason of the Part which he or they may have taken in the present War; 
and that no Person shall on that account suffer any future Loss or Dam 
age, either in his Person, Liberty, or Property ; and that those who may 
be in confinement on such charges at the Time of the Ratification of the 
Treaty in America, shall be immediately set at liberty, and the Prosecu 
tions so commenced be discontinued." 




96 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Oswald, came. We soon fell into politics. [Mr. Adams said] 
Suppose a French minister foresees that the presence of the 
Tories in America will keep up perpetually two parties, a 
French party and an English party." " The French minister 
at Philadelphia has made some representations to Congress in 
favor of compensation to the Royalists. We are instructed 
against it, or rather have no authority to do it ; and if Con 
gress should refer the matter to the several States, every one 
of them, after a delay, probably of eighteen months, will 
determine against it." 

November 15. " Mr. Oswald came to visit me. He said, 
if he were a member of Congress, he would say to the refu 
gees, Take your property ; we scorn to make any use of it 
in building up our system. I replied, that we had no power, 
and Congress no power ; that if we sent the proposition of 
compensation to Congress, they would refer it to the States ; 
and that, meantime, you must carry on the Avar six or nine 
months, certainly, for this compensation, and consequently 
spend, in the prosecution of it, six or nine times the sum 
necessary to make the compensation ; for I presume this war 
costs, every month, to Great Britain, a larger sum than would 
be necessary to pay for the forfeited estates." 

November 17. " Mr. Vaughan carne to me ; he said Mr. 
Fitzherbert had received a letter from Mr. Townshend, that 
the compensation would be insisted on." 

November 18. " Returned Mr. Oswald s visit. We went 
over the old ground concerning the Tories. He began to use 
arguments with me to relax. I told him he must not think 
of that, but must bend all his thoughts to convince and per 
suade his court to give it up ; that if the terms now before 
his court were not accepted, the whole negotiation would be 
broken off." 

November 25. " Dr. Franklin, Mr. Jay, and myself, met 
at Mr. Oswald s lodgings. Mr. Strachey told us he had 
been to London, and waited personally on every one of the 
king s cabinet council, and had communicated the last propo 
sitions to them. They, every one of them, unanimously con- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 97 

demned that respecting the Tories ; so that that unhappy 
affair stuck, as lie foresaw and foretold it would." 

November 26. [Dr. Franklin, Mr. Jay, and Mr. Adams] 
u in consultation upon the propositions made us yesterday by 
Mr. Oswald. We agreed unanimously to answer him, that 
we could not consent to the article respecting the refuo-ees, as 
it now stands. The rest of the day was spent in endless dis 
cussions about the Tories. Dr. Franklin is very staunch 
against them ; more decided, a great deal, on this point, than 
Mr. Jay or myself." 

November 27. " Mr. Benjamin Vaughan came in, returned 
from London, where he had seen Lord Shelburne. He says, 
he finds the ministry much embarrassed with the Tories, and 
exceedingly desirous of saving their honor and reputation in 
this point ; that it is reputation, more than money," &c. 

November 29. " Met Mr. Fitzherbert, Mr. Oswald, Dr. 
Franklin, Mr. Jay, Mr. Laurens, and Mr. Strachey, and spent 
the whole day in discussions about the fishery and the Tories. 
Mr. Fitzherbert, Mr. Oswald, and Mr. Strachey retired for 
some time ; and, returning, Mr. Fitzherbert said, that Mr. 
Strachey and himself had- determined to advise Mr. Oswald 
to strike with us according to the terms proposed as our ulti 
matum, respecting the fishery and the Loyalists. We agreed 
to meet to-morrow, to sign and seal the treaties." 

Besides the want of power in Congress to make 
the demanded recompense to the Loyalists, as stated 
in these extracts, there were other objections, and 
some quite as serious. First, many of them, by their 
falsehoods, misrepresentations, and bad counsels to 
the ministry, had undoubtedly done much to bring 
on and protract the war ; so that, in a good measure 
at least, it was just to charge them with being the 
authors of their own sufferings. In the second place, 
those of them who had borne arms, and assisted to 
ravage and burn the towns on different parts of the 

VOL. I. 9 



98 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

coast, or had plundered the defenceless families of 
the interior settlements, should have made, rather 
than received, compensation. Thirdly, to restore the 
identical property of any had become nearly impos 
sible, as it had been sold, and, in many cases, divided 
among purchasers, and could only be wrested by ple 
nary means from the present possessors. Fourthly, 
the country was in no condition to pay those who 
had toiled and bled for its emancipation, or even to 
make good a tithe of the losses which they had suf 
fered in consequence of the war ; much less was there 
the ability to adjust the accounts of enemies, whether 
domestic or foreign. The Loyalists, as a body, looked 
upon the subjugation of the Whigs as almost certain, 
to the last; and their delegates in New York even 
went so far as to entertain a plan for the government 
of the Colonies, whenever their day of triumph should 
come. If that day had arrived, how would the Whigs 
have fared at their hands ? Would the claims of thou 
sands who expended their estates in the cause of 
liberty, and who had no shelter for their heads, have 
been allowed ? 

Grounds somewhat similar to those which I have 
assumed, induced Congress, very probably, to instruct 
their commissioners to enter into no engagements 
respecting the Americans who adhered to the Crown, 
unless Great Britain would stipulate, on her part, to 
make compensation for the property which had been 
destroyed by persons in her service. With this in 
junction the commissioners found it impracticable to 
comply, inasmuch as the} deemed it necessary to 
admit into the treaty a provision to the effect, that 
Congress should recommend to the several States to 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 99 

provide for the restitution of certain of the confis 
cated estates ; that certain persons should be allowed 
a year to endeavor to recover their estates ; that per 
sons having rights in confiscated lands should have 
the privilege of pursuing all lawful means to regain 
them ; and that Congress should use its recommenda 
tory power to cause the States to revoke or recon 
sider their confiscation laws. Congress unanimously 
assented to this arrangement, and unanimously issued 
the recommendation to the States, which the treaty 
contemplated. 

These terms were very unsatisfactory, and loud 
clamors arose in Parliament and elsewhere. In the 
House of Commons, Mr. Wilberforce said, that "when 
he considered the case of the Loyalists, he confessed 
he there felt himself conquered ; there he saw his 
country humiliated ; he saw her at the feet of Amer 
ica : still he was induced to believe, that Congress 
would religiously comply with the article, and that 
the Loyalists would obtain redress from America." 
Lord North said, that "never were the honor, the 
principles, the policy of a nation, so grossly abused as 
in the desertion of those men, who are now exposed 
to every punishment that desertion and poverty can 
inflict, because they were not rebels." Lord Mul- 
grave declared, that " the article respecting the Loy 
alists he could never regard but as a lasting mon 
ument of national disgrace." Mr. Burke said, that 
"a vast number of the Loyalists had been deluded 
by England, and had risked everything, and that, to 
such men, the nation owed protection, and its honor 
was pledged for their security at all hazards." Mr. 
Sheridan " execrated the treatment of those unfortu- 



100 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

nate men, who, without the least notice taken of their 
civil and religions rights, were handed over as sub 
jects to a power that would not fail to take vengeance 
on them for their zeal and attachment to the religion 
and government of the mother-country ; " and he 
denounced as a " crime," the cession of the Amer 
icans who had adhered to the Crown, " into the hands 
of their enemies, and delivering them over to confis 
cation, tyranny, resentment, and oppression." Mr. 
Norton said, that " he could not give his assent to 
the treaty on account of the article which related to 
the Loyalists." Sir Peter Burrell considered, that 
"the fate of these unhappy subjects claimed the com 
passion of every human breast; for they had been 
abandoned by the ministers, and were left at the 
mercy of a Congress highly irritated against them." 
Sir Wilbraham Beetle s "heart bled for the Loyalists; 
they had fought and had run every hazard for Eng 
land, and, at a moment when they had a claim to the 
greatest protection, they had been deserted." Mr. 
Macdonald " forbore to dwell upon the case of these 
men, as an assembly of human beings could scarcely 
trust their judgments, when so powerful an attack 
was made upon their feelings." 

In the House of Lords, the opposition was quite 
as violent. Lord Walsingham said, that " he could 
neither think nor speak of the dishonor of leaving 
these deserving people to their fate, with patience." 
Lord Viscount Townshend considered, that, " to desert 
men who had constantly adhered to loyalty and at 
tachment, was a circumstance of such cruelty as had 
never before been heard of." Lord Stormont said, 
that "Britain was bound in justice and honor, grat- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 101 

itiitle and affection, and every tie, to provide for and 
protect them/ Lord Sackville regarded;^ the ab^iv 
donment of the Loyalists as a tame: of so, atrocious 
a kind, that, if it had not been alreudy paintefl- In- all 
its horrid colors, he should have attempted the ungra 
cious task, but never should have been able to describe 
the cruelty in language as strong and expressive as 
were his feelings;" and again, that "a peace founded 
on the sacrifice of these unhappy subjects, must be 
accursed in the sight of God and man." Lord Lough- 
borough said, " that the fifth article of the treaty had 
excited a general and just indignation;" and that 
neither "in ancient nor modern history had there 
been so shameful a desertion of men who had sacri 
ficed all to their duty, and to their reliance upon 
British faith." 

Such attacks as these did not, of course, pass with 
out replies in both Houses. The nature of the de 
fence of the friends of the ministry will sufficiently 
appear, by the remarks of the minister himself. 
Lord Shelburne frankly admitted, that the Loyalists 
were left without better provision being made for 
them, "from the unhappy nccesidij of public affairs, 
which induced the extremity of submitting the fate 
of their property to the discretion of their enemies." 
And he continued, " I have but one answer to give 
the House ; it is the answer 1 gave my own bleeding 
heart. A part must be wounded, that the whole of the 
empire may not perish. If better terms could be had, 
think you, my Lord, that I would not have embraced 
them ? I had but the alternative either to accept the terms 
proposed, or continue the war" The Lord Chancellor 
parried the assaults of the opposition with other 

9* 



102 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

weapons. He declared, that the stipulations of the 
treaty are -^"specific," and, said he, " my own conscious 
honor- will not allow me to doubt the good faith of 
others, and 1 my good wishes to the Loyalists will not 
let me indiscreetly doubt the dispositions of Con- 
oress," since the understanding is, that " all these 
unhappy men shall be provided for ; " yet, if it were 
not so, " Parliament could take cognizance of their 
case, and impart to each suffering individual that 
relief which reason, perhaps policy, certainly virtue 
and religion, required." 

It was not expected, probably, by the British gov 
ernment, that the " recommendation " of Congress 
to the States would produce any effect. In 1778, 
and after the evacuation of Philadelphia, the urgent 
request of Congress to repeal the severe enact 
ments against the adherents of the Crown and to 
restore their confiscated property, had been disre 
garded ; and a similar desire at the conclusion of hos 
tilities, though made for different reasons, it could 
not have been supposed would be more successful. 
^Indeed, the idea that the States would refuse compli 
ance, and that Parliament would be required to make 
the Loyalists some compensation for their losses, seems 
to have been entertained from the first. Lord Shel- 
burne, in the speech from which I have just quoted, 
remarked, that, "without one drop of blood spilt, and with 
out one fifth of the expense of one year s campaign, happi 
ness and case can be given to them in as ample a manner as 
these blessings were ever in their enjoyment" He could 
have meant nothing less by this language than that, 
by putting an end to the war, the empire saved both 
life and treasure, even though the amount of money 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 103 

required to place the Loyalists in "happiness and 
ease," should amount to some millions : and the Lord 
Chancellor, it may he observed, hinted at compensa 
tion as the remedy, provided the "recommendation" 
of Congress should not result favorably. Besides, 
during the negotiation of the treaty, it appears to 
have been considered by the commissioners on both 
sides, that each party to the contest must bear its 
own losses and provide for its own sufferers. But, 
whatever were the expectations at Paris or in Lon 
don, all uncertainty was soon at an end. A number 
of Loyalists who were in England, came to the United 
States to claim restitution of their estates, but their 
applications were unheeded, and some of them were 
imprisoned, and afterwards banished. 



CHAPTER XII. 

The Loyalists apply to Parliament for Relief. The King in his Speech 
recommends Attention to their Claims. Commissioners appointed. 
Complaints of the Loyalists on various Grounds. Number of Claim 
ants, and Schedules of their Losses. Delay of the Commissioners in 
adjusting Claims, and Distresses in Consequence. Discussion in Parlia 
ment. Final Number of Claimants, Final Amount of Schedules, and 
Final Award. In the Appeals to their Respective Governments, the 
Loyalists, fared better than the Whigs. 

THE claimants now applied to the government 
which they had ruined themselves to ".serve ; and 
many of them, who had hitherto been "Kefugees in 
different parts of America, went to England to state, 
and to recover payment for, their losses. They or 
ganized an agency, and appointed a committee, com 
posed of one delegate or agent from each of the 
thirteen States, to enlighten the British public, and 
adopt measures of procedure in securing the atten 
tion and action of the ministry in their behalf. In a 
tract, 1 printed by order of these agents, it is main 
tained, that " it is an established rule, that all sacrifices 
made by individuals for the benefit or accommodation 
of others, shall be equally sustained by all those who 
partake of it ; " and numerous cases are cited from 
Puffendorf, Burlamaqui, and Yattel, to show that the 
" sacrifices " of the Loyalists were embraced in this 
principle. As a further ground of claim, it is stated, 

1 " The Case and Claim of the American Loyalists, impartially stated 
and considered," published in 1 783. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 105 

that, in the case of territory alienated or ceded awav 
by one sovereign power to another, the rule is still 
applicable; for that, in treatises of international law. 
it is held, "the State ought to indemnify the subject 
for the loss he has sustained beyond his own propor 
tion." The conclusion arrived at from the precedents 
found in history and diplomacy, and in the statute- 
book of the realm, is, that, as the Loyalists were as 
" perfectly subjects of the British State as any man 
in London or Middlesex," they \vere entitled to the 
same protection and relief. The claimants, said the 
writers of the tract, had been " called on by their 
sovereign, when surrounded by tumult and rebellion, 
to defend the supreme rights of the nation, and to 
assist in suppressing a rebellion which aimed at their 
destruction. They have received from the highest 
authority the "most solemn assurances of protection, 
and even reward for their meritorious services ;" and 
that "his Majesty and the two Houses of Parliament 
having thought it necessary, as the price of peace. 
or to the interest and safety of the empire, or 
from some other motive of public convenience, to 
ratify the independence of America, without securing 
aw i restitution whatever to the Loyalists, they conceive 
that the nation is bound, as well by the fundament 
al laws of society as by the invariable and eternal 
principles of natural justice, to make them a compen 
sation." 

At the opening of Parliament, the king, in his 
speech from the throne, alluded to the "American 
sufferers" who, from "motives of loyalty to him, or 
attachment to the mother-country, had relinquished 
their properties or professions," and trusted, he said, 



106 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

that generous attention would be shown to them." 
Both parties assented to the suggestion ; and a mo 
tion was made early in the session for leave to bring 
in a bill, "For appointing Commissioners to inquire 
into the Circumstances and former Fortunes of such 
Persons as are reduced to Distress by the late un 
happy Dissensions in America." Leave was given ; 
but in fixing the details of the bill, there was some 
difficulty and considerable debate. The measure was 
finally made agreeable to all, and was adopted with 
out opposition. The act, as passed, created a Board 
of Commissioners, who were empowered to examine 
all persons presenting claims under oath, to send for 
books, papers, and records ; and who were directed 
to report all such as fraudulently claimed a greater 
amount than they had lost, in order that they should 
be deprived of all compensation whatever. 

The first thing to be ascertained by the commis 
sioners was the k( loyalty and conduct of the claim 
ants." In their first report, they divided them into 
six classes, 1 and very properly placed the apostates 
from the Whigs in the last ; but no difference was 
finally made on account of the time or circumstances 
of adhering to the cause of the Crown, and all, with 
out reference to differences in merit, who were able 
to establish losses, shared alike. 

1 First. Class. Those who had rendered services to Great Britain. 

Second Class. Those who had borne arms for Great Britain. 

Third Class. Uniform Loyalists. 

Fourth Class. Loyal British subjects resident in Great Britain. 

Fifth Class. Loyalists who had taken oaths to the American States, but 
afterwards joined the British. 

^t.cth Class. Loyalists who had borne arms for the American States, 
but afterwards joined the British navy or army. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 107 

The claimants were required to state in proper 
form every species of loss which they had suffered, 
and for which the// thought they had a right to receive 
compensation. In making up their schedules a<>Tee- 
ably to this rule, some sufferers claimed for losses 
which others did not ; and, in adjusting the claims, 
the disproportion between the sum asked and the 
sum allowed was often very large. A few r received 
their whole demands, without the deduction of a shil 
ling, while others received pounds only where they 
had demanded hundreds ; and a third class obtained 
nothing, having been excluded by inability to prove 
their losses, or deprived of the sum which they could 
prove, by attempts to obtain allowance for claims 
which the commissioners reported upon as fraudu 
lent, in accordance with the provisions of the act. 
The rigid rules enforced, which it would seem applied 
to all claimants, created much murmuring. The 
mode pursued of examining the claimant and the wit 
nesses in his behalf, separately and apart, was branded 
with severe epithets, and the commission was called 
an " Inquisition." With all the caution which it was 
possible for the commissioners to exercise, men who 
did not really lose a single penny, who were entirely 
destitute of property when the war began, and to 
whom hostilities were actually beneficial by affording 
pay and employment, were placed in comfortable cir 
cumstances and stories which show the plans and 
schemes that were devised to bailie the rigid scrutiny 
of the board are still repeated. 

The 26th of March, 1784, was the latest period for 
presenting claims which was allowed ; and on or be 
fore that day, the number of claimants was two thou- 



108 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

sand and sixty-three, and the property alleged to 
have been lost was, according to their schedules, the 
alarming sum of 7,046,278, besides debts to the 
amount of 2,354,135. The second report, which 
was made in December of the same year, shows that 
one hundred and twenty-eight additional cases had 
been disposed of, and that for 693,257 claimed, the 
total allowance was only 150,935. Much the same 
difference is to be seen in the succeeding one hun 
dred and twenty-two cases, which were disposed of in 
May and July of 1785, and in which 253,613 were 
allowed for 898,196 claimed. In April, 1786, the 
fifth report announced that one hundred and forty- 
two other claims, to the amount of 733,311, had 
been liquidated at 250,506. The commissioners 
proceeded with their investigations during the years 
1786 and 1787. Meantime, South Carolina had re 
stored the estates of several of her Loyalists, and 
caused the withdrawal of the claims of their owners, 
except that, in instances of alleged strip and waste, 
amercement, and similar losses, inquiries were insti 
tuted to ascertain the value of what was taken, com 
pared with that which was returned. 

On the 5th of April, 1788, the commissioners in 
England had heard and determined one thousand six 
hundred and eighty claims (besides those withdrawn), 
and had liquidated the same at 1,887,548. Perhaps 
no greater despatch was possible, but the delay caused 
great complaint. The king, his ministers, and Par 
liament were addressed and petitioned, either on the 
general course pursued by the commissioners, or on 
some subject connected with the Loyalist claims. 
Letters and communications appeared in the news- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 109 

papers, and the public attention was again awakened 
by the publication of essays and tracts which renewed 
the statements made in 1783 of the losses, services, 
and sacrifices of the claimants. Two years previously 
(1786), the agents of the Loyalists had invoked Par 
liament to hasten the final action upon the claims of 
their constituents in a petition drawn up with care 
and ability. " It is impossible to describe," are words 
which occur in this document, " the poignant distress 
under which many of these persons now labor, and 
which must daily increase, should the justice of Par 
liament be delayed until all the claims are liquidated 
and reported ; . . . . ten years have elapsed since 
many of them have been deprived of their fortunes, 
and, with their helpless families, reduced from inde 
pendent affluence to poverty and want ; some of them 
now languishing in British jails, others indebted to 
their creditors, who have lent them money barely to 
support their existence, and who, unless speedily re 
lieved, must sink more than the value of their claims 
when received, and be in a worse condition than if 
they had never made them ; others have already 
sunk under the pressure and severity of their misfor 
tunes ; and others must, in all probability, soon meet 
the same melancholy fate, should the justice due to 
them be longer postponed. But that, on the contra 
ry, should provision be now made for payment of 
those whose claims have been settled "and reported, it 
will not only relieve them from their distress, but 
give a credit to the others whose claims remain to be 
considered, and enable all of them to provide for 
their wretched families, and become again useful 
members of society." This vivid picture of the con- 

VOL. I. 10 



110 HISTOPJCAL ESSAY. 

dition of those who waited the tardy progress made 
in the final adjustment of their losses is possibly 
highly colored. Mr. Pitt had introduced and carried 
through, in 1785, a bill for the distribution of 150,- 
000 among the claimants ; but as that sum, it was 
held, was to be applied to a distinct class, namely, 
to those who had lost " property," and to neither those 
who had lost " life-estate " in property, nor to those 
who had lost " income," it is not improbable that 
many of these classes were at this time greatly in 
want of the relief which their agents so earnestly 
implored the government to aiford. 

A tract 1 printed in 1788, which was attributed to 
Galloway, a Loyalist of Pennsylvania, presses the 
claims and merits of the sufferers with much point 
and vigor, and rebukes the injustice of neglecting 
and deferring payment of the compensation con 
ceded on all hands to be due them, with singular 
spirit and boldness, and states their situation in the 
following forcible language : " It is well known," 
says the writer, " that this delay of justice has pro 
duced the most melancholy and shocking events. A 
number of the sufferers have been driven by it into 
insanity, and become their own destroyers, leaving 
behind them their helpless widows and orphans to 
subsist upon the cold charity of strangers. Others 
have been sent to cultivate a wilderness for their 
subsistence, without having the means, and compelled 
through want to throw themselves on the mercy of 
the American States and the charity of their former 
friends, to support the life which might have been 

1 " The Claim of the American Loyalist reviewed and maintained upon 
incontrovertible Principles of Law and Justice." 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. Ill 

made comfortable by the money long since due from 
the British Government ; and many others, with 
their families, are barely subsisting upon a temporary 
allowance from government,, a mere pittance when 
compared with the sum due to them." 

The commissioners submitted their eleventh Report 
in April of the year in which this statement was 
made ; and Mr. Pitt, in the month following, gave 
way to the pressing importunities of the claimants, 
to allow their grievances to be discussed in Parlia 
ment. Twelve years had elapsed since the property 
of most of them had been alienated under the con 
fiscation acts, and five, since their title to recompense 
had been recognized by the law under which their 
claims had been presented. 

The minister, meantime, by frequent conferences 
with the commissioners, had made himself familiar 
with all the points involved and requiring considera 
tion, and, in expressing his views, raised three ques 
tions : first, whether there should be any deduction 
made from the value put upon the estates to be paid 
for ; secondly, if any, what the deduction should he ; 
and, thirdly, what compensation should be made to 
the Loyalists who had lost their incomes by losing 
their offices and professions. In his speech, Mr. Pitt 
laid down as the basis of his plan, that, however 
strong might be the claims of either class, neither 
should regard the relief to be extended as due on 
principles " of right and strict justice." In proceed 
ing with his remarks, he proposed to pay all of six 
designated classes, who consisted of thirteen hundred 
and sixty-four persons, whose liquidated losses did 
not exceed ten thousand pounds each, the full amount 



112 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

reported by the commissioners ; while, increasing the 
rate of discount with the increase of losses, he pro 
posed a deduction of ten per cent, on the losses (of 
persons of these six classes) between ten and thirty- 
five thousand pounds, and of fifteen per cent, on 
those between thirty-five and fifty thousand, and of 
twenty per cent, on those exceeding fifty thousand ; 
casting, however, these several rates of deduction 
only on the differences between ten thousand pounds 
and the amounts lost as reported by the commission 
ers. 1 With regard to persons of another description, 
whose losses had been caused principally, if not 
entirely, by deprivation of official or professional in 
come, he submitted a plan of pensions. 2 

After this adjustment, several additional claims 
were presented, examined, and allowed ; and, upon 
the settlement of the whole matter, it appeared that 
the number of claimants in England, Nova Scotia. 
New Brunswick, and Canada, was five thousand and 
seventy-two, of whom nine hundred and fifty-four 
withdrew or failed to prosecute their claims ; that the 
amount of losses, according to the schedules rendered, 
was 8,026,045, of which the sum of 3,292,452 was 
allowed. 3 The Loyalists, then, were well cared for. 

1 This plan was objected to by the Loyalists, and their reasons were 
transmitted to Mr. Pitt, in a document of some length. 

2 The number of these persons was two hundred and four; amount of 
income lost, 80,000 ; pensions granted, 25,785. 

3 The principal facts with regard to the compensation of the Loyalists 
arc derived from a " Historical View of the Commission," c., by John 
Eardley Wilmot, Esq., one of the commissioners. In the aggregate amount 
claimed, there seems some discrepancy. According to the summary of Mr. 
Wilmot, made in March, 1 790, " the claims preferred " were 10,358,413 ; 
whereas, in a table from which I take the statistics above, the amount is 
stated at 8,026,045. Again, in March, 1790, it is said by Mr. Wilmot, 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 113 

Whatever were the miseries to individuals occasioned 
hy delay ; whatever the injury sustained by those 
who were unable to procure sufficient evidence of 
their losses ; and whatever were the wrongs inflicted 
upon others by the errors in judgment on the part 
of the commissioners, the Americans who took the 
royal side, as a body, fared infinitely better than the 
great body of the Whigs, whose services and sacrifices 
were quite as great; for, besides the allowance of 
fifteen and a half millions of dollars in money, num 
bers received considerable annuities, half-pay as mili 
tary officers, large grants of land, and shared with 
other subjects in the patronage of the Crown. 

that the number of " claims preferred in England and Nova Scotia was 
three thousand two hundred and twenty-five, of which were examined two 
thousand two hundred and ninety-one, disallowed three hundred and forty- 
two, withdrawn thirty-eight, not prosecuted five hundred and fifty-three ; " 
that the amount of claims allowed was 3,033,091 ; whereas, in the table 
which I have followed as giving a later and final view, the claims examined 
are stated at four thousand one hundred and eighteen, and the amount 
allowed at the sum in the text ; from which it follows, that one thousand 
eight hundred and twenty-seven persons recovered only the difference 
between 3,292,455 and 3,033,91, or the small sum of 259,364. 



10* 



CHAPTER XIII. 

The Banished Loyalists and their Descendants. Progress of Whig Princi 
ples in the Canadas, in New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia. The whole 
System of Monopoly on which the Colonial System was founded and 
maintained, surrendered. The Colonists now manufacture what they 
will, buv where they please, and sell where they can. England her 
self has pronounced the Vindication of the Whigs. The Heir to the 
British Throne at Mount Yernon and Bunker Hill. The Colonists 
claim to hold the highest Places in the Government, in the Army, and 
in the Navy. Effects of the Change of Policy. The Children of the 
Whirls and of the Loyalists, reconciled. 

WE are now to discuss the political changes in the 
Colonies to which the banishment and confiscation 
acts during the war. and the hostile feeling at the 
peace, compelled large bodies of Loyalists to retire. 
When, in 1821, in ignorance and poverty, I went to 
the eastern frontier, I saw in wonder that, across the 
border, natives of Massachusetts and graduates of her 
ancient university, with exiles from other States, had 
reestablished the Colonial system of government with 
hardly a modification ; and, young as I was, well did 
I mark the administration of affairs. Indeed, as I 
read and inquired, I almost imagined that I was 
actually living in ante-revolutionary times. For some 
years, no political changes of moment occurred : but, 
in the course of events, important concessions were 
demanded ; and, finally, the whole system of monop 
oly on which the system is founded, was abandoned, 
as I purpose to relate so fully as my limits will allow. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 115 

In 1783, the French at Quebec and Montreal, and 
the English at Halifax, were few in numbers, and 
generally poor and ignorant ; while the countries 
now called Canada West and New Brunswick, were 
almost unbroken forests. 

Canada claims our first attention. As was predicted 
by wise statesmen in 1763, the French possessions 
then acquired have caused England great disquiet 
and immense expenditures. After the conquest, and 
before the cession by treaty, an exciting discussion 
arose, whether, as the ministry had the option be 
tween Canada and Guadaloupe, they should not restore 
to France the former, and retain the latter. The fear 
was, that, if Canada were kept, the thirteen Colonies, 
rid of all apprehensions from the French, would in 
crease too rapidly, and, in the end, throw off their 
dependence on the mother country. This view was 
supported in a tract supposed to be from the pen of 
one of the Burkes ; and was answered by Franklin, 
in his happiest and ablest manner. The ministry, 
having resolved to keep Canada, organized a military 
government ; and the king, by proclamation, an 
nounced his intention of granting, as soon as circum 
stances would permit, a legislative assembly. That 
this promise was not redeemed for twenty-eight years 
was an error in policy, and a breach of royal faith. 
For a time, officers of the army were both governors 
and judges. Abuses, at last, became so serious as to 
attract the notice of the Crown. The change which 
followed gave much offence to the Whigs of the 
thirteen Colonies, and is mentioned in the Declara 
tion of Independence. 

In 1791, Mr. Pitt, in opposition to Fox and other 



116 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

British Whigs, carried through Parliament a bill which 
divided Canada into two provinces, and which pro 
vided for a better administration of affairs than had 
ever existed. It was in the debate on this measure, 
that Burke and Fox severed the ties which had 
bound them together for a long period. 

Tolerable harmony prevailed in Canada for a num 
ber of years. The first dispute of consequence im 
mediately preceded the war of 1812 ; when the 
Assembly demanded that the judges should vacate 
their seats as legislators, and confine themselves to 
their judicial duties. A sharp contest followed. The 
Governor dissolved the Assembly; but his conduct 
was not approved in England, and he was removed. 
The appointment of the popular Sir George Prevost, 
and the war with the United States, hushed for awhile 
the clamors of the discontented. At the peace, how 
ever, when Prevost relinquished the executive chair 
to Sir George Gordon Drummond, a second quarrel 
arose between the judges and a new House of Assem 
bly ; and two occupants of the bench were impeached. 
Drummond was succeeded by the excellent Sir John 
C. Sherbroke, under w-hose rule there w r as a period of 
quiet. On his retirement, his successor, the Duke of 
Richmond, abandoned the practice of submitting to 
the Assembly an estimate in detail of the sums of 
money required for each branch of the public service ; 
and thus added another element of discord. The As 
sembly refused to comply with the Duke s wishes, 
and a long and angry controversy followed. His 
Grace died of hydrophobia ; and the dispute w r as re 
newed by the Earl of Dalhousie, who was appointed 
governor-general in his place. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 117 

This rapid narrative brings ns to the year 1820, 
and to the first organized party in opposition to the 
established order of things. The Assembly, moderate 
in their earliest demands, and for three or four 
years, merely contested the right of the servants 
of the Crown to designate the manner of expending 
certain of the Colonial revenues ; and, in justification, 
complained of previous misapplication of the public 
money. In 1825, during the temporary absence of 
Lord Dalhousie, Sir Francis Burton, who administered 
the government in the exigency, made such large 
concessions as to induce the Assembly to assume a 
bolder position, and to claim the control of the irliolc 
of the Colonial revenues, as well as to designate the 
objects to which they should be applied. This mas 
terly movement for the entire fiscal power excited 
an interest in Canadian politics never before man 
ifested, and afforded cause of serious alarm in Eng 
land. The Assembly persisted ; and, after a discus 
sion of two years, the ministry proposed to surrender 
the management of the revenues on the condition, 
that what is termed the " Civil List " should be paid 
out of them. And the matter would have been 
adjusted on this basis, probably, but for the act of 
Lord Dalhousie, in disapproving and setting aside the 
election of Mr. Papineau to the Speaker s chair of 
the Assembly. The popularity of that gentleman in 
his own party was almost unbounded. The Liber 
als," as his friends were called the Liberals, enraged 
beyond what such a circumstance warranted, gave 
vent to their feelings in the most exciting appeals 
to the people ; and Dalhousie s administration closed 
amid denunciations and imprecations. 



118 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Sir James Kempt undertook the difficult duty of 
hushing the storm in 1828 ; and, to this end, he in 
vited Papineau and another leader of the Liberals to 
take seats in his cabinet ; and he gave assurances that 
the graver differences should be disposed of at the 
meeting of Parliament- This promise, in consequence 
of the death of George the Fourth, was not fulfilled. 
But Lord Ayhnar, on succeeding to Sir James s place, 
renewed the pledge ; and, as the Liberals affirmed, 
without conditions. However this may be, when he 
came to make known the precise concessions of the 
ministry, the quarrel which apparently had come to 
a termination, was opened anew and with increased 
violence. The Assembly, strong now in popular 
favor, assumed the most determined attitude and 
refused every overture. At last, in 1831, the min 
istry yielded the essential points in dispute, and the 
considerate among the Colonists hoped for a cessa 
tion of strife. But, though the home government 
conceded much, Lord Aylmar was still instructed to 
ask for special appropriations of money. This pro 
duced new difficulties. The result was, that the 
breach between the Assembly and the servants of 
the Crown became as wide as ever before. Encour 
aged by the advantages they had obtained in this 
long and wearisome dispute about the revenues, the 
Liberals now commenced an attack upon the Legis 
lative Council. This body, in its powers, is much 
like the senate with us ; but its members held their 
places at the royal pleasure, and for life. Several of 
the incumbents, for reasons which I have not time 
to state, had become extremely obnoxious. The 
Assembly demanded, not the removal of the offen- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 119 

sivc members, but the abolition of the Council itself, 
and its reconstruction on an elective basis. To this 
demand, the ministry gave a flat refusal. As mon 
archists reason, well they might refuse ; since, to 
have surrendered the Council to the popular party, 
was to lose all check upon it, and to reduce the 
power and authority of the Crown to a mere shadow. 

The Assembly, on this rebuff, seemed to lose all 
sense of official propriety. In hot haste, the Liberals 
prepared a long list of new and enormous wrongs ; 
they declared many old ones to be insufferable ; they 
rejected the bill granting money to support the gov 
ernment ; they severely censured Lord Aylmar, and 
insisted upon his removal; and, in the most deter 
mined tone, renewed the demand for an elective 
Council. Among the people the excitement was in 
tense. Affairs, indeed, had come to a crisis. In nine 
sessions of the Canadian Parliament, immediately 
preceding, the deeply-hated Legislative Council had 
rejected no less than one hundred and twenty-two of 
the bills passed by the Assembly, and had so amended 
forty-seven others, that the latter body had refused 
concurrence. In a word, legislation was at an end. 
The reconstruction of the Council was the fixed pur 
pose on one side ; the Council, without change, was 
the determined resolution on the other. 

Such was the general condition of things in Canada, 
when, on a change of administration in England, Sir 
Robert Peel became Prime Minister in place of Lord 
Melbourne. To redress every real wrong, to send 
over a commissioner with ample powers to examine 
and decide upon the complaints which had been so 
pertinaciously urged, year after year, was the prompt 



120 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

resolve of Sir Robert; but, before he could execute 
his plan, another change occurred which restored 
Lord Melbourne to power. And yet, Lord Aylmar 
was recalled, and Lord Gosford was appointed both 
governor and commissioner. This mission was an 
utter failure. The year 1836 is memorable in Cana 
dian politics. Lord Gosford was disgraced. The As 
sembly manifested desire for an appeal to arms, as 
the only remaining means to accomplish their long- 
cherished schemes. For the first time, the two great 
parties in England were brought to consider that the 
interposition of the Imperial Parliament was indis 
pensable to the peace and integrity of the British 
empire ; for, at this time, disaffection had spread, as 
we shall see, to other Colonies. 

It is to be borne in mind, that Lower and Upper 
Canada were not, as now, united, and that my re 
marks, thus far, relate entirely to the former. We 
pass to speak of the course of events in the latter, 
which, since the union, is known as Canada West. 
On the election of a new Assembly in 1834, the Lib 
erals achieved a triumph over the Conservatives, 
and, elated with their success, they assumed, as it 
were in a moment, the extreme pretensions which 
had been slowly matured, in the dissensions of fifteen 
years, in the sister Colony. 

There was no department of the government which 
they did not assail; no public servant whom they did 
not accuse. Their wish to secede from England was 
hardly denied or concealed under a decent veil. In 
fine, to pass from a state of ordinary quiet to loud 
murmurs and open rebellion, was scarcely the work 
of a single year. In the hope of allaying the excite- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 121 

nient, the ministry recalled Sir John Colburn, and 
appointed Sir Francis Bond Head governor in his 
stead. Never, in politics, was there a greater blun 
der. Sir Francis, whatever his merits as a writer or 
a soldier, was a mere child among politicians. He 
himself thought so ; and others said that his appoint 
ment was a ministerial joke. The juncture required 
the wisdom of the wisest of England s many wise 
statesmen; and her ministers were inexcusably remiss 
in refusing to see that it was so. Indications that 
the royal authority would soon be disputed in the 
field, were too manifest to be mistaken. Yet the mil 
itary force of the Crown was tardily increased. At 
last, but too late, the ministry appealed to Parliament, 
irrespective of party distinctions, for the calm judg 
ment and the united ability of that body. The death 
of King William quickly followed. To involve the 
Illustrious Lady who now occupies the throne, in a 
conflict with her subjects, at the beginning of her 
reign, w r as a measure which ministers and nobles and 
commoners might well wish to avoid ; and, in the ir 
resolution of the moment, the Canadas defied her, and 
met her troops in deadly combat. The last months 
of 1837, and the opening of 1838, were crowded with 
deeds of violence and blood. I recall, in sadness, 
the attempt to seize upon Toronto, the capital of 
Upper Canada, the battles of St. Denis, of St. Charles, 
and of Bois Blanc. These, and other hostile affairs, 
exposed the weakness of the Liberals as a revolution 
ary party ; disclosed that they had no hold on the 
hearts of the masses ; disclosed that they had ven 
tured into open war with a mighty empire without 
resources ; disclosed how miserably deficient they 

VOL. I. 11 



122 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

were in military talents, and how slight was the con 
fidence of their leaders in one another. And so, too, 
I recall in horror the butcheries at St. Eustache, as 
affording melancholy proof of what, indeed, human 
history is full of that, when brother fights brother, 
no outrage, no wickedness, is too great ; since there, 
men were needlessly maimed and slain ; weeping, 
famishing women were driven out to perish, and 
were plundered and murdered; since there, the dead 
were mangled, and suffered to lie unburied, and to be 
eaten by dogs. These, and other deeds as awful as 
these, but of which I shall make no mention, shocked 
the civilization of the age. 

The subsequent efforts of the leaders of the Liber 
als to form a provisional government at Navy Island, 
where they concentrated their scattered followers, 
drew down upon them universal contempt. They 
strove to inspire the deceived, shivering, and starving 
creatures around them with the belief that citizens 
of the United States would flock to their standard, 
and enable them to retrieve their fortunes. But, 
deluded from first to last ; incessantly quarrelling 
among themselves ; and showing to the w r orld, in 
the columns of the newspapers, the meanness of their 
personal disputes ; the movement, which, in their in 
fatuation they designed for a revolution, and for an 
imposing page in American annals, terminated in a 
disgraceful insurrection. In their appeals to the pop 
ular ear, previous to the outbreak, they had likened 
their situation, and the objects for which they con 
tended, to those of our fathers, the Whigs of 1776 ; 
but they were answered, and truly, that several of 
the graver disabilities which restrained and oppressed 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 123 

the thirteen Colonies, had been removed. So, too. 
they had adopted the general sentiments of our Dec 
laration of Independence, and incorporated a large 
portion of it into their Manifesto of Wrongs. 

For reasons which will appear anon, I was a calm 
and interested observer ; and the opinion which I 
then formed, I repeat after the lapse of twenty years. 
I need not to be told, that of the fallen, we should 
always speak in pity, and of the guilty, in mercy. 
But, we are not to repress our indignation, when, as 
in the case before us, men of talents and education, 
of political knowledge and experience, skulk away, 
and leave their dupes to die on the scaffold, or to 
pine and perish in prison. Such men, the men who 
slip the halter for themselves, but fasten it round the 
necks of the ignorant and the lowly, should stand 
accursed. 

At the suppression of the insurrection, Canada was 
in a deplorable condition, as the imagination can well 
picture. It often happens in human affairs, that the 
mischief all done, and the mischief all exposed, a 
remedy is thought of and applied. It was so then. 
Civil war produced, with all its miseries, needy or 
second and third rate knights, and baronets and 
barons were no longer sent to govern, or rather to 
mis-govern, the people of Canada. Lord Durham, a 
statesman of acknowledged wisdom, moderation, and 
ability, was solicited to undertake the task of healing 
the disorders which other persons of rank had helped 
to increase, and which, had he been employed at the 
outset, could, and would have been prevented. His 
powers as ambassador were as great as were ever 
conferred on a British subject, The Colonial gentle- 



124 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

men with whom I constantly mingled, hailed his com 
ing, much as they would have done the advent of an 
angel. His keen vision surveyed all Canada at a 
glance. Plans for bold and comprehensive reforms, 
were formed with the rapidity of intuition. His heart 
was in the work, and he labored incessantly. As 
Washington had been the saviour of the thirteen Col 
onies, so he proudly thought to become the saviour 
of the domains which England conquered from France, 
and which, strangely enough, are all the continental 
possessions that remain to her in this hemisphere. 

Alas, that Lord Durham should have been arrested 
in his glorious career. But in politics, the idol of to 
day is the martyr of the morrow, if he recognize the 
doctrines of human brotherhood rather than the dic 
tations of his party. 

His Lordship found the prisons full . of persons 
charged with participation in the insurrection, and 
with crimes against persons and property. The clam 
ors for the life of the leaders were awful. But there 
had been enough of death, he nobly said, enough 
of widowhood and orphanage ; and so, true to his na 
ture, he resolved to save and to spare. In the intense 
excitement which prevailed, he feared that justice 
would not be clone by juries, and, in pure mercy to 
the ruined and the fallen, he banished to the Ber 
mudas several of the insurgents who made written 
confession of guilt, as the best means of allaying 
animosities, and of preventing further communication 
between the leading spirits who had been arrested, 
and those who were still at large. Unfortunately for 
himself, his course was technically wrong, for the 
Bermudas were not within his jurisdiction ; and, ac- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 125 

cording to the letter of criminal law, a British .sub 
ject cannot be deprived of his liberty, without the 
finding of a jury and the sentence of a judge. The 
decree of banishment was accordingly disapproved ; 
and Lord Durham abandoned his mission at once, 
and returned to England without leave of the queen 
or her ministers. 

He was proud and sensitive ; and the proud and 
sensitive will not brook dishonorable imputation. 
That he erred, may be admitted. With some of his 
peers, his high character, his motives in this partic 
ular case, were of no avail. In a word, his foes pur 
sued him much as the famished wolf follows a lone, 
lost child in the forest to lap blood, drop by drop. 
The vulgar of our race murder with the knife and 
with the club ; the gentlemen, to gain in politics, de 
stroy with the tongue, with the pen, and with the press. 

Lord Durham did not long survive his disgrace. 
He lived long enough, however, to complete for pos 
terity an elaborate report of what he did, of what he 
intended to do, and of what should be done, in Brit 
ish America, This document, in the passion of the 
hour, was reviewed in Parliament and elsewhere with 
merciless severity. I quote a single instance. In 
1839, the " London Quarterly," in a notice of it, said, 
in concluding some very pungent remarks : " We can 
venture to answer, that every uncontradicted assertion of 
that volume will be made the excuse of future rebellions, 
every unquestioned principle will be hereafter perverted into 
a gospel of treason ; and that, if that rank and infectious 
Report does not receive the hujh, marked, and energetic dis 
countenance and indignation of the imperial crown and par 
liament, British America is lost! 
11 * 



126 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

But this Report, so filled with treasons, so sure to 
dismember the British empire a second time, in the 
apprehension of those who denounced it, is already 
considered a masterly State paper; and, curious to 
add, its recommendations have been adopted in almost ever?/ 
essential particular. 

The insurrection in Canada involved the United 
States. That some of our citizens were concerned in 
it, is beyond question ; the burning of the American 
steamer Caroline by officers of the Crown ; the seiz 
ure and trial of McLeod, the principal actor in the 
affair ; the avowal of the British ministry that they 
justified him. with their demand on the Federal gov 
ernment for his release ; these, and other circum 
stances, formed a complication of difficulties, which 
caused the wisest to ponder. At this juncture, the 
peace of the country depended on the grand and 
massive man who now rests at Marshfield. It was 
easy for party men who were secure in their homes 
to call upon him. for party purposes, to quit the De 
partment of State ; but we, 1 who lived upon the bor 
der, who daily saw the elements of strife gaming 
strength, and who were exposed to the marauder s 
bludgeon and the marauder s torch ; we watched his 
movements with intense interest, and when we found 
that he would not be driven from his post, we blessed 
him. 

It is not necessary to trace the course of events in 
Canada further. Lord Durham s mission, in its re 
sults, terminated the strifes. 

We pass to New Brunswick. The original popu- 

1 My home was still at p]astport, Maine. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY?" 127 

lation of this Colony was composed almost entirely 
of the Loyalists of the Revolution. It was set off 
from Nova Scotia in 1784, without pressing necessity, 
except to provide for these unhappy victims to civil 
war. The judges of the Supreme Court first ap 
pointed were natives of Massachusetts, and graduates 
of Harvard University. The secretary of the prov 
ince was an Episcopal minister of New Jersey, who 
was in communication with Arnold while he was 
plotting treason. The judges of the inferior courts, 
the sheriffs, collectors of the customs, and other func 
tionaries, were also our banished countrymen ; and 
most of them were born in New England and the 
Middle States. Thus the offices were given to Loy 
alist families, and descended from father to son. 

The first political agitation of moment in New 
Brunswick was, 1 think, in 1837, when Sir Archibald 
Campbell, who had served his king as a soldier in 
almost every part of the world, was compelled to 
retire, upon address of the House of Assembly for 
his removal from the executive chair. Sir John 
Harvey was his successor. He, too, was a military 
officer of much merit. He had warm friends and 
bitter foes. His career was even more stormy than 
that of his predecessor ; but he cared little for angry 
newspapers and angry politicians. The American 
people on the eastern frontier have reason to re 
member his course when the controversy relative 
to the North-Eastern Boundary had reached a point 
to threaten hostilities. Congress had conditionally 
placed millions of money and a large army at the 
disposal of the President ; and Maine, to defend the 
territory in dispute, had authorized a loan, raised 



128 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

troops and established garrisons. The roads in one 
section of the State were filled miles together with 
sleds loaded with soldiers and the munitions of war. 
British regulars were moving in every direction, and 
a British frigate, with a regiment detached from 
Bermuda, lay anchored within a mile of my own 
home. All was dread, confusion, alarm. Worship 
was disturbed on the Sabbath, and business was 
neglected on week-days. In this condition of things, 
General Scott was ordered to Maine, to consult with 
the governor and the members of the legislature, to 
negotiate with Sir John Harvey, and, if possible, to 
prevent extremities. The two warriors, to the dis 
pleasure of demagogues, but to the satisfaction of 
the country generally, agreed upon terms which pre 
vented bloodshed at the lone military posts on the 
upper waters of the St. John ; and thus saved, prob 
ably, England and the United States from the calam 
ities of war. 

Sir William Colebrooke, another officer in the 
British army, followed Sir John Harvey, and, for a 
time, was very popular. The appointment, however, 
of his son-in-law to an office next in rank to his 
own, gave much offence, and caused an organized 
opposition to his administration. In the end, the 
dispute broke up Sir William s cabinet, and produced 
a memorial from the Assembly to the queen. 

Lord Stanley, (who now is the Earl of Derby, and 
lately Prime Minister of England,) who was then 
Secretary for the Colonies, so far approved of the 
course of the opposition, as to disallow the appoint 
ment, and to direct the return of the members of 
the Council who had retired. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 129 

The Liberals claimed to have gained a point never 
before conceded, namely, that, in filling Colonial offices, 
persons lorn in England were to le excluded. In fact, it 
was so ; for when a similar question arose in Canada, 
subsequently, the governor-general affirmed that view 
of Lord Stanley s despatch. Let the reader mark 
the change : the Whigs of the Revolution made no 
demand like this ; they asked merely for a recogni 
tion of Colonial talents and a share of the patronage 
of the Crown; it remained for the children of Loy 
alists to ask for and obtain the monopoly of public 
office. 

The principal leader of the Liberals at this time, 
was the Hon. Lemuel A. Wilmot, who, of Loyalist 
descent, is a grandson of Daniel Bliss, a native of 
Concord, Massachusetts, and a graduate of Harvard 
University. Mr. Wilmot possesses brilliant powers, 
and is an eloquent and effective speaker. It hap 
pened that I made his acquaintance when his for 
tunes were considered desperate ; when some of his 
most ardent personal friends said he was a madman ; 
and when his adversaries told him to his face that 
he was a traitor. He accepted, finally, the office of 
attorney-general, and at the present moment is a 
judge of the Supreme Court. 7 

Sir William Colebrooke was transferred to the 
government of British Guiana in 1848, and was suc 
ceeded by Sir Edmund Head, late governor-general 
of British America, 

Unlike most who have administered Colonial affairs, 
Sir Edmund is a civilian. His life in New Brunswick 
was not without vexations ; but he kept opposing 
politicians in tolerable humor, and departed for 



130 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Canada, with the hearty good wishes of most of the 
people. 

Nothing which need detain us has occurred within 

!~> 

ten or twelve years, and w r e hasten to Nova Scotia. 

In that Colony, the first difficulty of consequence 
with the servants of the Crown was in 1836, when 
the government was administered by Sir Colin 
Campbell, an old soldier, with many scars. Un 
skilled in wordy strife, and used only to move men 
by the tap of the drum and the sound of the bugle, 
he made sad work of it among politicians and news 
paper editors, and was soon involved with both. At 
this time there was not an incorporated city in Nova 
Scotia. The magistrates who held commissions from 
the Crown, and who were entirely independent of 
the people, controlled everything in (heir respective 
parishes and counties. " Neglect, mismanagement, 
and corruption, were perceptible everywhere." In 
the government of the Province, the legislative, ex 
ecutive, and judicial powers were strangely blended ; 
for the same individual such was the exact fact 
was called upon in one capacity to make laws- in 
another, to advise the governor as to their execu 
tion and, in a third, to administer them as a judge 
on the bench. Nay, more ; the Episcopal bishop of 
the Province was a member of the Council; five other 
members of that body were of two family connec 
tions, and five more were copartners in one mercan 
tile firm; while the sessions were with closed doors, 
and the incumbents held office for life. To add that 
the Council was composed of only twelve members, 

1 Even the chief justice of the Province performed these threefold 
and incompatible duties. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 131 

and was not responsible, because it could not be 
reached; to add this, and the reader has the outlines 
of the political institutions of Nova Scotia, and in 
several important particulars, of all British America, 
hardly more than thirty years ago. 

In this condition of affairs, the Hon. Joseph Howe, 
who is now known as a statesman, was elected to 
the House of Assembly. Like other leaders of the 
Liberals of whom I have spoken, he is of Loyalist 
descent. His father was John Howe, of Boston, who 
embarked for Halifax with the British army at the 
evacuation, and became postmaster-general of the 
Province. Mr. Howe himself was bred a printer. 
Prosecuted for an article which appeared in his 
paper, arraigning the magistrates of Halifax for gross 
corruption and neglect of duty, and acquitted by 
the jury, to the great joy of those who wished for 
reform, he was adopted at once as their champion. 
With a temerity that amazed his own friends, he 
assailed the Council and the abuses of the existing 
system of government generally, in twelve carefully 
drawn resolutions. In the Canadas, as we have seen, 
the Reformers, or Liberals, were fast hurrying mat 
ters to a bloody issue ; and these resolutions, em 
bracing as they did radical changes in every depart 
ment, were opposed in a temper that would have 
silenced forever any common man. But they passed 
the Assembly finally, and were transmitted to Eng 
land. Such was the beginning. 

Sir Colin Campbell resisted Mr. Howe, and the 
party of which he was the recognized head, for 
about three years, when the ministry wisely trans 
ferred him to another Colony. 



132 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Lord Falkland, who succeeded, married a daughter 
of King William the Fourth. His Lordship endeav 
ored to put an end to the animosities which Sir 
Colin had bequeathed him ; and his first important 
measure was, the formation of a coalition cabinet, 
in which Mr. Howe accepted a place. So diverse, 
however, were its members in opinion and in social 
rank, that the " Coalition " as sure to fail there as 
everywhere else lasted hardly a year and a half. 
He next dissolved the Assembly, and met a new one, 
only to encounter increased difficulties. In truth, 
the Liberals were determined upon extensive re 
forms, and would not listen to overtures of compro 
mise. In 1844, such had become the tone of the 
press and the people that favored and insisted upon 
change, that political discussions took the place of 
all others. In the Assembly there was a debate on 
fourteen successive days, in a temper that was not 
even decent. The relations between Lord Falkland 
and Mr. Howe had become personally hostile, and 
remarks were made by the latter which are not to be 
approved. 

It had ordinarily happened, that on the adjourn 
ment of the Assembly, the people gradually became 
quiet and pursued their avocations, in forgetfulness 
of politics. It was not so then. 

To hear the fishermen and the \vood-choppers 
speculate upon the wonders to be accomplished by 
"Reform," one would have thought that " Jo Howe," 
as they called him, once in power, fish and fuel 
would advance in price in Boston market full one 
quarter part. In 1845, Mr. Howe traversed Nova 
Scotia, and increased the popular excitement. He 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. !#>> 

addressed throngs in all the principal places, and 
often spoke three, and even four hours at a time. 

It was "Jo Howe," by day and by night. The 
Yankee pedler who is immortalized in Sam Slick, 
drove good bargains in "Jo Howe" clocks. In the 
coal mine, in the plaster quarry, in the ship-yard, 
and in the forest, and on board the fishing-pogy, the 
jigger, and the pinkcy, it was still "Jo Howe." 
Ships and babies were named "Jo Howe." The 
topers of the shops and taverns swore great oaths 
about "Jo Howe." The young men and maidens 
flirted and courted in "Jo Howe " badges, and played 
and sang " Jo Howe " glees. It was " Jo Howe " 
everywhere. 

In the Assembly, the same year, Mr. Howe s 
speeches were frequent and personal. His invec 
tives against Lord Falkland were bitter beyond ex 
ample, and he declared, on one occasion, that it 
might become necessary " to hire a black fellow to 
horsewhip his Lordship through the streets of Hali 
fax." 

Meantime the Liberals made stead} progress, and 
effected changes which, at the outset, they them 
selves did not deem possible. 

Sir John Harvey, already mentioned as governor 
of New Brunswick, was ordered to assume the direc 
tion of affairs in 1840, and specially instructed to 
adopt conciliatory measures, and to calm the public 
mind. He attempted to form a cabinet, as Lord 
Falkland had done, of Liberals and Conservatives, 
but giving the latter party a majority of one. He 
failed, because the Liberals claimed to be in the 
ascendant, and because some of that party were 

VOL. I. 12 



134 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

averse to a second " Coalition." Sir John promptly 
referred the contest to the people, by dissolving the 
Assembly and ordering a general election. The 
Conservatives were defeated. 

The new Assembly met early in 1848, when the 
existing Council retired. The Liberals filled the va 
cant seats with their own leaders, and disposed of 
the great law-offices of the Crown at pleasure. Mr. 
Howe became a member of the cabinet, and received, 
besides, the lucrative post of provincial secretary, 
which, as Colonists fix rank, is inferior only to the 
office of governor. Thus, in twelve years, the politi 
cal millennium was ushered in : but sooth to say, the 
Boston price-current continued to quote fish and 
wood and grindstones, according to the old commer 
cial law of supply and demand, to the utter astonish 
ment of many a simple " Bluenose " who had neg 
lected his business, year after year, to make "Jo 
Howe " a great man. 

Men s motives are generally mingled, and it may 
be admitted that Mr. Howe desired, in this long 
struggle, to win personal distinction ; but it is due 
to him to say that he declined office more than once, 
and that by his labors and sacrifices he achieved 
great and permanent good for his native Colony. 
His speeches and political papers have been pub 
lished in Boston in two octavo volumes, and show 
that he well deserves the name of statesman. 1 

Such are the outlines of the political agitations in 
the British possessions, north and east of us. 

It remains to consider the results of these agita 
tions, to speak of the concessions of the mother- 

1 See the notice of John Howe. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 135 

country. Upon this subject, details are unneces 
sary. 

The whole system of monopoly, on which the 
Colonial form of government was founded, has been 
swept away. The disabilities, as relates to com 
merce and manufactures, which existed in our fath 
ers time, have disappeared. There is not an im 
perial custom-house, or an imperial revenue-officer, 
in all British America. Colonial ships voyage to all 
parts of the world. The substance of a long des 
patch from Earl Grey to Lord Elgin, in 1846, was, 
that ihc Colonists mat/ MAKE what the// will ; may BUY 
where they please ; may SELL where they can. Had this 
State paper been framed seventy years earlier, and in 
177G, the public debt of England would have been 
five hundred millions of dollars less than it is, and 
one hundred thousand Anglo-Saxon men and women 
would not have perished in battle, in storm, and in 
prison. 

Mark the progress in civilization and in political 
freedom. " Make what you will ; luy where you 
please ; sell where you can ! " In the annunciation 
of these words, England herself pronounced the vin 
dication of the "upstart barristers,"- -John Adams, 
John Jay, and John Marshall, the vindication of the 
" upstart tobacco planter " of Mount Vernon, and of 
their associates ; and in the face of the civilized 
world she abandoned the accusation that the Whigs 
of the Revolution "were but successful rebels and 
traitors." In the old thirteen Colonies, she endeav 
ored to maintain, by arms, the monopoly of ships 
and workshops and places of honor, for natives of 
the British Isles ; and humanity weeps over smoul- 



136 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

deriiig ruins and divided and expatriated families, to 
save the Colonial system of government, which, with 
out an element of human brotherhood, was trans 
mitted by heathen Carthage and Rome, and which, 
all now agree, should never have been fastened upon 
the Colonists of any Christian nation. Mark the 
change! Fourteen years after the promulgation of 
Earl Gray s despatch, the heir to the British throne, 
and his suite of nobles, mused at the spot where 
Washington is buried, and on the battle-ground 
where Warren died ! l 

Again, England no longer excludes Colonial tal 
ents from places of honor or emolument, The 
governor-general and the governors of the separ 
ate Colonies are still appointed by the Crown, but 
the subordinate posts are open to Colonists, in ac 
cordance with the popular will. Nay, more. Mr. 
Howe, in several elaborate letters to Lord John 
Russell, claims that natives of the Colonies shall be 
eligible to the highest places in the church, in the 
army and navy ; shall be allowed to represent Eng 
land at foreign courts, and to occupy the position of 
cabinet ministers at home. 

In view of these pretensions, recall that a governor 
of Massachusetts once refused to appoint John Ad 
ams a justice of the peace ; that Washington was 
denied the commission of colonel in the army, and 
that John Marshall, who lived to found the juris 
prudence of a nation, was doomed, as a Colonist, 

1 The Prince of Wales visited Mount Vernon, October 5, and Bunker 
Hill, October 19, 1860. Among the distinguished personages who ac 
companied him on his visit to the Colonies and to the United States, were 
the Duke of Newcastle, the Earl of St. Germans, Viscount Hincherbroke, 
and Honorable Major-General Robert Bruce. 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. l->7 

to plead before English-born judges, in the county 
courts of Virginia. A single word more. 

A few years ago the most intense hate was cher 
ished by Colonists towards people of the United 
States. Their fathers were the losers, our* were the 
winners, in the war of the Revolution. Nor was 
kind feeling entertained among us. It was thought 
disloyal in a Colonist, and to evince a want of pa 
triotism in a citizen of the republic, to seek to pro 
mote sentiments of love on either side, and to unite 
kinsmen who, two generations ago, were severed in 
the dismemberment of the British empire. But the 
change is wonderful ; and some persons who com 
menced the work of reconciliation live to witness 
the consummation of their highest hopes. The chil 
dren of the Whigs and the children of the Tories 
have become reconciled. 1 God be praised that it is 
so ! The controversy relative to our rights in the 
fisheries in the British colonial seas, which for 
awhile, on the American side of the frontier, was 
conducted by my single pen, opened, as I venture 
to record, the way for the adjustment of all the 
questions of difference. The Treaty of Reciprocity, 
concluded in 1854, was the crowning measure of 
peace and good-will; since, if revised as it should 
be --it will be lasting. 

1 This chapter was written before the breaking out of the present 
unhallowed rebellion, but I make no change in the text, in consequence 
of the feeling towards the North by a jxtrt of the politicians and of the 
newspapers in British America ; for what is said and written is not 
worthy of thought, much less does it represent the great Colonial heart. 
12* 



CHAPTER XIV. 

Introductory Remarks. Principles of Unbelief prevalent. The Whigs 
lose sight of their Original Purposes, and propose Conquests. Decline 
of Public Spirit. Avarice, Rapacity, Traffic with the Enemy. Gam 
bling, Speculation, Idleness, Dissipation, and Extravagance. Want 
of Patriotism. Excessive Issue of Paper might have been avoided. 
Recruits for the Army demand Enormous Bounty. Shameless Deser 
tions and Immoralities. Commissions in the Army to men destitute 
of Principle. Court-martials frequent, and many Officers Cashiered. 
Resignations upon Discreditable Pretexts, and alarmingly prevalent. 
The Public Mind fickle, and Disastrous Changes in Congress. The 
Whigs of England. 

IT has been my constant endeavor to speak of those 
who opposed the Whigs, in the momentous conflict 
which made us an independent people, calmly and 
mildly. For 

" Mercy to him that shows it is the rule 
And righteous limitation of its act, 
By which Heaven moves in pardoning guilty man ; 
And he that shows none, being ripe in years, 
And conscious of the outrage lie commits, 
Shall seek it, and not Jind it, in his turn" 

Virtuous men, whatever their errors and mistakes, 
are to be respected ; and with regard to others, it is 
well to remember the beautiful sentiment of Gold 
smith, that " we should never strike an unnecessary 
blow at a victim over whom Providence holds the 
scourge of its resentment," 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 139 

While intending to be just, I have felt that I might 
also be generous. 

" Can he be strenuous in his country s cause 
Who slights the chanties for whose dear sake 
That country, if at all, must be beloved ? " 

A word now of the winners in the strife. I pre 
mise that 1 am of Whig descent. My father s father 
received his death-wound under Washington, at Tren 
ton ; my mother s father fought under Stark, at Ben- 
niiiirton. There are those who are still readv to 

O *S 

do battle for ever// " Whig," and to denounce ever// 
"Tory;" who still believe that all who were known 
by the former name were disinterested and virtuous, 
and that all to whom the latter epithet was applied, 
were selfish and vicious, and deserving of reproach. 
To these, I address the concluding chapter of this 
Essay. 

I do not care, of all things, to be thought to want 
appreciation of those of my countrymen who broke 
the yoke of Colonial vassalage ; nor, on the other 
hand, clo I care to imitate the writers of a late school, 
and treat the great and the successful actors in the 
world s affairs as little short of divinities, and as 
exempt from criticism. In speaking of men who 
have left their impress upon their age, something, I 
own, is due to the dignity of history ; but something, 
too, is due to the dignity of truth. The bandaged 
eyes and the even scales, I apprehend, are as lit em 
blems for the student as for the judge \ and so, upon 
the evidence, and upon the law of progress, I say 
that we are not to look for as great intellectual de 
velopment, or for as high civilization, among bound 
or even emancipated British Colonists, as, after the 



140 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

lapse of two generations, exist around us, and in 
Anglo-Saxon countries everywhere. 

We have now the off-hand limnings of John Ad 
ams and of others, of the men and manners of the 
second half of the last century ; and those who are 
well informed as to the leading personages and events 
of that period will not doubt the general accuracy of 
the pictures. These sketches of the principal char 
acters in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and in Con 
gress, as well as the mention of the sectional jeal 
ousies that prevailed, of the personal quarrels and 
alienations that existed among the Whigs of high 
position in the civil and military line at home, and 
among those who were employed abroad on embas 
sies of the last importance to the Whig cause, show 
clearly that the prominent men of the Revolutionary 
era were great and good, little and bad, mingled ; 
just as elsewhere in the annals of our race. The 
Whigs of lofty virtue, like William III. of England, 
were compelled by the necessities of their condition 
to employ as instruments persons whom they knew 
or believed to be mere mercenaries, who would fall 
off and join the royal side the moment that interest 
or a case for individual safety should appear to re 
quire ; and, like William, they seemed oblivious of 
this fact, simply because, under the circumstances, 
it was sound policy to be blind, forgetful, and igno 
rant. 

Nay, this general statement will not serve my pur 
pose. Justice demands as severe a judgment of the 
Whigs as of their opponents ; and I shall here record 
the result of long and patient study. At the Revolu 
tionary period, the principles of unbelief were diffused 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 141 

to a considerable extent throughout the Colonies. It 
is certain that several of the most conspicuous per 
sonages of those days were either avowed disbelievers 
in Christianity, or cared so little about it, that they 
were commonly regarded as disciples of the English 
or French schools of sceptical philosophy. Again, 
the Whigs were by no means exempt from the lust 
of dominion. Several of them were among the most 
noted land speculators of their time. As 1 have else 
where said, in the progress of the war, and in a man 
ner hardly to be defended, we find them sequestering 
and appropriating to themselves the vast estates of 
those who opposed them. So we find that while the 
issue of the contest was yet doubtful, they lost sight 
of its original purposes, and in their endeavors to 
procure the alliance of France, they proposed that 
she should join them in an enterprise to conquer her 
own former Colonial possessions in America ; and the 
Saxon thirst for boundless sway may be seen in their 
calm and thoughtful proposition, to keep nearly all 
the soil and fishing-grounds to be acquired for their 
own use and aggrandizement. Still again, avarice and 
rapacity were seemingly as common then as now. 
Indeed, the stock-jobbing, the extortion, the forestall 
ing, the low arts and devices to amass wealth, that 
were practised during the struggle, are almost incred 
ible. Washington mourned the want of virtue as 
early as 1775, and averred that he "trembled at the 
prospect." Soldiers were stripped of their miserable 
pittance, that contractors for the army might become 
rich in a single campaign. Many of the sellers of 
merchandise monopolized articles of the first neces 
sity, and would not part with them to their suffering 



142 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

countrymen, and to the wives and children of those 
who were absent in the field, unless at enormous 
profits. The traffic carried on with the royal troops 
was immense. Men of all descriptions finally en 
gaged in it, and those who at the beginning of the 
war would have shuddered at the idea of any connec 
tion with the enemy, pursued it with avidity. The 
public securities were often counterfeited ; official 
signatures were forged ; and plunder and robbery 
openly indulged. Appeals to the guilty from the 
pulpit, the press, and the halls of legislation, were 
alike unheeded. The decline of public spirit ; the 
love of gain of those in office ; the plotting of dis 
affected persons ; and the malevolence of faction 
became widely spread, and in parts of the country 
were uncontrollable. The useful occupations of life, 
and the legitimate pursuits of commerce, were aban 
doned by thousands. The basest of men enriched 
themselves ; and many of the most estimable sunk 
into obscurity and indigence. There were those who 
would neither pay their debts nor their taxes. The 
finances of the State, and the fortunes of individuals 
were to an alarming extent at the mercy of gamblers 
and speculators. The indignation of Washington was 
freely expressed. " It gives me very sincere pleas 
ure," he said, in a letter to Joseph Reed, " to find the 
Assembly [of Pennsylvania] is so w r ell disposed to 
second your endeavors in bringing those murderers 
of our cause, the monopolizers, forestallers, and en 
grossers, to condign punishment. It is much to be 
lamented, that each State long ere this has not hunted 
them down as pests to society, and the greatest ene 
mies we have to the happiness of America. No pun- 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 143 

ishment, in my opinion, is too great for the man who 
can build his greatness upon his country s ruin." In 
a letter to another, he drew this picture, which he 
solemnly declared to he a true one : * From what I 
have seen, heard, and in part know," said he, "I should 
in one word say, that idleness, dissipation, and extrav 
agance, seem to have laid fast hold of most ; that 
speculation, peculation, and an insatiable thirst for 
riches, seem to have got the better of every other 
consideration and almost every order of men ; and 
that party disputes and personal quarrels are the 
in eat business of the day." In other letters he la- 

o J 

ments the laxity of public morals, the " distressed, 
ruinous, and deplorable . condition of affairs ; " the 
" many melancholy proofs of the decay of private 
virtue ; " and asks if " the paltry consideration of a 
little pelf to individuals is to be placed in competition 
with the essential rights and liberties of the present 
generation, and of millions yet unborn." And scat 
tered through his correspondence are passages which 
show " the increasing rapacity of the times ; " the 
" declining zeal of the people ; " and in which he re 
joices over the " virtuous few," who were struggling 
against the corruptions and " stock-jobbing of the 
multitude." 

I pass next to discuss the question of patriotism. 
In the first place, then, it should be remembered that 
the war was undertaken for the holiest cause which 
ever arrayed men in battle ; that the Whigs were a 
minority in some of the States, barely equalled their 
opponents in others, and in the Avhole country com 
posed but an inconsiderable majority ; and that of 
consequence, there was every incentive to exertion, 



144 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

to action, to union, and to sacrifice for the common 
good. But what is the truth ? To say nothing of 
the Whigs of Vermont, who at one period were de 
clared by Washington to be "a dead weight upon 
the cause " some examination of the resources of 
the thirteen Federal States has served to convince 
me, that, had the advice and plans of the illustrious 
Commander-in-Chief, of Franklin, and other judicious 
and patriotic persons been adopted ; and had there 
been system and common prudence and integrity in 
the management of affairs, the army might have been 
well fed, clothed, and paid throughout the struggle. 
The prevalent impression is that America was poor. 
In my judgment it was not so. The people who, 
before the Revolution, bought tea to the amount of 
two and a half millions of dollars annually, and who, 
in the most distressing periods of the contest, im 
ported useless articles of luxury, were not poor, but 
able to maintain those who served in the field. Par 
ticular States, and thousands of individuals, exhausted 
their means to aid in achieving the independence of 
their country; but I am satisfied that the want of 
patriotism in other States, and in other individual 
Whigs, produced the appalling calamities of the war, 
and compelled the resort to the seizure of private 
property, and other objectionable expedients. The 
issuing of bills of credit was, perhaps, unavoidable ; 
but their excessive depreciation might and should 
have been prevented. The exports of the Colonies 
prior to 1775 were large; and with a liberal allow 
ance for diminished production during hostilities, 
there were still provisions at all times to feed the 
people, and both the Whig and the Royal forces. In 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 145 

fact, the prizes taken by the numerous privateers 
were very valuable, and increased the ability of the 
country, probably, nearly as much as it was lessened 
by the partial interruption of agriculture. The 
King s troops were well supplied ; for his generals 
paid " hard money," and not the " continental stuff." 
" I am amazed," said Washington to Colonel Stewart. 
" at the report you make of the quantity of provision 
that goes daily into Philadelphia 1 from the County 
of Bucks ; " - and mark that this was written in Jan 
uary of that memorable winter which the American 
army passed in nakedness and starvation at Valley 
Forge. So, too, there were men enough who in name 
were Whigs, to meet the strongest force that was 
ever employed to suppress the popular movement. 
There was always an army - - on paper ; but the 
votes of Congress were seldom executed by the 
States. At the close of one campaign there was not 
a sufficient number of troops in camp to man the 
lines ; and at the opening of another, when the 
Commander-in-Chief was expected to take the field. 
" scarce any State in the Union," as he himself said- 
had " an eighth part of its quota " in service. The 
bounty finally paid to soldiers was enormous. Omit 
ting details, the general fact will be indicated by stat 
ing that the price for a single recruit was as high 
sometimes as seven hundred and fifty, and one thou 
sand dollars, on enlistment for the war, besides the 
bounty and emoluments given by Congress ; and 
that one hundred and fifty dollars " in specie " was 
exacted and paid for a term of duty of only five 
months. Such were the extraordinary inducements 

1 Then occupied by the British Army. 
VOL. I. 13 



146 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

necessary to tempt some men to serve their country, 
when their dearest interests were at issue. Still, 
large numbers of Whigs demanded that Washington 
should face and fight their enemies, without troops, 
without stores, and at times, without even their own 
confidence and sympathy. If we allow that much 
of the reluctance to enter the army arose from the 
knowledge of the privations and sufferings to be en 
dured in camp, and from aversion to receive payment 
for service in a depreciated currency, we shall palliate 
the conduct of the class expected to be soldiers only 
to censure by implication another class, who pos 
sessed, but kept back, the means of supporting those 
who fought their battles. 

Making every allowance for the effects of hunger 
and want, for the claims of families at home, and for 
other circumstances equally imperative ; desertion, 
mutiny, robbery, and murder, are still high crimes. 
There were soldiers of the Revolution who deserted 
in parties of twenty and thirty at a time, and several 
hundred of those who thus abandoned the cause, fled 
to Vermont, and were among the early settlers of 
that State. A thousand men, the date of whose 
enlistment had been misplaced, perjured themselves 
in a body, as fast as they could be sworn, in order to 
quit the ranks which they had voluntarily entered. 
In smaller parties, hundreds of others demanded dis 
mission from camp under false pretexts, and with lies 
upon their lips. Some, also added treason to deser 
tion, and joined the various corps of Loyalists in the 
capacity of spies upon their former friends, or of 
guides and pioneers. Many more enlisted, deserted, 
and reenlisted under new recruiting officers, for the 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. 147 

purpose of receiving double bounty ; while others, 
who placed their names upon the rolls, were paid the 
money to which they were entitled, but refused to 
join the army ; and others still, who were sent to the 
hospitals, returned home without leave after their 
recovery, and were sheltered and secreted by friends 
and neighbors, whose sense of right was as weak as 
their own. Another class sold their clothing, provis 
ions, and arms, to obtain means for revelling, and to 
indulge their propensity for drunkenness while some 
prowled about the country, to rob and kill the unof 
fending and defenceless. A guard was placed over 
the grave of a foreigner of rank, who died in Wash 
ington s own quarters, and who was buried in full 
dress, with diamond rings and buckles ; " lest the 
soldiers should be tempted to dig for hidden treas 
ures." In a word, I fear that whippings, druinmings 
from the service, and even military executions, were 
more frequent in the Revolution than at any subse 
quent period of our history. 

If AVC turn our attention to the officers, we shall 
find that many had but doubtful claims to respect for 
purity of private character ; and that some were ad 
dicted to grave vices. It is certain that appointments 
w^cre conferred upon unworthy persons throughout 
the war. Knox wrote to Gerry, that there were men 
in commission " who wished to have their power per 
petuated at the expense of the liberties of the peo 
ple ;" and w r ho "had been rewarded with rank with 
out having the least pretensions to it, except cabal 
and intrigue." There were officers who were desti 
tute alike of honor and patriotism, who unjustly 
clamored for their pay, while they drew large sums 



148 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

of public money under pretext of paying their men, 
but applied them to the support of their own extrav- 
aorance ; who went home on furlough, and never 

O " ^ 

returned ; and who, regardless of their word as gen 
tlemen, violated their paroles, and were threatened 
by Washington with exposure in every newspaper 
in the land, as men who had disgraced themselves 
and were heedless of their associates in captivity, 
whose restraints were increased by their misconduct. 
At times, courts-martial were continually sitting ; and 
so numerous were the convictions that the names of 
those who were cashiered were sent to Congress in 
lists. " Many of the surgeons," are the words of 
Washington " are very great rascals, countenancing 
the men to sham complaints to exempt them from 
duty, and often receiving bribes to certify indispo 
sitions, with a view to procure discharges or fur 
loughs ; " and still further, they drew for the public 
^ medicines and stores in the most profuse and extrav 
agant manner, for private purposes." In a letter to 
the governor of a State, he affirmed that the officers 
who had been sent him therefrom were " generally 
of the lowest class of the people ; " that they " led their 
soldiers to plunder the inhabitants, and into every 
kind of mischief." To his brother, John Augustine 
Washington, he declared that the different States 
were nominating such officers as were " not fit to be 
shoeblacks." Resignations occurred upon discred 
itable pretexts, and became alarmingly prevalent, 
Some resigned at critical moments, and others com 
bined together in considerable numbers for purposes 
of intimidation, and threatened to retire from the 
service at a specified time, unless certain terms w r ere 



HISTORICAL ESSAY 149 

complied with. For a single instance, to show the 
extent of the evil, 1 again quote from the Command- 
er-in-Chief, who wrote to a member of Congress, in 
1778, that "the spirit of resigning commissions has 
been long at an alarming height, and increases daily. 
The Virginia line has sustained a violent shock. Not 
less than ninety have already resigned to me. The 
same conduct has prevailed among the officers from 
other States, though not yet in so considerable de 
gree ; and there are but too just grounds to fear that 
it will shake the very existence of the arm} 7 , unless 
a remedy is soon, very soon, applied." The spirit 
did not abate ; since, two years after, he informed 
the President of Congress, that he had " scarcely a 
sufficient number [of officers] left to take care even 
of the fragments of corps which remained." I would 
not be understood to assert that there were not 
proper and imperative causes to justify the retire 
ment of many ; but the illustrious man whose words 
I have so often quoted, and who was obliged to bear 
the disheartening consequences of these frequent 
resignations, was a competent judge of the motives 
and reasons which influenced those with whom he 
was associated ; and as we have his assertion that he 
was often descried, I have not hesitated to class the 
numerous throwing up of commissions with other 
evidences of a want of principle. 

The complaints of wives and children at home ; 
the inattention of Congress and of the State legisla 
tures, to whom the officers had a right, both legal 
and moral, to look for sympathy and support in the 
poverty to which some were reduced, are to be taken 
into the account in forming, and should do much to 



150 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

soften, our judgment ; but with the proofs before me, 
obtained entirely from the writings of distinguished 
Whigs, I am compelled to believe that many of those 
who abandoned Washington were guilty of a crime, 
which, when committed by private soldiers, is called 
desertion, and punished with death. Eighteen of the 
generals retired during the struggle : one for drunk 
enness ; one to avoid disgrace for receiving double 
pay ; some from declining health ; others from the 
weight of advanced years ; others to accept civil em 
ployments ; but several from private resentments, 
and real or imaginary wrongs inflicted by Congress 
or associates in the service. The example of the 
latter class was pernicious ; since, when heads of di 
visions or brigades quit their commands for reasons 
chiefly or entirely personal, it was to be expected 
that regiments, battalions, and companies would be 
left in like manner, without officers. Abundant tes 
timony can be adduced to show that individuals of 
all ranks entered the army from interested motives, 
and abandoned it from similar reasons. John Adams 
wrote, in 1777: "I am wearied to death with the 
wrangles between military officers, high and low. 
They quarrel like cats and dogs. They worry one 
another like mastitis, scrambling for rank and pay 
like apes for nuts." Washington, more guarded to 
Congress, uses language almost as pointed in his 
letters to private friends. 

Again, the public mind was as fickle in the Revo 
lution as at present, McKean, of Delaware, was the 
only member of Congress who served eight succes 
sive years ; and Jefferson, Gerry, and Ellery were the 
only signers of the Declaration of Independence who 



HISTORICAL ESSAY. lf>l 

were in service when the definitive treaty of peace 
was ratified. The attendance of members, too, was 
at times irregular, and public affairs often suffered 
by their absence. There were periods when several 
of the States were without representation ; and oth 
ers, when the requisite number for the transaction 
of business, were not in their places. The entire 
control of matters, executive and legislative, of meas 
ures to be taken to procure loans in Europe, and to 
raise money at home to provide for the army, and 
for every other branch of the public service, devolved 
frequently upon as few as thirty delegates ; and some 
of the most momentous questions were determined 
by twenty. Those who steadily attended to their 
duties were worn down with care and excessive la 
bor. John Adams, one of them, was in Congress 
three years and three months, during Avhich time he 
was a member of ninety committees, and chairman 
of twenty-five. In the course of the war, persons of 
small claims to notice or regard obtained seats in 
Congress, and by their want of capacity and principle, 
prolonged the contest, and needlessly increased its 
burdens and expenses. By the force of party disci 
pline, as was bitterly remarked by a leading Whig, 
men were brought into the management of affairs 
" who might have lived till the millennium in silent 
obscurity, had they depended on their mental qual 
ifications." 

Such, rapidly told, is the dark side of the story of 
the Revolution, as concerns the winners. I relate it 
here for several reasons. First, because it is due to 
the losers in the strife. Second, to show, what many 
persons are slow to believe, that there were wicked 



152 HISTORICAL ESSAY. 

Whigs " as well as wicked " Tories." Third, to do 
something to correct the exaggerated and gloomy 
views which are often taken of the degenerate spirit 
of the present times, founded on erroneous, because 
on a partial, estimate of the virtues of a by-gone 



age. 



AMERICAN LOYALISTS. 

ABBOTT, BENJAMIN. Minister of the Methodist Episco 
pal Church. He was born on Long Island, N. Y., in 1732. 
His youth was passed in dissipation. Before the Revolution 
he became religiously inclined, and after due spiritual prep 
aration, entered the ministry. The prevalent impression was, 
that few preachers of his denomination favored the popular 
movement, and in common with most of them, "he was sus 
pected of Toryism. But he persisted in addressing the 
people, as he had opportunity, though sometimes " at the 
peril of his life." Once, while preaching " in a private 
house, a mob of soldiers came rushing in with guns and 
fixed bayonets, one of whom approached him, and presented 
his gun as though he would run him through, while his asso 
ciates in the adventure were standing around the door. 
Mr. Abbott, heedless of the interruption, finished his dis 
course; and his assailants, awed by his intrepidity, retired 
without injuring him. On another occasion, a hundred 
armed men assembled at the place of meeting, but, instead 
of violence, they listened as orderly as others. Thus far, 
and indeed until 1780, he labored according to his own 
pleasure. After he placed himself under the direction of the 
Conference, he was stationed on several circuits in the State 
of New York, on one in New Jersey, and on one in Mary 
land. He died at Salem, N. J., in 1791), aged sixty-four, 
and in the twenty-third year of his ministry. 

ACKERLY, OBADIAII. Of New r York. In 1783 he aban 
doned his home and property, and settled in New Brunswick. 
He died at St. John in 1843, aged eighty-seven. Catharine, 



154 ADAMS. AGNEW. 

his wife, (lied at the same city in 1830, at the age of seventy- 
two. 

ADAMS, DOCTOR . Of the State of New York. In 

1774, or early in 1775, he was hoisted up and exposed upon 
u Landlord Fay s sign-post, where was fixed a dead cata 
mount." The party who inflicted this punishment regretted 
that they had not tied him and given him instead five hun 
dred lashes. His residence was at Arlington. 

ADDISON, REV. H. Of Maryland. Episcopal minister. 
He was attainted and lost his estate. In 178o, he was at 
New York, a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. In a 
Loyalist tract published at London in 1784, I find it said, 
that he was a gentleman of large property, and that on his 
arrival in England, Lord North allowed him a pension of 
,150 per annum, to support himself and son, which was less 
than he had formerly given his coachman and footman. 
And, adds the writer, Mr. Addison, disgusted at so small 
a consideration, resigned his pension and returned to New 
York, where he endeavored to make terms with the Whigs, 
and to effect the restoration of his estate which he valued at 
,30,000, but that he failed to obtain leave even to reside in 
Maryland. 

ADDISON, DANIEL DELANY. Of Maryland. He entered 
the Maryland Loyalists in 1776 : was a captain in 1782, and 
a major at the peace. He went to England, and received 
half-pay. He died suddenly at the age of fifty, in Charlotte 
Street, Fitzroy Square, London, 1808. 

AGNEW, JOHN. He was rector of the Established Church, 
parish of Suffolk, Virginia. On the 24th of March, 1775, 
the Whio- Committee of Nansemond County called him to 

O 

an account for the loyalty of his pulpit performances. 

I have before me a copy of Lord Dunmore s Proclamation, 
dated November 7, 177G, on board the ship William, of Nor 
folk, which Mr. Agnew was ordered to read in church, and 
the indorsement on the back is, " which was done accord 
ingly." He soon after quitted that part of the country, and 
became chaplain of the Queen s Rangers. He finally settled 



AGNEW. AIRMAN. 155 

in New Brunswick, and died near Fredericton, in 1.812, aged 
eighty-five. He was taken prisoner with Stair Agnew and 
others, during the Revolution, and carried to France. On 
the passage out, the ship encountered a severe gale, and lay 
a wreck for twenty-four hours. 

AGNEW, STAIR. Believed to have been a son of the Rev. 
John Agnew. He was certainly from Virginia, and a cap 
tain in the Queen s Rangers, and settled at Fredericton, 
where he resided until his death, in 1821, at the age of 
sixty-three. He enjoyed half-pay. While attached to the 
Rangers he was taken prisoner and carried to France, and 
was not exchanged until near the close of the war. It seems 
that at the battle of the Brandy wine he was severely wounded, 
and while on his passage to Virginia, for recovery, was cap 
tured by the French squadron. Franklin, Minister to France, 
was appealed to, to effect his release and that of others made 
prisoners at the same time. Captain Agnew s letter from 
the Castle of St. Maloes, February 20, 1782, details the cir 
cumstances of his captivity, and contains some feeling allu 
sions to his " aged and beloved mother." He closes : " O, 
God ! who knows, perhaps she at this moment, from an inde 
pendent affluence, is reduced by the vicissitudes of the times 
to penury. My heart, afflicted with the misfortunes of our 
family, can no more ." He was a member of the 
House of Assembly of New Brunswick for thirty years, and 
a magistrate of York County for a considerable period. His 

?T5 v L 

wife, Sophia Winifred, died in that county in 1<8:20, at the 
age of fifty-two. 

AIKMAX, ALEXANDER. Of South Carolina. He was born 
in Scotland in 175."), and at the age of sixteen he emigrated to 
Charleston, and became the apprentice of Robert Wells, a book 
seller and printer of that city. He left the country in conse 
quence of the Revolution, and after some wanderings, fixed 
his residence in Jamaica, where, in 1778, he established a 
newspaper called the " Jamaica Mercury," which title was 
changed to that of the " Royal Gazette," on his obtaining the 
patronage of the government of the Colony. For many years 



156 AKERLY. ALLAIRE. 

he was a member of the House of Assembly, and printer to 
tli.it body and to the King. In 1795 he visited Great Britain, 
but was captured on the passage, and compelled to ransom 
his property. He visited his native land three times subse 
quently, but remained at home after the year 1814. He 
bore the character of an honorable, worthy, and charitable 
man. His estates in the parish of St. George s were known 
as Birnam Wood and Wallenford. He died at Prospect Pen, 
St. Andrew s, July, 1838, at the age of eighty-three. His 
wife was Louisa Susanna, second daughter of Robert Wells, 
his former master. This lady was four years his fellow-clerk 
in her father s office at Charleston, and joined him from Eng 
land after no little peril, since she was taken once by the 
French, and kept in France three months, and was detained 
a second time by a British cruiser, because she took passage 
in a slave ship. She died at West Cowes in 1831, aged sev 
enty-six. Her mother was a Ruthven, and of the lineage of 
the Earls of Gowrie. Mr. Aikman s children were ten, of 
whom there were two survivors at the time of his decease, 
namely, Mary, the wife of James Smith, of Jamaica ; and 
Ann Hunter, the widow of John Enright, surgeon in the 
Royal Navy. Of his sons, Alexander, who succeeded to his 
business, died in 1831, leaving a large family. 

AKERLY, - . In 1782, in command of a small party 
of Loyalists in New York. Among his prisoners was one 
Strong, who was hung. 

ALDEN, ABIATHER. Of Maine. Physician. One of the 
two Loyalists of Saco and Biddeford. An armed party took 
him, placed him on his knees upon a large cask, and with their 
guns presented to his body, told him to recant his opinions, 
or suffer instant death. He signed the required confession, 
and was released. Subsequently lie removed to Scarborough, 
in the same State. He was distinguished in metaphysics. 

ALLAIRE, ANTHONY. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment, and at the peace a captain in the 
same corps. He settled in New Brunswick, and received 
half-pay. He was one of the grantees of the city of St. John, 



ALLEN. 157 

but, removing to the country, died in the parish of Douglas, 
in 1808, at the age of eighty -four. 

ALLLN, WILLIAM. Chief Justice of Pennsylvania. lie 
accepted and held that office at the request of distinguished 
men in the Province ; its emoluments were appropriated to 
charities. On the approach of the Revolution he went to 
England, and died September, 1780. He was distinguished 
for his love of literature and the arts ; was a friend to Ben 
jamin West when he needed a patron, and assisted Franklin 
to establish a college at Philadelphia. His father was an 
eminent merchant, and died in 1725. No person in Penn 
sylvania, probably, was richer than Judge Allen, or possessed 
greater influence. A wag of the time said, he joined the 
royal side " because the Continental Congress presumed to 
declare the American States free and independent without 
first asking the consent, and obtaining the approbation, of 
himself and wise family." It is stated, that in 1761, he was 
one of the three persons in Philadelphia who kept a coach. 
His own was drawn by four horses, and his coachman, who 
was imported from England, was " a great whip." 

ALLEN, WILLIAM. Of Pennsylvania, and son of Chief 
Justice Allen. lie was a Whig, and accepted the commission 
of lieutenant-colonel in the Continental service, and served 
under St. Clair. But in 177(3 he abandoned the cause of his 
country, and joined General Howe, with his brothers. In 
Continental Congress, when he asked to resign his commis- 

o o 

sion u Resolved that leave be granted." In 1778 he 
raised a corps called the Pennsylvania Loyalists, and, with 
the rank of lieutenant-colonel, was the commanding officer. 
From the influence of his family, and from his own personal 
standing, he expected to make rapid enlistments, but was 
disappointed. At the siege of Pensacola, one of this corps 
attempted to desert, was seized, whipped to the extent of five 
hundred lashes, drummed out of cam]), with his hands tied 
behind, with a large label pinned to his breast stating his 
crime, escorted close to the enemy s line, and left to his fate. 
The day following, a shell was thrown into the door of the 
VOL. i. 14 



158 ALLEN. 

magazine, as the men were receiving powder, and forty-five 
of this regiment were killed, and a number wounded. In 
1782. and near the close of the contest, though still in ser 
vice, the Pennsylvania Loyalists were of but little conse 
quence in point of numbers. Colonel Allen was noted for 
wit, for good-humor, and for affable and gentlemanly man 
ners. The names of all the officers under his command at 
the period last mentioned will be found in this work. He 
was attainted of treason and lost his estate under the con 
fiscation acts. I find his name last, in 1783, as a grantee 
of St. John, New Brunswick. 

ALLEN, ANDREW. Of Pennsylvania, son of Chief Justice 
Allen, and himself the successor of Judge Chew, who suc 
ceeded his father. He, at first, was found among the leading- 
Whigs, and was a member of Congress, and of the Committee 
of Safety. In 1776 he put himself under protection of Gen 
eral Howe, at Trenton, and during the war went to England. 
He was attainted, and lost his estate under the confiscation 
acts. In 1779 he was directed to testify before Parliament 
on the inquiry into the conduct of Sir William Howe and 
General Burgoyne, while in America, but was not examined. 
He died in London in 1825, at the age of eighty-five. His 
son Andrew T , a very accomplished gentleman, was many years, 
prior to the war of 1812, British Consul at Boston. 

ALLEN, JOHN. Of Pennsylvania, a son of Chief Justice 
Allen. In 177G he joined the British under General Howe, 
at Trenton. Unlike his brother, he was an avowed Loyalist 
from the first. He was attainted of treason, but died at Phil 
adelphia, February, 1778, in his thirty-ninth year, before the 
day on which he was ordered to surrender himself for trial. 

ALLEN, JAMES. Of Philadelphia ; the remaining son of 
Chief Justice Allen, and the only one of them who did not, 
join the Royal Army. He remained at home wholly inactive, 
though his sympathies were supposed to be loyal. He was 
in declining health in 1776, and died before the close of the 
following year. His children were James ; Anne Penn, who 
married James Greenleaf ; Margaret, who married Chief 



ALLEN. 159 

Justice Tilghman ; and Mary, who married Harry Walter 
Livingston, of Livingston s Manor, New York. The last- 
named daughter was living in 1855. Mrs. Allen, who died 
in the year 1800, was the only daughter of John Lawrence, 
and cousin of Margaret Shippen, second wife of Benedict 
Arnold. 

ALLEN, ISAAC. A lawyer of Trenton, New Jersey. He 
entered the military service of the Crown, and in 1782 was 
lieutenant-colonel of the second battalion of New Jersey Vol 
unteers. He had property in Pennsylvania, and the executive 
council of that State ordered, that, unless he should surrender 
himself and take his trial for treason within a specified time, 
he should stand attainted. lie went to St. John, New Bruns 
wick, at the peace, and was one uf the grantees of that city. 
He rose to distinction in that Province, and among other 
offices held a seat in the Council, and was a judge of the 
Supreme Court. His residence was at Fredericton, and he 
died there in 180f>, aged sixty-five. His sister Sarah died at 
the same place in 1885, aged ninety-one. 

ALLEN, ADAM. He was an officer in the Queen s Rangers, 
and, it is believed, a lieutenant. He went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. He received half-pay. In 1798 he was in command 
of a post at Grand Falls, on the River St. John, and wrote a 
piece in verse descriptive of these Falls, which his son, Jacob 
Allen, of Portland, New Brunswick, sent to the press in 1845. 
He died in York County, New Brunswick, in 1828, aged 
sixty-six. 

ALLEN, JOLLEY. Of Boston. In an account of his suffer 
ings and losses, he relates that, "sometime, I think in the 
month of October, 1772, I bought two chests of tea of Gov 
ernor Hutchinson s two sons, Thomas and Elisha, about 
eleven o clock in the forenoon." This purchase was the 
prime cause of all his subsequent misfortunes. lie sold goods 
" cheap for cash ; " he boarded many of the British officers ; 
and he kept " horses and chaises to let." In a word, Jolley 
was a shrewd, dashing, thriving man. A Loyalist, body and 



160 ALLISON. AMBROSE. 

soul, he left Boston with the Royal Army, at the evacuation in 
March, 1776. The man who engaged to convey his family 
and property to Halifax, was a knave, and unskilful in the 
management of a vessel. Soon parting with the fleet, they 
arrived, not in Nova Scotia, but at Cape Cod ; where his 
goods were seized and confiscated, and where all on board 
were imprisoned. His brother Lewis petitioned for leave 
to take his seven children ; and the Assembly, in granting 
the request, stipulated that Lewis should receive .36.8 from 
Jolley s effects ; that he should give bonds to support the chil 
dren, and should maintain Jolley himself; while a committee 
were to take possession of all the property, to deliver to Lewis 
" the children s four feather beds and bedding, and the wear 
ing apparel of the children and of the late wife of Jolley," 
and his own clothing. In September, 1776, our unhappy 
Loyalist was allowed to make sale of a part of his goods at 
Cape Cod, in order to pay the debts contracted there by him 
self and family ; while the selectmen of Provincetown were 
directed to deliver the remainder to a committee of the Court, 
to be disposed of on public account. I find him next in 1779, 
when lie was in London, and one of the Loyalists who ad 
dressed the king. He died in England in 1782. Sir William 
Pepperell and George Erving were his executors ; and he 
directed that, after the troubles were over, his remains 
should be removed to the family vault under King s Chapel, 
Boston. 

ALLISON, EDWARD. Of Long Island, New York. He 
acknowledged allegiance in 1776, and was subsequently a 
captain in De Lancey s Third Battalion. At the peace he 
settled in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. - He died 
in that Province. 

ALTHOUSE, JOHN. Of New York. In 1782 he was a 
captain in the New York Volunteers. At the peace he went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, and was one of the grantees 
of the city. He died in that Province. 

AMBROSE, MICHAEL. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Prince of Wales American Volunteers. He went to New 



AMORY. 161 

Brunswick at the peace, and received half-pay. He died in 
the parish of St. Martin in that Province. 

AMORY, THOMAS. Of Boston. He was born in Boston 
in 172:2, and graduated at Harvard University in 1741. He 
studied divinity, but never took orders. In 1705 lie married 
Elizabeth, daughter of William Coffin, and purchased the 
house built by Governor Belcher, at the corner of Harvard 
and Washington Streets, which was his principal residence 
for the rest of his life. He took very little part in the contro 
versies which preceded the Revolution, except that he was 
one of the Addressers of Gage. He was, however, on terms 
of friendship with many of the British officers stationed in 
Boston ; and, it is related that, while several were dining 
with him, a mob attacked his house, and broke some of the 
windows. Mr. Amory spoke to them from the porch, and 
commanded them to disperse ; meanwhile, the officers made 
their escape through the garden. He remained in Boston 
during the siege, and at the evacuation in March. 1776, 
accompanied by his younger brother Jonathan, he went to 
Washington, at the instance of the selectmen, to request that 
the British might be permitted to retire without molestation, 
on condition that they embarked without injury to the town. 
This proposition had the sanction of Sir William Howe ; 
and, though no positive arrangement was concluded, an un 
derstanding to this effect was respected on both sides. His 
wife s family the Coffins were mostly refugee Loyalists. 
Of her nephews, two were distinguished: namely, Isaac, who 
became an Admiral in the Royal Navy ; and John, who rose 
to the rank of Lieutenant-General in the British Army. 
Suspected of sympathy with the enemy, Mr. Amory removed 
to Watertown, where he lived some years. He died in 1784; 
his widow r survived until 1823. He left nine children, seven 
of whom were married, and resided in Boston. 

The mingling of the blood of the loyal and of the disloyal, 
at the present time, causes one to muse on the political asper 
ities of the past. On the memorable 17th of June, 1775, 
Linzee, of the King s ship-of-war Falcon, cannonaded the 
14* 



162 AMORY. 

works which Prescott, the " rebel," defended ; but the 
granddaughter of the first was the wife of Prescott the his 
torian, who was a grandson of the last ; and this lady is a 
daughter of Thomas C., the eldest son of the subject of this 
notice. Jonathan, the second son of our Loyalist, married 
Hettie, daughter of James Sullivan, Governor of Massachu 
setts ; while the wife of John Amory, another son, was near 
of kin to Henry Gardner, the "rebel, who succeeded Harri 
son Gray, the last royal treasurer of the same State. Again, 
Nathaniel, still another son, married a niece of our Commo 
dore Preble, and her sister was the wife of Admiral Wormley 
of the Hoyal Navy. Once more : William, a fifth son of the 
Loyalist, was an officer in the navy of both countries, and 
under our own flag distinguished himself in several engage 
ments. But " loyalty," as understood in olden time, is still 
represented in the family, by the union of Mr. Amory s 
grandson Charles, with Martha Greene : and of his grandson 
James Sullivan, with Mary Greene, nieces of the late Lord 
Lyndhurst. We leave this pleasant record of oblivion of the 
differences of another age, to add that Mr. Amory s grand 
son, Thomas C., married Esther Sargent ; and that William, 
of the same degree of consanguinity, is the husband of Anna, 
daughter of David Sears, of Boston. Of the sons here men 
tioned, Thomas C. was a successful merchant, and died in 
1812 ; Jonathan, also a merchant, died in 1828. Thomas 
C. Amory, Jr., also a descendant, is the author of the " Life 
of Governor Sullivan," (his grandfather on his mother s side,) 
in two vols., 8vo. 

AMORY, JOHN. Of Boston. Brother of the preceding. 
He was born in Boston in 1728, and married Catherine, 
daughter of Rufus Greene, by whom he was the father of 
nine children, who grew up and settled in his native town. 
-He buik the house opposite the Stone Chapel, corner of Tre- 
mont and Bowdoin Streets, and lived there, and in Washing 
ton Street on the site of Amory Hall. He engaged exten 
sively in commerce with his younger brother. The letters 
of his business house from 1760, during the Stamp Act excite- 



ANDERSON. 163 

merit and the Tea war, give many interesting particulars 
of that stirring period. These letters moreover, predicted, 
long before the war broke out, a sanguinary contest, and the 
actual separation of the Colonies from the mother-country, 
if the government persisted in its measures of coercion. Parts 
of this correspondence were published in the English papers, 
and to one letter a member of Parliament ascribed influence 
in the repeal of the Stamp Act. At the beginning of hostil 
ities, his house owed their English creditors 23,000 sterling; 
and while those who owed them, from inability, or taking 
advantage of the times, paid, if at all, in a depreciated cur 
rency, they remitted their whole debt without delay. In 
1774 it became important that one of the partners should 
<ro to England. The subject of this notice went, takino- his 

t? O J Z3 

wife. Her protracted illness, which terminated in her death 
in 1778, prevented his return ; and, considered a " refugee," 
his property was put in sequestration. His brother wrote 
that, should the result be confiscation, he would share what 
he had with him. His sympathies, it is said, were with his 
countrymen in the struggle in which they were engaged for 
their liberties ; and he left England and lived on the Conti 
nent. He embarked for America shortly before the peace ; 
but landing at New York, then held by the British, was forced 
to take the oath of allegiance to the Crown, not being per 
mitted to live in Boston in consequence of the " Banishment 
Act." He went, however, to Providence, where he remained 
until 1784, when, on his petition to the Legislature of Mas 
sachusetts, he was restored to the rights of citizenship. He 
died in 1805, leaving a large estate. One of his daughters 

7 ^ i7> ^T 1 

married John Lowell, widely known as a political writer ; 
and another was the wife of John McLean, who liberally 
endowed the Massachusetts General Hospital. 

ANDERSON, SAMUEL. Of New York. At the beginning 
of the Revolution he went to Canada. He soon entered the 
service of the Crown, and was a captain under Sir John John 
son. In 1783 he settled near Cornwall, Upper Canada, and 
received half-pay. He held several civil offices : those of 



164 ANDERSON. 

magistrate, judge of a district court, and associate justice of 
the Court of King s Bench, were among them. He continued 
to reside upon his estate near Cornwall, until his decease in 
188G, at the age of one hundred and one. His property in 
New York was abandoned and lost. 

ANDERSON, WILLIAM. Of West Chester County, New 
York. Was a Protester against the Whigs at White Plains 
in 1775. At the peace, accompanied by his family of four 
persons, and by one servant, he went from New York to 
Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him fifty 
acres of land, one town and one water-lot. His losses in con 
sequence of his loyalty were estimated at X800. He re 
moved from Shelburne to St. John, New Brunswick, and was 
a grantee of that city. 

ANDERSON, PETER. In 1782 a Loyalist Associator at New 
York, to settle at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, the following year. 
He went to St. John, New T Brunswick, and was a grantee of 
that city. He died at Fredericton, in that Province, in 1828, 
at the ao;e of ninety-five. 

C> / 

ANDERSON, JOSEPH. Lieutenant in the King s Regiment, 
New York. At the peace he retired to Canada. He died 
near Cornwall, Canada West, in 1858, aged ninety. He 
drew half-pay for a period of about seventy years. " One 
of the last survivors of the United Empire Loyalists." 

ANDERSON, JAMES. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Was an 
Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. 

December, 1775 : "I am credibly informed," wrote Wash 
ington to the president of Congress, u that James Anderson, 
the consignee and part-owner of the ship Concord and cargo, 
is not only unfriendly to American liberty, but actually in 
arms against us, being captain of the Scotch company at Bos 
ton." In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He was at 
New York in July, 1788, and one of the fifty-five who peti 
tioned for lands in Nova Scotia. 

ANDERSON, CULBERT. Of South Carolina. Died prior 
to 1785. Estate confiscated ; but two plantations in the 
neighborhood of Ninety-Six, restored to Mary his widow and 
her children, by act of the General Assembly. 



ANDREWS. 165 

WS, Jonx, D. D. Provost of tlic University of 
Pennsylvania. He was born in Maryland in 1740, and 
educated at Philadelphia. In 1707 he was ordained in Lon 
don as an Episcopal clergyman, and became a missionary ; 
and subsequently a rector of Queen Ann s County, Mary 
land. " Not partaking of the patriotic spirit of the times," 
he removed from Maryland, and was absent several years. 
In 1785 he was appointed to the charge of an Episcopal 
academy at Philadelphia, and four years after received the 
professorship of moral philosophy in the college of that city. 
In 1810 he succeeded Doctor McDowell as provost. He 
died in 181o, aged sixty-seven. " In stature he was tall and 
portly, and his personal appearance and carriage commanded 

respect He was a fine specimen of -the old school 

gentleman of a former generation." His wife deceased in 
1798. He was the father of ten children, the eldest of 
whom, Robert, graduated at Philadelphia in 1790. 

ANDREWS, SAMUEL. An Episcopal clergyman of Connec 
ticut. His principles separated him from his flock, and he 
became the first rector of the church of his communion at 
St. Andrew, New Brunswick. After a ministry of fifty- 
eight years, he died at that place, September 26, 1818, aged 
eighty-two. His wife Hannah died at St. Andrew, January 
1, 1816, at the age of seventy-five. 

ANDREWS, SAMUEL. Of North Carolina. Major in the 
Loyal Militia. At the beginning of the Revolution he left 
his seat at Newbern, and took refuge on board a ship-of-war 
at Wilmington. Early in 1776 he received a commission as 
lieutenant, served under General McDonald, and was taken 
prisoner. In 1781 he raised a company, and joined Lqrd 
Cornwallis. He was engaged in the capture of Governor 
Burke, and when Fanning was wounded, he assumed com 
mand, and conducted the prisoners to the British lines. Pro 
motion followed. At the evacuation of Charleston, he retired 
with his family to Florida. Obnoxious to the Whigs by his 
course 1 during the war, he was one of the three whom they 
refused to pardon, in the act of oblivion. I have a copy of 



166 ANSLEY. ARMSTRONG. 

his memorial claiming compensation for bis services and losses, 
in his own handwriting, by which it appears that be lost by 
confiscation, a farm, dwelling-bouse, two stores, a grist-mill, 
with a stone bouse, two negroes, fifty bead of cattle, several 
horses and sheep, furniture, &c. He was at Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia, in July, 1785, for the purpose of pressing his claim 
upon the commissioners, " under very disagreeable circum 
stances." Unsuccessful, he subsequently employed David 
McPherson, London. 

ANSLEY, OZIAS. In 1782 he was an ensign in the first 
battalion of New Jersey Volunteers, and adjutant of the 
corps. At the peace he settled in New Brunswick, and 
received half-pay. He was a magistrate and a judge of the 
Common Pleas for several years. He died at Staten Island, 
New York, in 1828, aged eighty-five. His son, the Rev. 
Thomas Ansley, an Episcopalian clergyman of Nova Scotia, 
died at St. Andrew, New Brunswick, in 1831, aged about 
sixty-five. His grandson, Daniel Ansley, Esq., (1847,) re 
sides at St. John. His dauo-hter Charity, wife of Nathaniel 

} / 

Brittain, died in 1848, in her seventieth year. 

ARDKN, DOCTOR CHARLES. Of Jamaica, New York. In 
1775 he was a signer of a declaration against the Whigs. 
In 1776 he was accused of further defection ; and one of his 
offences consisted in persuading other adherents of the Crown 
to have no concern with a congress or with committees. Sev- 

O 

eral witnesses were examined. He went to England before 
the peace. 

ARMSTRONG, WILLIAM. He was a captain in a Loyalist 
corps. At the peace he retired on half-pay, and, as is believed, 
settled in New York. In 1806 he joined the celebrated Mi 
randa in his expedition to effect the independence of the prov 
ince of Caraccas, and, in due time, of all Spanish America. 
Captain Armstrong was known to possess considerable military 
knowledge, method, industry, and vigilance, and received a 
commission as colonel, and the command of the First Regi 
ment of Riflemen in the Columbian Army ; and, as he had 
become familiar with the duties of the quartermaster s 



ARMSTRONG. , 167 

department, in the Revolution, lie was created, also, quarter 
master-general, with two assistants. Under Miranda, Colonel 
Armstrong was extremely unpopular, and was accused of 
" obsequiousness to his superiors, and of superciliousness and 
tyranny in his treatment of those in his power." He seems 
to have been involved in many quarrels. While the Leandcr 
was in the harbor of Jacquemel, (February, 1800,) he and 
Captain Lewis, the ship s commander, had a warm contro 
versy regarding their rank and rights while associated on ship 
board. The steward s slovenly habits displeased the former, 
and he gave the delinquent a u hearty rope s ending," which 
enraged Lewis, and drew from him the declaration, that every 
person in his vessel was subject to his authority, and should 
be punished by no other. Armstrong insisted, on the other 
hand, that he would chastise whomsoever he pleased. Both 
resorted to great bitterness of speech in the war of words 
which ensued. Miranda took the side of the Colonel, and 
behaved worse than even Lewis or Armstrong, and, u before 
the storm was over, appeared to be more fit for bedlam than 
for the command of an army." Not long after this occur 
rence, the Bee, another of the vessels attached to the expe 
dition, ran foul of the flag-ship, and caused considerable dam 
age ; when Armstrong, seizing a trumpet, called to the master 
of that vessel, and bade him never to approach so near the 
Leander in future. Lewis, angry at the interference of the 
quarer master-general, rebuked him severely for the act, and 
the quarrel between them was renewed. In this instance, 
Miranda decided in favor of Lewis. The dislike between 
the two officers, who took so opposite views of their right to 
supremacy, became settled and irreconcilable, and a third 
quarrel soon occurred, in which the chief sustained Arm 
strong ; and Lewis, in the violence of his passion, resolved 
to resign, and ordered his servant to collect his ba<ro;no;e and 

C") ">O 3 

prepare to leave the ship. A mediator was, however, found, 
and the dispute apparently settled. At a subsequent time, 
Miranda and the Captain became involved in a controversy, 
and Armstrong endeavored to produce a reconciliation be- 



168 ARMSTRONG. 

tween them ; but he not only failed in this, but drew upon 
himself the resentment of both. Lewis renewed his threat to 
resign, and now actually threw up his commission. Besides 
these quarrels, the Colonel had several others. The moment 
the Leander cast anchor at Grenada, Lieutenant Dwyer quit 
ted the ship. During the passage, he had been in continual 
collision with Armstrong, either on his own account, or in 
defence of his officers and men, whom the lordly personage 
assailed with words or violence. The notions of the Quarter 
master-General of the Columbian Army appear to have been 
not a little tyrannical and arbitrary. It is related, that he 
kept three officers (on very slight provocation), confined to 
the ship s forecastle upwards of two weeks, and during this 
time refused them the liberty of walking on the quarter-deck 
and of entering the cabin. 

Miranda required of his officers subscription to the following 
oath : "I swear to be true and faithful to the free people of 
South America, independent of Spain, and to serve them 
honestly and faithfully against all their enemies or opposers 
whatsoever, and to observe and obey the orders of the supreme 
government of that country legally appointed; and the orders 
of the general and officers set over me by them." Some objec 
tion was made to the form of this oath, which the General 
obviated bv assurances to the gentlemen who were citizens of 

"> 

the United States, that they might annex to their signatures 
the condition that they did not intend to cancel their allegi 
ance to their own country. After this difficulty was settled, 
Armstrong read and explained the Articles of War of the 
United States, and the alterations in form, not in substance 
or spirit, which had been made to adapt them to the service 
in which they were engaged. " Notice, gentlemen," said the 
Colonel, " the object of the change is to suit the wording of 
the Articles to the local names and situations of the country 
where they are to take effect. Thus, for the Army of the 
United States, will be substituted the Army of South Amer 
ica ; and for the President, or Congress of the United States, 
will be used, the Supreme Authority of the free people of 
South America, or something of this kind." 



ARMSTRONG. 169 

The Americans who had connected themselves with this 
enterprise were generally persons of some ability, but it is 
understood that most, if not all of them, were in straitened 
circumstances, and that some were extremely needy. Arm 
strong s half-pay as a Loyalist officer might have prevented 
him from being in a situation of destitution. His pay under 
Miranda was fixed at ten dollars per day, to commence Jan. 
1, 1800, which was the date of his commission of colonel. 

The common men, sailors and soldiers were an ignorant 
and undisciplined mob, and the quartermaster-general had 
enough to do to keep them quiet. As in his intercourse with 
the officers, his disputes with them were continual, hardly a 
day passed without some one or more of them being taken 
to task for misconduct, or placed in arrest and confinement. 

The failure of Miranda to pay his officers was a new source 
of difficulty and contention, and was a principal cause of 
bringing matters to a crisis. John Orford, a lieutenant of 
engineers, was especially importunate, and in answer to his 
second communication on the subject of arrearages due to 
him, received the following letter : 

" PORT OF SPAIN, December 2d, 1806. 

" SIR, By order of General Miranda, I have to inform 
you, that he received yours of the twenty-ninth ult., the pur 
port of which he conceives to be highly improper, and con 
trary to every military principle ; that in duty to himself, and 
for the good of the service, he thinks it proper that you should 
be dismissed from it, and you are hereby dismissed from it, 
and no longer to be considered as an officer under his com 
mand." 

Other officers connected with this ill-starred attempt to 
revolutionize South America, applied for dismissals, and the 
defection became general. Armstrong, however, retired with 
out notice or leave, and his chief accused him of desertion. 
Departing in the sloop-of-war Hawk, for Dominica, the quar 
termaster-general of the Columbian army took passage at that 

VOL. I. 15 



170 ARMSTRONG. APTHORP. 

island for London. Inferior officers, induced to believe that 
the desertion of one so near Miranda s person gave them full 
liberty to abandon him in the same informal manner, retired 
from his service without writing letters of resignation, though 
some of them did observe that form in taking their leave of 
him and his fortunes. Of Armstrong s career after his arrival 
in England I have obtained no information. 

O 

ARMSTRONG, RICHARD. Major in the Queen s Rangers. 
Entered the corps as a captain. He was one of the most effi 
cient partisan officers in service on the side of the Crown. 
In 1783, he and Captain Saunders were deputed to write 
Colonel Simcoe a parting address. 

APTHORP, EAST. An Episcopal clergyman of Massachu 
setts. He was born in 1733, and was educated in England. 
In 1701 he was appointed a missionary at Cambridge, by the 
Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts ; 
and during his labors there, was engaged in a warm theologi 
cal controversy with Doctor Mayhew. Retiring to England, 
he died there in 1816, aged eighty-three years. His wife was 
a niece of Governor Hutchinson, and a daughter of Judge 
Foster Hutchinson. His only son was a clergyman. One 
daughter married Doctor Cary ; one, Doctor Butler ; and a 
third, a son of Doctor Poley ; the husbands of the two first 
were heads of colleges. Mr. Apthorp was a distinguished 
writer. In 1790 he lost his si;ht. 

!!? 

APTHORP, THOMAS AND WILLIAM. Of Boston, Massa 
chusetts. Both merchants ; were proscribed and banished in 
1778. The year after, William came from New York to 
Boston to solicit the mercy of his countrymen, and occupied 
for awhile a private room in the deputy jailer s house ; but 
letters were received to his disadvantage, and he was commit 
ted to close prison by order of the Council. 

APTHORP, CHARLES WARD. Of New York. He was 
appointed a member of the Council of that Colony in 1763, 
and served until 1783. He had lands in Maine, and property 
in Brookline and Roxbury, Massachusetts, which were con 
fiscated. He died at his seat, Bloomingdale, in 1797. 



ARNOLD. 171 

ARNOLD, MARGARET. Daughter of Edward Shippen, 
Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, and second wife of General 
Benedict Arnold. Born in 1760, or in the year following ; 
died in London in 1804, in her forty-fourth year. She was 
very beautiful, and, it would seem, very ambitious. By her 
father, her relatives, and her circle of friends, she was dearly 
loved. She appeared with her knight at the gorgeous fete, or 
mischianza* in honor of Sir William Howe, on his return to 
England. British and American officers admired her. The 
ill-fated Andre visited her often while he was stationed in 
Philadelphia, and was a correspondent after the Royal Army 
retired to New York. By some she was thought frivolous, 
vain, and artful ; but I have no means of ascertaining the 
truth. To the additional fault charged " extravagance" 
she may be held amenable, since her father wrote in Decem 
ber, 1778, that, " the style of life his fashionable daughters had 
introduced into his family," and " their dress," were obstacles 
to his remaining in Philadelphia. Margaret was the youngest. 
Though her marriage followed in less than four months, her 
hand, I conclude, was not promised ; for it said in the same 
letter that, while she was " much solicited bv a certain o;en- 

*J <7"> 

eral," the consummation of the proposed union " depended 
upon circumstances." As a maiden, she was happy. As a 
wife, she bore great trials and many sorrows. Her name 
appears here, because the third Vice-President of the United 

1 Much has been inferred against Mrs. Arnold because of her acquaint 
ance with Andre before her marriage, and because he honoring her 
above all others was her knight at this the great fete of the Royal Army 
of the Revolution. Fortunately, there is conclusive evidence that on this 
occasion he gave his attentions to another lady. I have a copy of a long 
and minute account of the " mischianza" written by Andre himself. Lord 
Cathcart appeared in honor of Miss Auchmuty. The knights were of 
two Orders: the "Blended Rose," and the "Burning Mountain." An 
dre was the third of the former. These are his own words, " Captain 
Andre, in honor of Misx P. Chew Squire, Lieut. Andre ; Device, two 
game-cocks ; Motto, No rival." 

The knight of Margaret Shippen, the subject of this notice, was Lieu 
tenant Sloper, of the " Blended Rose." The knights of the two other 
Misses Shippen, were Lieutenants Underwood and Winyard. 



172 ARNOLD. 

States accused that she instigated one of the startling crimes 
in history. 

The first husband uttered of the first wife u The woman, 
whom thou gavest to be with me, she gave me of the tree, 
and I did eat. So, if we are to believe Aaron Burr, the 
principal miscreant of the American Revolution could have 
said, " Margaret my wife, she gave me of the tree of treason, 
and I did eat." 

A gentleman may, if he will, pass lightly over the sins of 
a lady, because of his sympathy for the innocent of her lin 
eage ; but, I purpose to examine the accusation against this 
unfortunate wife with care, and to determine the case upon 
the probabilities and the evidence. There is no testimony, 
as far as I know, except her own alleged confession, in the 
presence of two persons. According to Davis, she told Mrs. 
Prevost that " she was heartily sick of the theatricals she 
was exhibiting ; " that " she was disgusted with the American 
cause, and those who had the management of public affairs ; 
and that, through great persuasion and unceasing perseve 
rance, she had ultimately brought the General into an ar- 
ran^ement to surrender West Point to the British." Parton, 

O 

the latest biographer of Burr, is more particular. lie relates, 
that one evening while Burr was at Mrs. Prevost s, a lady 
veiled and attired in a riding-habit, burst into the room, and, 
after assurance of her safety, exclaimed " Thank God ! 
I ve been playing the hypocrite, and I m tired of it." lie 
relates further, that Mrs. Arnold gave an account of the way 
she had deceived Washington, Hamilton, and others at West 
Point, who believed her innocent of the treason ; that she 
avowed participation in the negotiations with the enemy, and 
"induced her husband to do what he had done; " and that, 
while at Mrs. Prevost s, she took " care to resume her acting 
of the outraged and frantic woman, whenever strangers were 

<"""> C7> 

present." Such are the material points. 

The falsehood of Burr s story is apparent at once. For 
to believe it, is also to believe that a woman, who, not nine- 
teen years old when her husband opened the correspondence 



ARNOLD. 173 

with Sir Henry Clinton, was able and wise enough to herself 
conceive and to assist in executing a great, possibly to the 
Whig cause, a decisive, military crime ; and was yet such an 
utter fool, as, while the country was ringing with the cry of 
" Treason ! Treason ! " to needlessly, boastingly confess her 
guilt in the presence of a Whig officer, who, in the perform 
ance of a common duty, would have arrested her at the 
instant. IIo\v absurd ; surpassing intellectual strength and 
pitiable mental weakness in the same character! Burr told 
too much ; and his lie drops apart by the very weight of its 
contradictions. 

She had "deceived" Washington and Hamilton. Did 
Burr, in his malignity, mean to strike at the sagacity of both ? 
lie disliked the first ; and thus early did he hate the man he 
afterwards slew. And, what was the deception ? " Arnold, 
a moment before the setting out," wrote Hamilton to Colonel 
Laurens, went to the apartment of his wife, " and informed 
her that some transactions had just come to light which must 
forever banish him from his country. She fell into a swoon 
at this declaration, and he left her in it to consult his own 
safety, till the servants, alarmed by her cries, came to her 
relief. She remained frantic all day, accusing every one who 
approached her with an intention to murder her child (an 
infant in her arms) ; and exhibiting every other mark of the 
most genuine and agonizing distress. Exhausted by the fatigue 
and tumult of her spirits, her frenzy subsided towards evening, 
and she sank into all the sadness of affliction. It was impos 
sible not to have been touched with her situation. Every 
thing affecting in female tears, or in the misfortunes of beauty ; 
everything pathetic in the wounded tenderness of a wife, or 
in the apprehensive fondness of a mother ; and, I will add, 
till I have reason to change the opinion, everything amiable 
in the sufferings of innocence ; conspired to make her an 
object of sympathy to all who were present. She experienced 
the most delicate attention, and every friendly office, till her 
departure for Philadelphia." 

Again, in a letter to his future wife, Hamilton said, that 
15* 



174 ARNOLD. 

Mrs. Arnold, " for a considerable time, entirely lost herself. 
The General (Washington) went up to see her, and she 
upbraided him with being in a plot to murder her child. One 
moment she raved, another she melted into tears. Sometimes 
she pressed her infant to her bosom, and lamented its fate, 

in a manner that would have pierced insensibility 

itself. All the sweetness of beauty, all the loveliness of inno 
cence, all the tenderness of a wife, and all the fondness of a 
mother, showed themselves in her appearance and conduct. 
We have every reason to believe that she was entirely unac 
quainted with the plan ; and that the first knowledge of it 
was when Arnold went to tell her he must banish himself 
from his country and from her forever. She instantly fell 
into a convulsion, and he left her in that situation." 

Parton, in commenting upon the letter to Laurens, remarks, 
that the Aid of the Commander-in-Chief gave " the romantic 
falsehood of the affair," and, in " love," was full of tenderness 
to woman ; and that " it fell to Burr s lot to become ac 
quainted with the repulsive truth." The reply is, that, Wash 
ington was not in " love ; " nor, as Parton says of Hamilton, 
was he " a young gentleman of rhetorical tarn; " and it is quite 
probable that some of " the other American officers," who 
were also " deceived," were married, and of mature years. 
Besides, as will be seen in the course of this inquiry, 
Mrs. Arnold s physical organization was somewhat peculiar ; 
and, at times, she lost entire control of her lips, just as she 
did on the distressing occasion under consideration. A Ger 
man dramatist has the beautiful sentiment that, " a mother 
with an infant in her arms, has nature s passport through the 
world." If this deserted wife, in her agony, felt and uttered 
that her child was without this " passport," and was to full 
a victim to its father s wickedness, constituted as she was 
who can wonder ? The very idea of " playing the hypocrite," 
at such a moment, is monstrous. " Theatricals," in a mother, 
when her husband disgraces and abandons her ! 

Mrs. Arnold was bred a gentlewoman ; and, so young, 
was she so fallen, so fertile in the resources of sin ; was she 



ARNOLD. 175 

so destitute of the feelings of her sex, as to act a part ? With 
the grave, penetrating eye of Washington upon her, did she 
dare to play the " hypocrite " so far as to upbraid him, and 
to declare that he was "in a plot to murder her child?" 
Impossible! "Theatricals" -in the presence of the illus 
trious man who only six months before had written his con 
gratulations 1 on the birth of Edward Shippen Arnold this 
very babe ! Would Burr have us believe that the daughter 

O 

of Chief Justice Shippen had less affection for her young, 
than is manifested by the bird and the beast, for the fledgling 
and the lamb ? 

Again, Arnold himself acquitted her of all complicity in 
his crime. "The mistaken vengeance of my countrymen," 
he said in a letter to Washington after the treason, " ought 
to fall only on me. She is as good and innocent as an 
angel, and is incapable of doing wrong." The declaration 
of a criminal is not evidence, I well know, unless corroborated. 
Major Franks, who is a competent witness, confirms the state 
ment. He was an Aid ; and, because he was charged with 
the particular duty of attending her, was laughingly called 
- " the nurse." When asked by a lady to express his opin 
ion concerning her knowledge of her husband s plans, he 
replied, " Madam, she knew nothing of them nothing ! 
She was ignorant of them as a babe." And further, Arnold 
could not venture to trust her, because, " she was subject to 
occasional paroxysms of physical indisposition, attended by 
nervous debility, during which she would give utterance to 
anything and everything in her mind ; " and this " was a fact 
well known amongst us of the General s family, so much so 
as to cause us to be scrupulous of what was told her or said 
within her hearing." I submit with confidence, that Major 
Franks, in these few words, explains Mrs. Arnold s mental 
condition, as stated by Hamilton ; for any proud, well-bred, 

1 Arnold had announced the birth ; and the Commander-in-Chief, at 
the close of a letter dated at Morristown, March 28, 1 780, said in reply, 
" Let me congratulate you on the late happy event. Mrs. Washington 
joins me in presenting her wishes for Mrs. Arnold on the occasion." 



176 ARNOLD. 

sensitive woman, with a constitutional tendency to " parox 
ysms " and u nervous debility," would do much, if not pre 
cisely as she did, when informed of her own ruined hopes in 
life, and that the author of her woes must fly to save his life. 

Again : as soon as the traitor was safe on board of the 
Yuliure, he addressed a letter to Washington, in which he 
asserts his wife s innocence, and uses these significant words : 
" I beg she may be permitted to return to her friends in Phil 
adelphia, or to come to me, as she may choose." Mark the 
order of thought. If she was the partner, nay, the author of 
his crime, he would not have suggested the possibility of a 
separation ; but doubt was predominant in his mind, and 
he expressed himself accordingly. This is of moment, since 
nature and observation teach that, husband and wife, when 
guilty of the same sin, cling to one another as by a new vow, 
and as closely as did the pair who were expelled from Eden. 
Mrs. Arnold s decision w T as free ; and, if principal or accom 
plice, the laws of her being would have impelled her to renew 
the relations which legally existed between herself and the 
father of her child. But the bond was broken ; and, under 
an escort of horse, with the protection of a flag, she departed 
from West Point for the parental roof. 

I conclude here the circumstantial part of her case. The 
allegation of the third Vice-President of the United States 
concerns common girlhood, common wifehood, and universal 
motherhood ; hence the time bestowed upon it. In my judg 
ment, the subject of this notice should be acquitted. The 
probabilities are all in her favor, and there is no evidence 
against her. Indeed, more ; dates and facts prove her entire 
innocence. 

Her husband began to complain of the " ingratitude " of 
his country as early as February, 1777, before he ever saw her, 
and more than two years before he married her ; and, from that 
time down to the discovery of his crime, in September, 1780, 
he was continually quarrelling with individuals, or State 
authorities, or members of Congress, or officers in the army. 
In a word, before his second marriage, (April 8, 1779,) his 



ARNOLD. 177 

clamor about his " wrongs," his importunities for " redress," 
his questionable business and pecuniary transactions, together 
with his arrogance, had disgusted his enemies, and exhausted 
the patience of those who labored earnestly and sincerely to 
relieve his embarrassments, to appease his anger, and to do 
him more than justice. Benedict Arnold, mentally, morally, 
betrayed his country, while his wife was a maiden. The 
Loyalists seem to have known his true character far better 
than the Whigs ; and to have supposed that he favored them 
long previous to his overt treason. There is proof of this in 
the private correspondence of Galloway, the leading Loyalist 
of Pennsylvania. Thus Charles Stewart wrote, December 
17, 1778 : " General Arnold is in Philadelphia. It is said that 
he will be discharged, being thought a pert Tory. Certain it 
is, that he associates mostly ivith these people, and is to be mar 
ried to Miss Shippen," &c. David Sproat, in a letter dated 
January 11, 1779, remarked " You will hear that General 
Arnold, commandant in Philadelphia, has behaved with lenity 
to the Tories, and that he is on the eve of marriage to one of 
Edward Shippen s daughters." 

I pass to the distinct question of Burr s veracity. There 
are so many victims to prejudice, to persecution in our history, 
that, when I began to trace his strange career, I was prepared 
to find him one of them. But I incline to the opinion now, 
that his life was a long, an unbroken lie ; for I own my in 
ability to determine, when, and under what circumstance, I 
can put faith in a man who averred, as he did, that he never 
so much as wished harm to any human being ; that he never 
did, said, or wrote anything to throw a cloud over any woman s 
name ; and that no woman could lay her ruin to him. In 
the eighty-three years which have elapsed since the alleged 
eager, imprudent boasting of Mrs. Arnold at Mrs. Prevost s, 
hundreds of volumes of biography and correspondence of the 
Revolutionary era have been published ; but, as far as my 
knowledge extends, not one of them contains a syllable to 
corroborate Burr s story, or in any way to implicate the sub 
ject of this notice. Nor is this all. When I mingled with 



178 ARNOLD. 

Loyalist families in the British Colonies, Arnold himself, the 
beauty, character, and fate of his wife, were among the favor 
ite topics of conversation. Gentlemen of the lineage of the 
Colonel, who went up the Hudson in the Vulture with Andre* 
and other well-informed persons, never once suggested that 
by tradition, even, Mrs. Arnold was involved in the treason. 

My purpose is accomplished. I have attempted the vindi 
cation of the second wife of Benedict Arnold, simply as a 
duty to her and to her sex. The stain of descent from him, 
from a man, who, in trade was a vulgar, dishonest horse- 
jockey and cattle-dealer, and who, as a military officer, was 
false to his duty ; this, this, her children s children must bear. 

I hasten to complete this article, which is already too long 
for the limits of this work. When she stopped at Mrs. Pre- 
vost s, she was on her way from West Point to Philadelphia. 
She never meant to see her husband again. On her arrival 
at her father s house she was treated with the utmost kindness, 
nor were the endeavors to soothe her anguish bv affectionate 

O t/ 

attentions, entirely lost ; but new sorrows awaited her. On 
the 27th of October, 1780, the Executive Council of Penn 
sylvania issued an order commanding her to depart the State 
within fourteen days from that date, and not to return during 
the war. Her father and others sought to avert this decree 
of exile. The representation that she had resolved to separate 
from the man who had destroyed her happiness ; the pledge of 
her word that she would hold no correspondence with him ; the 
promise of every security for her good conduct, were disre 
garded ; and on the 9th of November she obeyed the edict of 
banishment. At the peace, she again thought of leaving her 
husband ; but concluded, finally, to follow him to New r Bruns 
wick. The Loyalists who went to that Province in 1783, 
lived, at first, in log or rough-board huts. The country w r as 
an unbroken wilderness ; and bears sometimes came to the 
very doors of these rude dwellings. Arnold was among those 
who soon built frame-houses, and secured many of the com 
forts of civilized life. Within the traitor s home there, within 
his home in England, was a sad, a stricken woman. " Her 



ARNOLD. 179 

heart was broken." She came once to her native land. Her 
visit is mentioned in a letter dated at Philadelphia, in Jan 
uary, 1790. The writer remarks, that she had been there six 
months, and intended to stay the remainder of the winter ; 
that " she is handsome, and a woman ; " that out of respect 
to her family, many warm Whigs had been to see her, though 
the common opinion was, that, as her presence placed her 
friends in a painful position, she would have shown more 
feeling by staying away. I learn from another source, that 
she was treated with so much coldness and neglect, even by 
those who had most encouraged her ill-starred marriage, that 
her feelings were continually wounded. "She never could 
come again." 

Her portrait by Sir Thomas Lawrence, is (1855) in the 
possession of the Misses Mcllvaine, Philadelphia. That she 
was very beautiful, is said by all who speak of her. Accounts 
differ as to the time and place of her decease ; the English 
and correct record is, that she died in 1804, in Bryanstone 
Street, Portman Square, London, in her forty-fourth year. 
Her sisters w^ould have brought her younger children to 
America, wisely enough was the offer declined. The story 
of Margaret Shippen has a moral for maidens ; she married 
against the wish, the judgment, of a fond, of a devoted father. 

Mrs. Arnold was the mother of four sons and one daughter : 
namely, Edward Shippen, who was a lieutenant in the Ben 
gal Cavalry, and paymaster of Mattra, and who died in India, 
in 1813 ; James Robertson, of whom presently; George, w r ho 
was a lieutenant-colonel in the Bengal Cavalry, and who died 
in India in 1828 ; William Fitch, w r ho, a magistrate in the 
County of Bucks, England, and late a captain in the Lancers, 
married the only daughter of Captain Ruddach, of the Royal 
Navy ; and who, the father of six children, was living in 1855 ; 
and Sophia Matilda, the wife of Colonel Pownall Phipps, of 
the East India Company Service, who was also living eight 
years ago, and the mother of one son and two daughters. 

A word in conclusion, of the most distinguished son. James 
Robertson Arnold entered the corps of Royal Engineers in 






180 ARNOLD. 

1798. He served two years at Bermuda, and from 1818 to 
1823, commanded the Engineers in Nova Scotia and New 
Brunswick. After the accession of William IV. he was one 
of his Majesty s aids. While in the Provinces just named, he 
visited his father s house, King Street, St. John, and, as 
I have often been told, "threw himself into a chair, and wept 
like a child." He expressed a wish to see his mother s family 
in the United States; but added, U I suppose I should be 
insulted on account of my father," &c. A gentleman who 
was in service with him, and an intimate acquaintance, speaks 
of him in terms of high commendation ; and relates that he 
was a small man, with eyes of remarkable sharpness, and in 
features thought to resemble his father. His wife was Vir 
ginia, daughter of Bartlett Goodrich, of the Isle of Wight. 
.In 1841, he was transferred from the Engineers, and appointed 
Jra Major-General, and a Knight of the Hanoverian Guelphic 
Order. He died in London, December, 1852. 

ARNOLD, BENEDICT. Of Connecticut. Major-General in 
the Continental Army. Nothing need be said in these vol 
umes of a man whose life and infamy are so universally known. 
A word, however, of his private character, in further vindi 
cation of Margaret, his second wife. He was descended from 
the Arnolds of Rhode Island, an honorable family, who for a 
long period figured in the public affairs of that Colony. He 
was bred an apothecary, and from 1763 to 1767 was settled 
at New Haven, as a druggist and bookseller. I am inclined 
to believe that he was a finished scoundrel from early man 
hood to his grave. Nor do I believe that he had any real 
and true hearted attachment to the Whig cause. He fought 
as a mere adventurer, and took sides from a calculation of per 
sonal gain, and chances of plunder and advancement. 

No honorable man would have formed a copartnership with 
others for purchasing goods within the enemy s lines as he 
did, and to the enormous amount of one hundred and forty 
thousand dollars. And no honest man would have lived, 
could have lived as he did, while at Philadelphia. His play, 
his balls, his concerts, his banquets, were enough to have 




ARNOLD. 181 

impaired the fortune of an European noble. His house was 
the best in the city, and had been the mansion of Perm, the 
last royal governor of Pennsylvania, and the descendant of 
the illustrious founder of the Colony. This dwelling he fur 
nished magnificently, kept his coaeh-and-four, and a numerous 
retinue of servants, and indulged in every kind of luxury, 
and ostentatious and vain profusion and display. 

But Arnold should have the benefit of every circumstance 
which, in the judgment of any, can lessen or palliate his guilt. 
Beyond all doubt, then, Congress treated him unjustly. If 
his case had never been submitted to that body, or if it had 
been examined and disposed of by Washington, it is certainly 
possible that his career might have terminated far less dishon 
orably. 

He was made a brigadier-general in the British service, 
and received a large amount of gold to cover his alleged losses 
in deserting the standard of his country. After he went to 
England, Mr. Van Schaack, a New York Loyalist, who was 
also there, paid a visit to Westminster Abbey. " His mus 
ings were interrupted by the entrance of a gentleman accom 
panied by a lady. It was General Arnold, and the lady was 
doubtless Mrs. Arnold. They passed to the cenotaph of Major 
Andre, where they stood and conversed together. What a 
spectacle ! The traitor Arnold in Westminster Abbey, at 
the tomb of Andre, deliberately perusing the monumental 
inscription which will transmit to future ages the tale of his 
own infamy. The scene, with the associations which nat 
urally crowded upon the mind, was calculated to excite vari 
ous emotions in an American bosom ; and Mr. Van Schaack 
turned from it with disgust." 

From the conclusion of the war till his death, Arnold re 
sided chiefly in England ; but for a while he was engaged in 
trade and navigation at St. John, New Brunswick. He was 
disliked, was unpopular, and even hated at St. John. [See 
Elias Hardy and Alpheus Pine, in this work, for illustra 
tion.] Persons of that city still relate instances of his perfidy 
and meanness. George Gilbert, Esquire, (a son of Bradford 

VOL. I. 16 



182 ARNOLD. 

Gilbert, who was a Massachusetts Loyalist,) has now (Au 
gust, 1846,) twelve chairs which are called the " Traitor s 
Chairs," and which were carried from England to St. John 
bv Arnold. When he removed from New Brunswick he sold 
them to the first Judge Chipman, who, after keeping them 
some vears, sold them to their present possessor. They are 
of a French pattern, are large, and covered with blue-figured 
damask : the wood-work is white, highly polished or enam 
elled, and striped with gold. 

The Lord Sheffield, the first ship built in New Brunswick, 
came over the falls of the River St. John, in June, 1786. The 
current story in that Province is, that the builder was unable 
to purchase the necessary sails and rigging, and that Arnold 
became the owner by fraud. 

He died in London, June 14, 1.801. The following brief 
notice appeared in the " Gentleman s Magazine: " " At his 
house in Gloucester Place, Brigadier-General Arnold. His 
remains were interred on the 21st, at Brompton. Seven 
mourning-coaches and four state-coaches formed the caval 
cade." 

His first wife bore him, Benedict, who was an officer of 
artillery in the British Army, who, it is believed, was com 
pelled to quit the service, and who died young in the 
West Indies ; and Richard and Henry, of whom presently. 
The names of five other children appear in the preceding 
notice. 

" We " (the English nation), said the London Times, , in 
1850, " are actually this moment supporting, out of the public 
funds, the descendants of Arnold the American traitor." 

It may be added that General Arnold s mother had six 
children, of whom he and his sister Hannah alone lived to 
the years of maturity. This sister adhered to her brother 
Benedict throughout his eventful and miiltv career, and was 

5 O J 

true to him in the darkest periods of his history. She died 
at Montague in Upper Canada in 1803, and was, as is uni 
formly stated, a lady of excellent character. She was accom 
plished, pleasing in person, witty and affable. She loved, but 



ARNOLD. 183 

at the bidding of her brother, broke off the engagement. She 
never married. 

In 1852 the newspapers announced the decease at Norwich, 
Connecticut, of Elizabeth Arnold, cousin of the TRAITOR, and 
the last of his kindred in that vicinity. Her age was ninety- 
two. She was carried to the poor-house at her own request, 
and died there. 

ARNOLD, HENRY. A son of General Arnold by his first 
marriage. He entered the king s service after his father s 
defection, and was a lieutenant of cavalry in the American 
Legion. He accompanied his father to St. John, and was 
employed in his business. He slept in the warehouse near 
Lower Cove in that city, and lodged there the night the 
building was burned. He lived afterwards at Troy, New 
York, with his aunt Hannah, and was engaged in mercantile 
pursuits. At a subsequent period, he removed to Canada, 
where, in 1829, he was a man of property. He received 
half-pay, and a grant of lands from the British government. 

ARNOLD, RICHARD. Brother of Henry. In 1782 he was 
also a lieutenant of cavalry in the American Legion, com 
manded by his father. In every particular his history, down 
to the year 1829, is identical with that of his brother Henry, 
and need not, therefore, be repeated. Persons are still living 
at St. John, who resided there when General Arnold s store 
was burned. The impression was, at the moment, and still 
is, that the fire was caused by design, and for the purpose of 
defrauding a company in England, that had underwritten 
upon the merchandise which it contained, to an amount far 
exceeding its worth. 1 These persons differ as to the fact, 
whether Arnold himself was at St. John, or absent in Eng 
land, at the time of the fire ; and hence, the degree of blame 
which should be attached to the two sons may be uncertain. 

1 The story as first told was as follows: " We learn from Nova Scotia, 
that the highest suspicion prevails there, that the infamous traitor, Bene 
dict Arnold, set fire to his own house, (store,) having previously effected 
an insurance in London upon it, to a much larger amount than the real 
value of his property "-Newport Herald of September 11, 1788. 



184 ARNOLD. ASHLEY. 

That both Henry and Richard slept in the store on the night 
of the conflagration, and that neither could give a satisfactory 
account of its cause, seems, however, to be certain. 

ARNOLD, OLIVER. Of Connecticut. He was born in that 
State, and graduated at Yale College, in 1776. He went to 
St. John at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. Having labored some years as an Episcopal missionary, 
he was inducted into office as Rector of Sussex, New Bruns 
wick, and finished his course in that capacity in 1834, at the 
age of seventy-nine. He was ardently attached to the Epis 
copal Church, and was regarded as an excellent man. In 
domestic life he was peculiarly kind and affectionate. 

ASHY, JAMES. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutchinson 
in 1774, and a Protester against the Whigs the same year. 
A Boston Whig wrote to a friend at New York as follows : 
" The Addressers of Mr. Hutchinson, and the Protesters 
against our public measures, lead a devil of a life. In the 
country the people will not grind their corn, and in the town 
they refuse to purchase from, and sell to, them." 

ASHLEY, JONATHAN. Minister of Westfield, and subse 
quently of Deerfield, Massachusetts. He graduated at Yale 
College in 1730. He was a warm Loyalist, and difficulties 
occurred between him and his people in consequence. An 
Ecclesiastical Council, convened in May, 1780, by mutual 
consent, to arrange the difference, dispersed after a session of 
eleven days without arriving at any conclusion. He expressed 
his particular sentiments freely and boldly. His flock was so 
nearly divided, that sometimes one party had the ascendency, 
sometimes the other. " When the Whigs were in the ma 
jority, they refused to vote him his firewood." Among the 
anecdotes which show his zeal in the royal cause, I select two : 
" When the provincial Congress of Massachusetts issued the 
proclamation for the Annual Day of Thanksgiving, they sub 
stituted the ejaculation, God save the people, instead of the 
former one, God save the king. He read the proclamation 
from the pulpit, but when he had come to the close, he raised 
himself aboVe his ordinary height, and, with great vehemence, 



ASHLEY. 185 

subjoined, And God save the king/ I say, or we are an 
undone people. 

The other relates to an exchange with the Rev. Mr. New 
ton of Greenfield, who also was a Loyalist. The Deerfield 
minister was told by his Greenfield brother that he might 
avail of the occasion to speak of the Revolution, "by way of 
caution to his people/ I find the result stated thus : " Mr. 
Ashley somewhat enlarged upon the liberty granted him, and 
seriously offended the congregation. Durino- the intermission 

J O cD G 

of service at noon, the friends of the patriot cause assembled, 
and talked the matter over. They finally resolved themselves 
into a meeting, and chose a committee to take measures in 
relation to the afternoon preaching, which they did by fasten- 
in<>- up the meeting-house. When Mr. Ashley came to com- 

O 1 O 

mence the afternoon service, he was met at the door by one 
of his Deerfield parishioners, who gave him a significant nudge 
with his elbow. After repeating this form of salutation, Mr. 
Ashley asked him the reason of the attack, and admonished 
him that he w < should not rebuke an elder." " An elder? an 
elder?" replied his tormentor, "if you had not said you was 
an elder, I should have thought you was a poison sumach." 
Mr. Ashley had to retire without entering the church. But 
this was not the last of the reverend gentleman s troubles. 
Returning to his own parish, at Deerfield, he soon after 
preached a sermon in which he spoke against the patriot 
cause, and gave his opinion that those Americans who fell at 

Lexino ton had met with a fearful doom in the next world. 



On the following Sabbath, he undertook to enter his pulpit, 
but found it spiked up. After ineffectual attempts to enter, 
he turned to one of his deacons, and requested him to go and 
get his hammer, and force for him an entrance. The deacon 
was a blacksmith, but informed his pastor that he did not work 
on the Sabbath. At last, an axe was procured and the pulpit 
entered." 

He was a man of strong mind, and an earnest preacher. 
He died in 1780, aged sixty-seven. Several of his sermons 
were published. 

16 



186 ASHLEY. - ASPDEN. 

" During the forty-eight years of his ministry at Deerfield, 
lie officiated in 249 marriages and 1009 baptisms, and admit 
ted 392 members to his church." 

ASHLEY, JOSEPH, JR. Of Sunderland, Massachusetts. He 
went to Halifax in 1776, and was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. He died in New York before the peace. The Hon. 
Chester Ashley, Senator in Congress, from Arkansas, who 
died at Washington in 1848, at the age of fifty-seven, was of 
the same family. 

ASPDEN, MATTHIAS. Of Philadelphia. Son of Matthias 
Aspden and Rebecca, daughter of Philip Packer. He was 
born in that city about the year 1756 ; and at the beginning 
of the Revolution was a merchant, the owner of a house, 
wharf, and warehouses, and transacting business which gave 
him a profit of 2000 annually. At first, he inclined to the 
Whigs, and joined a company of volunteers ; but his confi 
dence in the invincible power of the Crown, and the fate of 
his friends Hunt and Kearsley, caused a change of sentiment. 
In 1776 he abandoned the country. He intended to embark 
in one of his own vessels, but at the moment he was ready, 
" the carting " of the two gentlemen just mentioned, occurred, 
and he resolved to remain rather than be thought remiss in 
their trials. Yet, he soon obtained leave of the Whigs to sail 
from New York in the packet Sivalloiv, and was disappointed 
a second time, in consequence of difficulties with Governor 
Try on. At last, he took passage in the schooner Bertham, 
bound to Corunna, Spain, and arrived in London before the 
close of the year. 

By a proclamation of the Council of Pennsylvania in 1780, 
he was required to appear and be tried for treason, before 
April 1, 1781, on pain of being attainted and losing his estate 
by confiscation. He failed ; and his house, wharf, and ware 
houses in Philadelphia (which, after the peace, according to 
his statement, rented for X1000 per annum), were given to 
the University. 

In 1785 he returned to America, but finding his life in 
peril, hastened back to England. However, he petitioned 



ASPDEN. 187 

for and received a full pardon from the State in April, 1780 ; 
and thenceforward seems to have passed a life undisturbed by 
aught save his own self-caused vexations and his incessant 
clamors for pecuniary compensation from all the governments 
with which he had ever been connected. The Legislature of 

<""> 

Pennsylvania^ the House of Commons, the Board of Com 
missioners on Loyalist Claims, the High Chancellor, the Privy 
Council, the Lords of the Treasury, all turned a deaf ear to 
his complaints ; whereon he published them in the " London 
Morning Post." Like the bat in the fable, he songht to 
find gain from both parties, and obtained it from neither. He 
was in France, under the Alien Bill, in 1802 ; at New York, 
under a passport, in 1815 ; and in July, 1817, departed Phil 
adelphia for England, by way of Canada. He was addressed 
by the South Sea Company on the election of officers in 182-3, 
as the Riylit Honorable Matildas Aspden, at Messrs. Hoare <j* 
Co., Bankers, Fleet /Street; a title which he claimed, because, 
as he said, his grandfather, Thomas Aspden, married Elizabeth 
Scroop, " a descendant of the ancient and noble family of that 
name." He died at London, August 9, 1824. 

His will gave rise to the most extraordinary suit that ever 
occurred under the confiscation acts of the Revolution. The 
documents which pertain to the case were printed in 1837, 
and make upwards of three hundred pages : the eye seldom 
rests on so curious a medley of transactions in business, of 
every-day gossip, of personal complaints, and general mention 
of human vicissitudes joy, sorrow, affliction, death. Some 
of his own letters and other papers are strange enough. 
Travelling in Italy, in 1804, he seems to have been con 
vinced that now and then he met relatives of persons (par 
ticularly servants of foreign extraction), whom he had once 
known. " At this place (Avignon) saw a good many Phil 
adelphia-looking faces, and relations, I am sure, of Anna, 
that many years ago lived with my Aunt Bailey ; . . . . am 
inclined to think I also met in Italy old Conrad., that lived 
with her about the same time, and used to carry me to school 
on a pillow before him, or a cousin of his at Naples; 



188 ASPDEN. 

.... and at this place, relations of my neighbor, the razor- 
grinder s wife, who passed for Germans. But perhaps the 
queerest of these is a letter from London, on business, to the 
president, for the time being, of the United States Bank, in 
1808 ; in which he complains bitterly of being annoyed by 
spirits, and calls for the application of the laws against sor 
cery : * For my own part, I had no idea of anything of this 
kind untill the winter of 1798, in Ormond Street, when for 
the first time in my life I slept with a light in my chamber, 
and forced to the resource of it all the winter thro . Going 
to Richmond in the summer, I had there frequent and repeated 
proofs of there being spirits and daemons, from hearing and 
seeing, if the latter are not also spirits. And now, and for 
several years past, nothing more clear, notorious, and com 
mon ; for I seldom go out to a coffee-house that I am not 
dog d or bitched all the way ; and while there, to my great 
annoyance and others present, and back, by voices out of the 
air that I mostly know, and to the great reproach and scandal 
of the police of this city, or the bench of bishops, at which 
ever door the laying of evil spirits may lay. As early as the 
age of four or five, I was taught to believe there w y as no such 
tilings as spirits, and was not afraid to go anywhere alone, or 
to sleep in a strange house in a chamber alone, with a window 
looking into a churchyard ; and which the commands of the 
Lord in the Bible to the Jews, to destroy the witches and 
wizards out of the land, had tended to strengthen and confirm. 
And this by one that was a spirit or daemon herself or itself, 
if I am not much mistaken, and which accident led me to dis 
cover, in looking for lodgings a few years agoe, at a lodging- 
house in my present neighborhood, where I met the original, 
and was struck with it ; who, very soon after 1 came into the 
room, went out with a person like a clergyman with her ; she 
was something bigger than the counterfeit ; when she returned 
home in the year 1762, sent the counterfeit abroad ; excellent 
hands for a motherless babe to fall into. But as I am alive 
and tolerably well, except some remains of the gout in my 
feet, I may say from this, and many other things, that I am 
truly sensible that there is a Providence over all." 



ASPDEN. 189 

To return to Mr. Aspden s will. The suit to determine 
the rightful heirs to his property was brought in 1824, in 
the United States Circuit Court, and decided, finally, in 
1848. He devised his estate, real and personal, " to the per 
son who should be his heir-at-law," and in another part of the 
instrument, "to the person who should be his lawful heir." 
The claimants were upwards of two hundred, and were divi 
ded into three classes : 1. The heirs of Mary Harrison, sister 
of the half-blood on the father s side, and the heirs of Roger 
Hartley, half brother on the mother s side. 2. The Packers 
cousins of the whole blood, a very large and constantly 
increasing class of claimants, one of whom originally instituted 
the proceedings, the suit standing Packer vs. Nixon, Execu 
tor of Matthias Aspden. 3. The English Aspdens rela 
tions of the whole blood of the father, and who would have 
been heirs at common law. 

The opinion of Judge Grier was in substance as follows : 
The testator left neither wife nor lineal descendant ; but there 
were the issue of the half-blood descendants of Mary Harrison 
and Roger Hartley. The issue on the father s side, the first 
cousins, (the Packers,) are dismissed ; they have no claim on 
any possible construction of this will. The only question is 
between the heir at common law and the half-blood. 

The llth section of the act of 1794, gives the estate of an 
intestate who dies, leaving no child or issue of such child, to 
the brother or sister of the half-blood, unless where the estate 
is acquired by descent, gift of devise from the parents, in 
which case, all who are not of the blood of the parent from 
whom the estate was derived, shall be excluded. It is evident, 
therefore, that the issue of the half-blood is in this case sub 
stituted to the heir at common law. 

" The Court are, therefore, of opinion that the issue of the 
brother and sister of the half-blood are the lawful heirs, and 
the persons entitled." 

The decision was therefore in favor of the American heirs, 
of the issue of Mary Harrison and Roger Hartley ; to whom 
the decree gave property valued at more than $r)00,000. 



190 ATHERTON. 

The English claimants appealed. The Supreme Court 
affirmed the opinion of Judge Grier, and the estate was 
divided accordingly. 

I conclude this singular story with a paragraph which 
appeared in a Philadelphia paper, March, 1853 : 

" ROMANCE IN REAL LIFE. John Aspden, whose sud 
den death on Monday was noticed in our columns, is to be 
buried this afternoon. Mr. Aspden was one of the Eng 
lish claimants of the immense estate left by Matthias Aspden. 
Before the case was decided by the Supreme Court in favor of 
the American heirs, the latter proposed to the deceased to 
compromise the matter, and offered to pay him the sum of 
8200,000 to relinquish his claim ; this he refused to do, and 
the decision of the Court cut him off without a farthing. On 
Monday morning the estate was divided between the heirs-at- 
law, and almost at the same moment John Aspden fell dead, 
at a tavern in Carter s Alley, of disease of the heart, supposed 
to have been induced by disappointment and mortification. 
At the time of his death his pocket contained a solitary cent 
his entire fortune ! To day the man who mio-ht have been 

j ZD 

the possessor of a quarter of a million of dollars, will be borne 
to his grave from an obscure part of the District of South- 
wark." 

ATHERTON, JOSHUA. Of Amherst, New Hampshire. He 
was born at Harvard, Massachusetts, in 17 37, and graduated 
at Harvard University in 1762. He was the law-student of 
Abel Willard, of Lancaster, and of James Putnam, of Wor 
cester, and opened an office at Petersham. He removed to 
Litchtield, and, in 1773, when he was appointed Register 
of Probate of the County of Hillsborough to Amherst, where 
he soon acquired property and reputation in his profession. 

An open and firm Loyalist, in the events that followed, he 
was a sufferer in person and estate. He was entreated by his 
Whig friends to change his course, while other friends who 
adhered to the Crown, urged him to fiy to England or Nova 
Scotia ; but he refused to adopt the counsels of either. His 
house was often surrounded by his political foes, who marched 



ATHERTON. 191 

him off to a tavern and drank freely of flip, punch, and toddy 
at his expense. He bore the indignities to which he was 
exposed so meekly, and "treated" so generously, as to win 
the good nature of his tormentors, and to cause them to toss 
their hats, to hurrah for the Tory, and to express their regrets 
that he u was not one of the sons of liberty." Minor annoy 
ances I must pass without mention. In 1777 he was sent 
prisoner to Exeter by order of the Committee of Safety, where 
he remained nearly or quite a year. Though released on 
enterino- into recognizance with sureties in a laro-e sum. he 

O O W 

was still confined to the limits of the county until late in 1778, 
when, upon his petition, and his acknowledgment of the 
authority of the Whigs, his liberty was restored by proclama 
tion. He took the oath of allegiance to the United States, and 
the oath of an attorney, in 1779, and was admitted to prac 
tice in the Superior Court. His pecuniary affairs at this time 
were in a deplorable condition. " He lay like some thrifty 
tree uprooted by the late gale, prostrate, divested of its foliage, 
its limbs broken and scattered. His family w r as much in 
creased, and increasing. His and their sufferings will hardly 
bear relation." In a few years, however, his business became 
extensive, and he was often the leading counsel in the trial of 
important cases. So, too, his loyalty was forgotten, and marks 
of respect and confidence were frequent, and grateful to his 

feelings. He was a member of the Convention for the adop- 

& j- 

tion of the Federal Constitution, and led the party that 
opposed it. His principal objections to that instrument, per 
sonally, were the provisions relative to slaves and slavery. 
Subsequently, he was elected to the House and Senate of 
New Hampshire, and, in 1793, was appointed Attorney-Gen 
eral of that State. Taking part with the Federalists in the 
discords here occasioned by the French Revolution, he lost 
his popularity ; and when, in 1798, he accepted the office of 
Commissioner under the Act to levy a Direct Tax in the 
United States, " he had the honor to be hung in effigy in the 
town of Deering." Two years later, shattered mentally and 
physically, he retired to private life. His disease an or- 



192 ATKINS. 

ganic affection of the heart terminated in death, April, 
1800, in his seventy-third year. " He was remarkable for 
his social qualities. His courtesy and urbanity will ever be 
remembered by those who were familiar with him. His hos 
pitality was unbounded. The clergy, the gentlemen of the 
bar, the judges, officers of the Revolution, and every stranger 
of distinction within the reach of his invitations, were his wel 
come guests." He was a good scholar, and possessed one of 
the best libraries in the State. Abigail, daughter of the Rev. 
Thomas Goss, of Bolton, Massachusetts, became his wife in 
1765, and died in 1801. At the time of her marriage she 
was hardly more than sixteen years of age ; " in the joyous 
day of her nuptials, little did this young girl know or think 
of the trials, hardships, and mortifications of her future life." 
She proved an " angel wife and mother." Charles Hum 
phrey Atherton, who graduated at Harvard University in 
1794, who was at the head of the Hillsborough County bar 
for several years ; who was a representative in Congress, and 
who died at Amherst in 1853, was his son. lie was the 
father of six daughters : namely, Frances, Abigail, Rebecca 
Wentworth, Nancy Holland, Catharine, and Elizabeth Wil- 
lard ; some of whom (1852), survive, and all of whom, 
the fourth excepted, married. The late lion. Charles G. 
Atherton, Representative and Senator in Congress from 
New Hampshire, who died in 1853, was a grandson of our 
Loyalist. 

ATKINS, GIBBS. Of Boston. He went to Halifax in 1776, 
and was proscribed and banished in 1778. He returned to 
the United States, and died in Boston in 1806, aged sixty-six. 

ATKINS, CHARLES. Of Charleston, South Carolina. In 
1774 he was appointed a member of the Committee of Corre 
spondence of that city. In 1780 he was an Addresser of Sir 
Henry Clinton, and a Petitioner to be armed on the side of 
the Crown. He received a military commission, and in 1782 
was an officer in the Volunteers. He was banished, and his 
property was confiscated. He went to England. In 1794, 
in a memorial dated at London, he stated to the British Gov- 



ATKINSON, 193 

eminent, that large debts due to him in America at the time 
of his banishment remained unpaid, and he desired relief. 

ATKINSON, THEODORE. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
He graduated at Harvard University in 1718, and in after 
life rose to much distinction. He held, at various times, the 
offices of Representative in the Assembly, Naval Officer, 
Sheriff, Clerk of the Court of Common Pleas, Colonel of the 
Militia, Collector of the Customs, Secretary of the Colony, 
and Chief Judge of the Superior Court ; and had a seat in 
the Council. In 1775 a committee of the Provincial Con 
gress requested him to deliver up all the records and papers 
in the Secretary s office, which he refused, as " against his 
oath and honor." On a second visit the committee, without 
heeding his objections, took possession of the documents of his 
office, except the volumes which contained the charter grants 
of lands, which were then in the hands of Governor Went- 
worth. The missing books, Congress, by resolution of July 
7, 1775, voted that Mr. Atkinson should be held accountable 
for to the people. He died in 1779, at the advanced age of 
eighty-two. He bequeathed 200 sterling to the Episcopal 
Church of Portsmouth, the interest of which he directed to 
be expended in bread, and distributed on Sundays to the poor 
of the parish, which, as I understand, has been dealt out 
under the provision of his will, until the present time, (1859,) 
a period of eighty years. " His coach was the coach of the 
town." He was a man of wealth, and owned more silver 
plate, probably, than any other person in New Hampshire. 
The town of Atkinson perpetuates his name. 

ATKINSON, THEODORE, JR. Of New Hampshire, and 
son of the preceding. He graduated at Harvard University 
in 1757. Entering upon political life, he became a member 
of the Council and Secretary of the Colony. He died at 
Portsmouth, on Saturday, October 28, 1769, at the early 
age of thirty-three, and his remains were deposited in the 
family tomb, Queen s Chapel, with great pomp and circum 
stance. On Saturday, November llth just two weeks af 
ter his widow, whose maiden name was Frances Deering 

VOL. I. 17 



194 AUCHMUTY. 

Wentworth, was married in the same chapel by the Rev. 
Arthur Browne, to Governor John, afterwards Sir John 
Wentworth. She was a Boston lady, very accomplished and 
gay ; and, as Lady Wentworth, had a diversified career. She 
was a cousin of both husbands, and her earliest attachment- 
was for Wentworth ; but while he. was absent in England she 
married Atkinson. There was much gossip at Portsmouth 
about the three cousins at the Revolutionary era, founded on 
the facts here stated. And within a few years, a story relat 
ing to the parties appeared in one of the magazines, which, 
extracted by the newspaper press, went the rounds. The 
leading incidents of the tale were both ridiculous and untrue. 
The towns of Francestown, Deering, and Wentworth, in 
New Hampshire, perpetuate the wife s name. 

AUCHMUTY, REV. SAMUEL, D. D. Of New York. Rector 
of Trinity Church. Son of Robert, Judge of Vice-Admi 
ralty. Graduated at Harvard University in 1742. I lose 
sight of him until 1754, when he was employed by the So 
ciety for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, 
as Catechist to the negroes in New York, at a salary of 
50 ; and where, he wrote the Society, that in six months 
he had baptized twenty-three children and two adults, and 
was preparing three others. He succeeded the Rev. Dr. 
Barclay as Rector, in 1764, with the Rev. Mr. Inglis and 
the Rev. Mr. Ogilvie, as assistants. Oxford, England, con 
ferred the degree of S. T. D. in 1766, and King s College, 
New York, the year following. In 1771, I find his name 
first on an Address to the Episcopalians of Virginia, urging 
the necessity of an " American Episcopate," or, the resi 
dence of bishops in the Colonies. Trumbull calls him a 
" high-church clergyman," and makes him the subject of 
remark in McFingal. In April, 1775, Dr. Auchmuty wrote 
from New York to Captain Montresor, chief engineer of 
General Gage s army at Boston, that " we have lately been 
plagued with a rascally Whig mob here, but they have 
effected nothing, only Sears, the king, was rescued at the 
jail-door." . . . . " Our magistrates have not the spirit of a 
louse," &c. 



AUCHMUTY. 

In September, 1776, nearly one thousand buildings were 
burned in the western part of the city, and among them 
Trinity Church, the Rector s house, and the Charity School ; 
St. Paul s Chapel and King s College barely escaped. The 
Vestry of Trinity reported the loss by this fire to the Church 
to be Trinity Church and organ, 17,500; two Charity 
School-houses and fences, 2000; Library, 200; Rector s 
house, 2500 ; total, 22,200 ; besides the annual rent of two 
hundred and forty-six lots of ground, the tenant buildings 
being all consumed. After the fire, Dr. Auchmuty searched 
the ruins of his church and of his large and elegant man 
sion, but found no articles of value, except the church plate 
and his own. His personal losses by the conflagration, he 
estimated at upwards of -$12,000. He died in 1777. His 
wife was a daughter of Richard Nichols, Governor of New 
York. Notices of his two sons follow. His daughter Jane 
was the second wife of Richard Tylden, of the family of 
Tylden, Milsted, County of Kent, England ; one of her sons 
is the present Sir John Maxwell Tylden, who was in the 
army twenty years ; and another, William Burton Tylden, 
is a major in the Royal Engineers. Of Dr. Auchmuty s 
two other daughters, I have no account, save that they were 
married. 

AUCHMUTY, SIR SAMUEL. Of New York. Lieutenant- 
General in the British Army. Eldest son of the Rev. Dr. 
Auchmuty. At the beginning of the Revolution he was a 

o o 

student at King s College, and was intended by his father for 
the ministry. But his own inclinations were military from 
his boyhood. 

Soon after he graduated, and in 177t>, he joined the Royal 
Army under Sir William Howe, as an ensign in the 45th 
Regiment, and was present in most of the actions in that and 
the following year. In 178o he commanded a company in 
the 75th Regiment, in the East Indies, and was with Lord 
Cornwallis in the first siege of Seringapatam. In 1801 he 
joined the expedition to Egypt, and held the post of adjutant- 
general. He returned to England in 1803, and three years 



196 AUCHMUTY. 

after was ordered to South America, where, as brigadier- 
general, he assumed command of the troops ; and, in 1807, 
assaulted and reduced after a most determined resistance 
- the city and fortress of Monte Video. In 1809 he was 
transferred to India. Subsequently, he succeeded Sir D. 
Baird, as chief of the staff in Ireland. He was knighted in 

& 

1812 ; his nephew, Sir John Maxwell Tylden, lieutenant- 
colonel of the 52d Regiment, being his proxy. He twice 
received the thanks of Parliament, and was presented with 
a service of plate by that body, and by the East India Com 
pany. His seat, Syndale House, was in Kent, near 
Feversham. He died in Ireland, suddenly, in 1822, at the 
age of sixty-four. 

AUCHMUTY, ROBERT NICHOLS. Of New York. Son of 
Rev. Dr. Samuel Auchmuty. He was a graduate of King s 
College, New York ; and, in the Revolution, served as a vol 
unteer in the British Army. He died at Newport, Rhode 
Island, in 1813. His wife was Henrietta, daughter of Henry 
John Overing. His daughter Maria M., widow of Colonel E. 
D. Wainwright, of the United States Marines, died at Wash 
ington, D. C., January, 1861, aged seventy -one. 

AUCHMUTY, RICHARD HARRISON. Of New York. Sur 
geon in the British Army. Taken prisoner in the storming 
of Stoney Point. With Cornwallis at Yorktown ; and 
died soon after the surrender, while on parole. 

AUCHMUTY, ROBERT. Of Boston. In 1767 he was ap 
pointed Judge of Vice- Admiralty of Massachusetts and New 
Hampshire, in place of Chambers Russell, deceased. John 
Adams, with whom he was associated in the defence of Cap 
tain Preston, for the affair in King Street, March 5, 1770, 
called the " Boston Massacre," describes his arguments at 
the bar thus : " Volubility, voluble repetitions and repeated 
volubility; fluent reiterations and reiterating fluency; such 
nauseous eloquence always puts my patience to the torture." 

His letters to persons in England were sent to America, 
with those of Governor Hutchinson, by Franklin, in 1773, and 
created much commotion. He went to England in 1776, 



AUCIIMUTY. AVERT. 197 

and at one period was in very distressed circumstances. He 
never returned to the United States. His estate was confis 
cated. His mansion in Roxbury became the property of 
Governor Increase Sumner, and was occupied by him at the 
time of his decease. Mr. Auchmuty died in 1788. 

Walker & Son, booksellers, London, have on their Catalogue 
of 1850, among their rare American tracts, the following: 
" AUCHMUTY (Robert, an Absentee, ) Certificate of the Com 
monwealth of Massachusetts of the Sale of R. Auchmuty s 
Library, at Public Auction, according to Law, Signed <tnd 
Sealed 12th Feb. 1784, with Autograph Certificate of John 
Browne, Chairman of the Committee of Sequestration, Signed 
and Dated 10th Feb. 1784, Boston; Statement of the Manner 
in which Mrs. Brinley and Mrs. Breynton Executed the 
Directions of the Will of R. Anchmuty, Esq., with his Will 
annexed, &c., showing every thing that was done for those 
purposes, 20 pages, 4to." 

AUCHMUTY, JAMES. Of New York. Son of Robert. " I 
send you, wrote General Scott to the Provincial Congress, 
July 5, 1770, " James Anchmuty, storekeeper in the Engi 
neer Department, and brother to Dr. Auchmuty, with his 
wife and child." He himself wrote Mr. Jay, in October of 
the same year, that, while others held as prisoners of war- 
were paid the regular allowance, not a shilling had been given 
him. Soon after, he gave his parole to depart to Danbury, 
Connecticut, and to remain neutral until exchanged or dis 
charged. At the peace he removed to Nova Scotia, where 
he became eminent as a lawyer, and was appointed judge. 
He had a son in the British Army, who was killed in battle 
in the West Indies. 

AVKJIY, EPHKAIM. Of Pomfret, Connecticut. Episcopal 
minister. He received the degree of A. B. from Yale College, 
and that of A. M. from King s College, New York. In 1705 
he succeeded Mr. Punderson as minister of Rye, and con 
tinued his pastoral relations until the Revolution, " when he 
became so obnoxious to the Whigs,* that his farm animals 
were driven off and his other property plundered. He died 



198 AXTELL. AYMAR. 

November, 1776. General Israel Putnam was one of the 
husbands of his mother. She died in the Highlands in 1777, 
and was deposited in Beverly Robinson s tomb. 

AXTELL, WILLIAM. Of New York. Member of the Coun 
cil of that Colony. He was descended from David Axtell, a 
colonel in Cromwell s army, who was beheaded at the restor 
ation of the Stuarts. When examined by the Whig Com 
mittee, in 1776, he stated that the bulk of his property was 
in Great Britain and the West Indies. In reporting his case 
to the Provincial Congress, the Committee remarked that 
they believed him to be " a gentleman of high honor and 
integrity." He had a country-seat at Flatbush, was the first 
man in wealth and importance there, and invited Whig pris 
oners to sup with him. Miss Shipton, a relative and an in 
mate of his house, married Colonel Giles, of the Continental 
Army. In 1778 Mr. Axtell was commissioned by Sir Wil 
liam Howe, colonel of a corps of Loyalists. In 1783 the 
colors of the regiment of Waldeck were consecrated in front 
of his mansion at Flatbush. The troops formed in a circle, 
and officers and men took a solemn oath to support the new 
standards ; a splendid dinner and a ball followed ; and the 
ladies presented the officers who bore the colors, with a knot 
of blue and yellow ribbons. In November of the last men 
tioned year, Colonel Axtell s furniture was sold by auction 
at his town-house, Broadway, New York. His estate was 
confiscated. He went to England, received a considerable 
sum for his losses, and was allowed the half-pay of a colonel. 
He died at Beaumont Cottage, Surrey, in 1795, aged seventy- 
five. His wife died before his departure from America. He 
left no issue. 

AYMAR, FRANCIS. Descended from a family that fled to 
the United States during the religious persecutions in France. 
Was born in the city of New York in 1759, and died at St. 
Andrew, New Brunswick, October, 1843, aged eighty-four 
years. He was one of the grantees of, and settled at St. John, 
New Brunswick, in the autumn of 1783, and continued his 
residence there until 1807, when he returned to the United 



BABBIT. BACHE. 199 

States, and lived alternately at Eastport, Maine ; New York ; 
and St. Andrew, up to the time of his decease. He was the 
father of fifteen children, of whom the following survived 
him : Daniel, William, John, Francis, Nancy, Mary, Betsey, 
Eleanor, Sarah, and Phebe. 

BABBIT, DANIEL. He died at Gagetown, New Brunswick, 
1830, at the age of eighty-seven. 

BABCOCK, REV. LUKE. An Episcopal minister. He was 
the youngest son of Chief Justice Babcock, of Rhode Island, 
was born in 1738, and graduated at Yale College in 1755. 
Having been ordained by the Bishop of London, he was ap 
pointed to the mission of Philipsburgh, New York. In 1774, 
King s College conferred the degree of A. M. Soon after 
the breaking out of the Revolution his papers were examined, 
and he was personally interrogated touching his allegiance to 
the Crown. The result was, that in October, 1776, he was 
ordered to Hartford, where he remained until the following 

o 

February, when his health foiled, and he was directed to re 
move within the lines of the Royal Army. " He got home 
in a raging fever, and delirious," and died, February 18, 1777. 
Mr. Seabury said, "I know not a more excellent man, and 
I fear his loss, especially in that mission, will scarcely be made 
up." His remains were deposited in the family vault of the 
Van Cortlands. 

In 1780 the parsonage was broken into by a band of " cow 
boys," with disguised persons and blackened faces, and the 
ladies robbed of their valuables. The leader, in parting, made 
a profound bow, and thus addressed Mrs. Babcock : 

" Fare you well, and fare you better, 
And when I die, 1 11 send you a letter." 

Mr. Babcock s brother Henry, a graduate of Yale College, 
was a lawyer, a colonel in the Whig service, in command at 
Newport, Rhode Island, and " a man of fine person, accom 
plished manners, and winning eloquence." 

BACHE, THEOPHYLACT. Of New York. He came to 
America, probably, in 1755. He was a merchant, and his 



200 B ACHE. BACON. 

business was principally with the West Indies and Newfound 
land. He was also agent of the packets which plied between 
Falmouth, England, and New York. In 1773 he was elected 
President, of the Chamber of Commerce. He was a deter 
mined Loyalist. His brother Richard married Sarah, daugh 
ter of Doctor Franklin, and was a Whig. The political sym 
pathies of Theophylact were, possibly, the same as Richard s 
at the outset, since he was associated with Jay and Lewis on 
the Committee of Correspondence. 

July 1, 177<>, in a letter to Philip Livingston, he denied 
that he was inimical to American rights, and said, that the 
distressed state of his wife and numerous family, required all 
his attention, and would, he hoped, be a sufficient apology for 
not appearing before Congress, as required to do by that body. 
At one period of the war his place of residence was at Flat- 
bush, Long Island. Obnoxious to some of the Whigs, in the 
course of events, a daring attempt to carry him off was made 
in 1778, by a Captain Marriner, an eccentric, witty, and inge 
nious partisan, which resulted successfully. Marriner s plan 
embraced three other Loyalists of rank and consequence : 
but Bache and Major Moncrieffe, with four slaves, were those 
whom he actually captured, and they were placed in a boat 
and conveyed to New Jersey. The marauders struck Mrs. 
Bache several times for entreating them not to deal harshly 
with her husband, and they plundered the house of plate, 
wounded a female servant, and dragged off Mr. Bache him 
self without giving him time to put on his clothes. Such is 
the account. 

Mr. Bache was kind to Colonel Graydon, a Whig ; gave 
him frequent invitations to tea, and to partake of his Ma 
deira, and offered his purse to relieve his supposed necessities. 
"He is remembered as a fine specimen of a gentleman, 
courteous, hospitable, with a touch of the sportsman, loving 
his gun and his dog, and everywhere acceptable as a polished 
and agreeable companion. He died in New York, in 1807, 
aged seventy-eight. His wife was a Miss Barclay. 

BACON, JOHN. Of New Jersey. .Leader of a band of 



BACON. - BAILEY. 201 

marauders in the counties of Burlington and Mon mouth. 
In the fight at Cedar Bridge, he was accused of killing one 
Cook, and the State offered a reward for his capture, dead 
or alive. In April, 1782, a brother of Cook, John Stewart, 
and four others, all heavily armed, surprised him on a very 
dark night, in a tavern, when he surrendered and was dis 
armed. But Cook thrust his bayonet into his body, and, on 
his attempt to escape, Stewart shot him dead. 

BABGELY, - . June 20, 1782, he was condemned to 
death for treason in New Jersey, and the day of execution 
appointed. His case caused a spirited letter from Sir Guy 
Carlcton to Washington. The papers show that Badgely 
"joined the enemy long after the passing of the treason act." 

BADGER, MOSES. An Episcopal minister. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1701. His wife was a daughter 
of Judge Saltonstall of Massachusetts, and sister of Colonel 
Richard and Leverett, the two Loyalist sons of that gentle 
man. Mr. Badger went to Halifax in 1776, but was at New 
York at or about the time of the death of Leverett, and wrote 
to the family on the subject. At one period he was chaplain 
to De Lancey s second battalion. After the Revolution, Mr. 
Badger was Rector of King s Chapel, Providence, and died 
in that city in 1792. It appears, that some years prior to 
the war he was an Episcopal missionary in New Hampshire, 
authorized to labor throughout that Colony. 

BAILEY, JACOB. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1755. Principally through the instrumentality of the Ply 
mouth proprietors in Maine, an Episcopal Church was 
erected at Pownalborough, now Dresden, in that State, and 
for several years Mr. Bailey was the officiating clergyman, 
as a missionary of the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel. Few around him agreed with him in political 
sentiment. 

For the single offence of continuing divine service, he 
relates, he was threatened, insulted, condemned, laid under 
heavy bonds, and doomed to transportation. His family con 
sisted of a wife, a young infant, and two girls of about eleven 



202 BAILEY. 

years. Informed of a design against his life, he resolved to 
leave them, destitute of money, and of provisions except a few 
garden roots ; and escape, as he best could do. He accom 
plished his purpose, but returned. Again molested, and told 
that if he attempted to officiate in public or in private, imme 
diate confinement in prison would follow, he determined to 
abandon the country, and in the summer of 1779 he went to 
Halifax, N. S. I give an account of his appearance when 
he landed in that city, in nearly his own words. His feet 
were adorned with shoes which sustained the marks of rebel 
lion and independence. His legs were covered with a thick 
pair of blue woollen stockings, which had been so often mended 
and darned by the fingers of frugality, that scarce an atom of 
the original remained. His breeches, which just concealed 
the shame of his nakedness, had been formerly black, but the 
color being worn out by age, nothing remained but a rusty 
gray, bespattered with lint, and bedaubed with pitch. Over 
a coarse tow and linen shirt, manufactured in the looms of 
sedition, he wore a coat and waistcoat of the same dandy gray 
russet ; and, to secrete from public inspection the innumerable 
rents, holes, and deformities, which time and misfortunes had 
wrought in these rao-o-ed and weather-beaten o-arments, he 

O ^""> O 7 

was furnished with a blue surtout, fritted at the elbows, worn 
at the buttpn-holes, and stained with a variety of -tints. To 
complete the whole, a jaundice-colored wig, devoid of curls, 
was shaded with the remnants of a rusty beaver, its monstrous 
brim replete with notches and furrows, and grown limpsy by 
the alternate inflictions of storm and sunshine, lopped over 
his shoulders, and obscured a face meagre with famine and 
wrinkled with solicitude. His wife s dress was no better. 
She was arrayed in a ragged baize night-gown, tied round the 

j c*o o s 

middle with a woollen string ; her petticoats were jagged at 
the bottom, were ragged above, and drabbled in mud. He 
became Rector of St. Luke s Church, Annapolis, Nova Scotia, 
and died in that relation in 1808, at the age of sixty-seven. 
During the last twenty-six years of his life he was absent 
from his church only one Sunday. 



BAILEY. BATNBRIDGE. 203 

His wife, Sally, daughter of Dr. John Weeks, of Hamp 
ton, N. II. ; three sons and three daughters, survived him. 
Charles Percey, the oldest son, who was remarkable for per 
sonal beauty, was a captain in the British Army, and was 
killed at the battle of Chippewa, in the war of 1812. Re 
becca Lavinia died at Annapolis. Charlotte Maria is (1853) 
still living. Thomas Henry was an officer in the militia, and 
died young, leaving a wife and three children. William Gil 
bert was a lawyer of extensive practice, died young, also, 
and left a family. Elizabeth Anna married Mr. James Whit 
man. Mrs. Bailey died at Annapolis in 1818, at the age of 
seventy. Mr. Bailey was poor throughout his life. " Though 
oppressed himself by want and debt, his hospitality never 
ceased to flow, and by the kindness of his nature he always 
retained the personal regard of all who knew him." 

The Life of Mr. Bailey, by the Rev. William S. Bartlet, 
late Rector of St. Luke s Church, Chelsea, Mass., is instruc 
tive and interesting, and has afforded materials for several 
notices in these pages. 

BAILEY, WILLIAM. In 1782 was captain-lieutenant of 
the Loyal American Regiment ; he settled after the war in 
New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died on the River 
St. John, near Fredericton, in 1832, at the advanced age of 
ninety-seven. 

BAILEY, ZACHATIIAH. Died at Fredericton, New Bruns 
wick, in 1823, aged seventy-two. 

BAILIE, GEORGE. Of Georgia. In 1777 the Committee 
of Safety for the parish of St. John, gave him and two others 
permission to ship rice to Surinam, under bond and security 
that it should not be landed in a British port. He had pur 
chased goods to a considerable amount of William Parton, 
(a Loyalist mentioned in these volumes,) and that gentleman, 
by an arrangement with the Governor of Florida, changed 
the destination of the vessels, and the bond was forfeited. 
The result was that Bailie was included in the Banishment 
and Confiscation Act. 

BAIXBIUDGE, ABSALOM. Of Princeton, New Jersey. Phy- 



204 BAINBRIDGE. BALDWIN. 

sician. He was descended from Sir Arthur Bainbridge, of 
Durham County, England, and his American ancestor was 
one of the founders of New Jersey. At the Revolutionary 
era the family was of great respectability. Soon after the 
beginning of the war, he retired to New York. In 1778 he 
was a surgeon in the New Jersey Volunteers ; and at Flat- 
bush that year, offered two guineas reward for a runaway 
negro boy, Priam, "hair light-colored and of the woolly 
kind." His wife was a daughter of John Taylor, of Mon- 
mouth County, N. J. He died at New York in 1807, aged 
sixty. 

His son William, born at Princeton, N. J., in 1774, entered 
the United States Navy during the aggressions of France, as 
a lieutenant ; was commissioned post-captain in 1800, before 
he was twenty-six ; and, December 29, 1812, in command 
of the frigate Constitution, he captured the British frigate 
Java. He died in 1883, in his sixtieth year. Another son, 
Joseph, was also a captain in the United States Navy. 

BAIRD, WILLIAM and ARCHIBALD. The first went to St. 
John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that 
city. Archibald was collector of the customs at Georgetown, 
S. C. ; and, expelled for refusing to swear allegiance to the 
Whigs, he went to Europe, and died previous to August, 1777. 

BALDWIN, JOHN. Of Philadelphia. Accused, in 1776, 
of refusing to receive " Continental money," he was sum 
moned before the Council of Safety, and when informed of 
the complaint against him, acknowledged its truth. The 
Council urged the pernicious influence of his conduct, and 
gave him several days for reflection, in the hope that he would 
change his purpose. Persisting, at a second hearing, he was 
proclaimed " an enemy to his country, and precluded from all 
trade and intercourse with the inhabitants of these States ; " 
and he was ordered to jail, there to remain without bail or 
mainprise until he shall be released by order of the Council, 
or some other power lawfully authorized so to do." 

There died at St. George, N. B., in 1840, at the age of 
ninety-one years, a Loyalist of the name of John Baldween, 



BALL. BANNISTER. 205 

who served the Crown nearly the whole of the Revolution, 
who was distinguished for bravery, and who, I suppose, was 
the subject of this notice. 

BALL, - . Captain of a militia company in the town 
of Berne, New York. His command consisted of eighty-five 
men ; of whom sixty-three joined him in going over to the 
king at the commencement of hostilities. His ensign, Peter 
Deitz, and the remainder of his men, were Whigs. Deitz 
was commissioned captain, and his brother, William Deitz, 
lieutenant. Peter was killed in 1777, and William succeeded 
him in command, and by his activity incurred the hate of the 
Tories, when with his family they made him their prisoner, 
and tied him to his gate-post to witness the death of his father 
and mother, his wife and children, who were successively 
brought out and murdered before his eyes. The unhappy 
Deitz himself was carried to Niagara, where he ultimately 
became a victim of Tory cruelty. 

BALLINGALL, ROBERT. Of South Carolina. He was in 
commission under the Crown after the surrender of Charles 
ton in 1780, and his estate was confiscated. 

When Sir Henry Clinton issued his proclamation ordering 
all prisoners taken at the capitulation to return to that city, 
Ballingall waited upon the ill-fated Colonel Isaac Hayne, and 
communicated the orders he had received on the subject. 
Hayne asserted that he was not bound to obey, and plead that 
his children were all ill with the small-pox, that one child had 
died, and that his wife was on the eve of dissolution ; and 
finally declared, that no human force should remove him from 
the side of his dying wife. A discussion followed, and, at 
last, Hayne consented to give Ballingall a written stipulation 
to " demean himself as a British subject, so long as that coun 
try should be covered by the British Army." 

BALMATXE, WILLIAM. He settled at Grand Lake, New 
Brunswick. While at St. John, in 1809, he fell from a win 
dow and was killed. His age was seventy-two. 

BANNISTER, JOHN. A " young man of family, property, 
and convivial habits/ who went to England during the war, 

VOL. i. 18 



206 BANYAR. BARB ARIE. 

and was on intimate terms with Count Rumford. He died 
previous to 1813. 

BANYAR, GOLDSBROW. Of New York. He was born in 
London in 1724, and came to America at the age of fourteen. 
In 1746 he was sworn in as Deputy Secretary of the Colony, 
Deputy Clerk of the Council, and Deputy Clerk of the 
Supreme Court ; and, six years later, was appointed Register 
of the Court of Chancery ; and in 1753, Judge of Probate. 
His public employments ceased with the termination of the 
Royal Government. When the WlnVs assumed the direction 

/ CT 

of affairs, he retired to Rhinebeck, New York. At the peace 
he removed to Albany, " where he always took a great inter 
est in the internal improvements of the State, and contributed 
to all a liberal support." His wife was the widow of John 
Appy, Judge- Advocate of the forces in America. Blind in 
the last years of his life, he was led about the streets by a 
colored servant. He died at Albany in 1815, at the age of 
ninety-one ; " leaving to his descendants a large fortune, and 
a more enduring inheritance, the recollection of his many 
virtues and the example of a life devoted to duty/ His son 
Goldsbrow died in New York in 1806. 

BARBARIE, JOHN. Captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. 
Taken prisoner at Staten Island in 1777, and sent to Trenton. 
In garrison during the siege of Ninety-Six, South Carolina, 
and wounded. In the battle of Eutaw Springs, ao;ain wounded. 

I O O 

He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
a grantee of that city. He received half-pay. He was a 
colonel of the militia, and a magistrate of the County of York. 
He died at Sussex Yale in 1818, at the age of sixty-seven. 
His son, Andrew Barbarie, Esq., was a member of the House 
of Assembly. 

BARBARIE, OLIVER. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the 
Loyal American Regiment. He settled at St. John in 1783, 
and A\as the grantee of a city lot. He died at Sussex Vale, 
New Brunswick. 

" Euphemia, relict of Oliver Barbarie, late of the Barrack 
Department," died at Holyhead, England, at the house of 
her brother, Captain Skinner, in 1830, aged sixty-four. 



BARCLAY. 207 

BARCLAY, THOMAS. Was the son of Henry Barclay, 
D. D., Hector of Trinity Church, New York, and was Lorn 
in that city, October 12, 1753. He was a graduate of Colum 
bia College, and a student of law of John Jay. At the be 
ginning of the Revolution he entered the British Army under 
Sir William Howe, as a captain in the Loyal American Regi 
ment, and was promoted to a major by Sir Henry Clinton in 
1777. He continued in active service until the peace. His 
estate in New York was confiscated, and at the close of the 
contest he fled with his family to Nova Scotia. Of the House 
of Assembly of that Province he was for some time Speaker ; 
and of the militia, Adjutant-General. From 179G till 1828 
he was employed in civil stations, under the British crown, 
of great trust and honor. He was successively a commis 
sioner under Jay s Treaty, the Consul-General for the North 
ern and Eastern States, and Commissary for the care and 
exchange of prisoners. At the conclusion of the war of 1812, 
between the United States and Great Britain, he w r as ap 
pointed Commissioner under the fourth and fifth Articles of 
the Treaty of Ghent, which post he continued to hold until 
within two years of his decease. 

In an autograph letter in my possession, dated at Annapolis 
in 1799, he said to a fellow-exile : "I find that those who 
w r ere termed Royalists or Loyalists, in addition to their attach 
ment to their king and country, preserve their principles of 
honor and integrity, of openness and sincerity, which marked 
the Americans previous to the year 1773 ; while those who 
have sold their king for a Republican Government, have 
adopted all the frivolity, intrigue, and insincerity of the 
French, and in relinquishing their allegiance, resigned at the 
same time, almost universally, religion and morality." 

In private life he was estimable. He was a sincere and 
devout Christian of the communion of the Church of Eng 
land. A prominent trait in his character was kindness and 
charity to the poor. His official conduct was the subject of 
frequent and marked approbation of the sovereigns whom he 
served, and at the close of his services he was rewarded with 



208 BARD. BARDAN. 

a pension of ,1200 per annum. His habits of industry and 
application were extraordinary ; and he was never in bed at 
sunrise for forty years. He died at New York in April, 
1880, aged seventy-seven years. His son, Colonel Delancey 
Barclay, an aide-de-camp to George the Fourth, died in 
1826 ; he had repeatedly distinguished himself, particularly 
at Waterloo. 

BARD, SAMUEL. Of New York. Physician, L.L. D. 
He was horn in Philadelphia in 1742, and graduated at 
King s College, N. Y. In 1762 he went to Edinburgh to 
complete his medical education, and was absent five years. 
Soon after his return, he helped to organize a medical school, 
of which he became a professor. In 1772 his father, Dr. 
John Bard, retired to the country, when he succeeded him 
in practice, and became eminent. Averse to war, unwilling 
to break off connection with England, and to mingle in the 
turmoils of the time, he joined his father at Hyde Park, in 
1775. Other removals followed ; but he finally settled in 
New Jersey. He returned to New York after the Royal 
Army took possession, and found himself an object of suspic 
ion, and of utter neglect. Reduced to his last guinea, he 
accidentally met the mayor, (Matthews) who treated him 
kindly, and who, by his good offices subsequently, was the 
means of restoring him to the confidence of his former friends. 

O 

The leaders of the Royal party became at last his frequent 
guests. At the peace he was urged to leave the country on 
account of his known associations and political sentiments ; 
but he declined. After the Federal Government was organ 
ized, he was Washington s family physician. He died in 
1821, in his eightieth year ; his wife departed just one day 
before him, and a common grave received their remains. 
The universal testimony is, that he possessed almost every 
virtue which adorns manhood. 

BARDAN, JOHN. Arrested by Lieutenant Nowell, he was 

asked what he intended to do with the Rebels, and answered : 

"Kill them, as fast as I can." Nowell released him on 

payment of seven dollars in paper currency, and was tried 



BAHFIELD. BARNES. 209 

by a court-martial, and ; dismissed from the army with 
infamy." 

BARFIELD, - . Captain of a company of Tories. In 
an affair with tlie Whig partisan Melton, he was successful. 
Gabriel Marion, a nephew of the General, fell into his hands, 
and as soon as recognized, was put to death. " His name was 
fatal to him." 

BARKER, WILLIAM. Of Maine. Born in England in 
1784 ; emigrated to Massachusetts about the year 1774 ; 
removed to the Kennebec River in 1775. " Opposed to the 
Revolution at heart," but did not often publicly avow his 
opinions. In the course of the war he lived a year or two 
in Dresden. The Whigs annoyed him in various ways, but 
he did not leave the country. He died at Gardiner, in 1822. 
Dorothy, his wife, died in 1814. One daughter, Nancy, 
married Peter Grant ; another, Elizabeth, was the wife of 
Joshua Lord. 

BARKER, JOSHUA. He entered the British Army during 
the French war, and served with distinction in the West 
Indie^. After he attained the rank of captain, he retired on 
half-pay. In the Revolution, he "was as little obnoxious as 
perhaps any man in his situation could be ; always wishing 
for the blessings of peace, and the good of his country." In 
his address he was courteous and graceful ; in his temper, 
calm ; in his counsels, clear and determined. He bore a long 
indisposition with fortitude and resignation. He died at Hing- 
ham, Massachusetts, in 1785, aged seventy-three. 

BARNARD, JOHN. Of Massachusetts. He was born in 
1745, and graduated at Harvard University in 1762. He 
went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a merchant. He 
died in 1785, aged forty. 

BARNARD, THOMAS. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Settled 
in Nova Scotia, and died at Yarmouth, about the year 1833. 

BARNES, HENRY. Merchant of Marlborough, Massachu 
setts. He was a magistrate and a man of some note. The 
records of the town, however, as examined by a friend, show 
hardly more than that he distilled a liquor from cider, which 
18* 



210 BARNES. 

he exported, and which he petitioned the selectmen for leave 
to sell there at retail. 

Towards the close of February, 1775, General Gage ordered 
Captain Brown and Ensign D Bernicre, to go through the 
Counties of Suffolk and Worcester, and to sketch the roads as 
they went, for his information, " as he expected to have occa 
sion to march troops through that country the ensuing spring." 
The two officers set out from Boston, disguised like countrymen 
in brown clothes and reddish handkerchiefs round their necks. 
Their adventures until their arrival at Marlborough, do not be 
long to this sketch. Recommended to Mr. Barnes " as a friend 
to government," they found his house in a snow-storm, discov 
ered themselves, and were told by him, that they need not be 
at " the pains of telling him, he knew their situation." That 
" the town was very violent," that " they could be safe no 
where but in his house," and that " they had been expected 
the night before," &c., &c. The people were suspicious, and 
began to assemble in groups in all parts of the village. Mes 
sages were sent to Barnes, and other circumstances occurred, 
which, after the lapse of twenty minutes, compelled him to 
declare to his guests that they would be attacked, and that 
he could not protect them. He accordingly took them out of 
his house by the stables, and directed them to a by-road. 
They made their escape to the tavern of Jones, the Tory 
landlord of Western ; "it snowed and blew," relates one of 
them, " as much as I ever see it in my life." 

In the House of Representatives, November, 1775, the 
" Petition of Henry Knox l humbly showeth : That your 
petitioner having been obliged to leave all his goods and 
house furniture in Boston, which he has no prospect of ever 
getting possession of again, nor any equivalent for the same, 
therefore begs the Honorable Court, if they in their wisdom 
see fit, to permit him to exchange house furniture with Henry 
Barnes, late of Marlborough, which he now has it in his power 
to do." The prayer was refused; but the Whig was allowed 

l Subsequently, Chief of Artillery in the Continental Army, and Secre 
tary at War under Washington. 



BARNES. BARRELL, 211 

to use the Loyalist s household goods, on giving receipt to ac- 

v C 1 O J^ 1 

count for them to the proper authorities. 

In December, 1775, Catharine Goldthwait prayed the in 
terposition of the General Court, stating in a petition that 
she was the niece and adopted heir of Barnes ; that she had 
resided with him about seventeen years ; that at his depart 
ure from town, she was left with a part of his family in pos 
session, and that the committee of Marlborough had entered 
upon his estate, sold a part, and proposed to dispossess her 
entirely. Barnes went to England. In 1777 he was at 
Bristol with his wife and niece, and in September, thirteen 
of his fellow Loyalists were his guests ; and, later still the 
same year, he dined with several of the Massachusetts exiles 
at Mr. Lechmere s, when the conversation was much about 
the political condition of their native land. 

In 1778, Mr. Barnes was proscribed and banished. In 
1781 he supped with one of his countrymen, who told him 
that the people of the Old Bay State complained of Congress 
and of their French allies, without restraint. He died at Lon 
don in 1808, at the age of eighty-four. 

BARNES, JOSHUA. A captain in DeLancey s corps. In 
1778, the Whig Major Leavenworth, of Massachusetts, hear 
ing that Barnes was out on a plundering expedition, formed 
the plan of capturing him ; and, leading him into an ambus 
cade, took him with his full company of sixty-four, prisoners. 

BARNES, JOHN. Of New Jersey. Sheriff of the County 
of Hunterdon. After the Declaration of Independence, he 
refused to act under the Whigs ; and, when summoned before 
the State Convention, said he was willing to be superseded. 
In 1778, he was a major in the New Jersey Volunteers. 

BARRELL, WALTER. Of Boston. Inspector-General of 
the Customs. In his religious sentiments he was, with his 
family of five persons, a follower of Robert Sandeman ; he 
embarked at Boston with the British Army in 1776, for Hal 
ifax, and arrived in England in the summer of the same year. 
In 1779 he was a member of the Loyalist Association formed 
in London ; his second daughter, Polly, died in London in 1810. 



212 BARRELL. BARRY. 

BARRELL, COLBURN. Of Boston. At the Boston Latin 
School in 1744. With his wife and daughter, the guest of 
John Adams in 1771. An Addresser of Hutchinson and a 
Protestor against the Whigs in 1774. He was at New York 
in 1783, and one of the fifty-five petitioners for lands in Nova 
Scotia. [See Abijali Willard.~\ He was a Sandemanian. 

BARRETT, CHARLES. Of Ipswich, New Hampshire. He 
was born in Concord. At the beginning of the war, he was a 
man of property and influence, and in command of a company 
of militia. He w r as fearless in his utterance against the meas 
ures of the Whigs ; was often involved in difficulty, and suf 
fered many indignities. At one time, by vote of the town, 
he was confined to the limits of his own farm. He gave his 
adhesion to the new State government at the peace, and was 
a delegate to the Convention to consider the Federal Consti- 

3 

tution, when, it would seem, he was an ultra Democrat. He 
opposed the adoption of the Constitution with warmth ; and, 
as relates to the Executive, said that " The Presidents will 
be four-year old Kings, and soon Kings for life." He died in 
1808. 

BARROX, WILLIAM. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. Prior 
to the Revolution, he held a commission in the British Army. 
In the struggle, his sympathies were entirely with the Crown ; 
but he was not active. He was a gentleman of refined man 
ners, and a brave soldier. He died at Petersham in 1784, 
greatly lamented. Two of his sons graduated at Harvard 
University ; William Amherst, who was a tutor there in 
Mathematics and Natural Philosophy, and who died unmar 
ried, in 1825 ; and Thomas, who studied law, was some 
time in England, and died, probably, in Ohio, in 1830, or 
the next year. John Quincy Adams was a classmate of 
William Amherst. 

BARRY, ROBERT. At the close of the Revolution he em 
barked at New Y ork for Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He became 
an eminent merchant, established branch-houses in various 
parts of the Province, and his name is connected with the 
largest of the early commercial enterprises of Nova Scotia. 



BARRY. - BARTON. 213 

He was distinguished for qualities which adorn the Christian 
character, and throughout life was highly esteemed. His 
death occurred at Liverpool, Nova Scotia, September, 1843, 
in the eighty-fourth year of his age. 

BARRY, "W. Lieutenant in the Royal Foresters. He 
died of a fever in October, 1781, near Hellgate, New 
York, and was buried at Hallet s Cove, with the honors 
of war. 

BARTON, THOMAS. An Episcopal minister. He gradu 
ated at Trinity College, Dublin, and in 1754, was sent by 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel to the new 
Mission in the Counties of York and Cumberland, Penn 
sylvania. His post was on the frontier, and his duties par 
ticularly onerous. " He had to ride one hundred and forty- 
eight miles every six weeks, to attend his three congregations, 
and, often at the head of his people, went to oppose the sav 
ages." In 1758, he was chaplain to the expedition against 
Fort Duquesnc, and formed the acquaintance of several dis 
tinguished persons. In 1770 he received the degree of A. M. 
from King s College, New York. Adhering to the Royal cause, 
subsequently, he was first confined to the limits of his coun 
ty, and finally to his house. In November, 177G, he wrote : 
" I have been obliged to shut up my churches, to avoid the 
fury of the populace, who would not suffer the Liturgy to be 
used, unless the Collects and Prayers for the King and Royal 
Family were omitted, which neither my conscience nor the 
declaration I made and subscribed when ordained, would 
allow me to comply with ; and, although I used every pru 
dent step to give no offence even to those who usurped author 
ity and rule .... yet, my life and property have been 
threatened, upon mere suspicion of being unfriendly to what 
is called the American cause." 

After a restraint of two years, and in November, 1778, he 
withdrew to New York. His loss of liberty occasioned a dis 
ease, of which he died May 25, 1780. The Memoirs of Rit- 
tenhouse were written by his son William Barton. Another 
son, Benjamin Smith Barton, doctor of medicine, was a distin- 



214 BARTON. BASS. 

guislied professor in the University of Pennsylvania, and suc 
ceeded the celebrated Rush. Professor Barton was the first 
American who published an elementary work on botany. 

BARTON, THOMAS. Colonel, and in command of a body of 
Loyalists. Three incidents occur in 1777 : First, that he at 
tempted to cnt off a party of Whig militia, and was defeated. 
Second, that he was successful against a detachment of Whigs 
at Paramus. Third, that he was captured on Staten Island, 
with about forty of his men, and sent to Ne\v Jersey. At the 
peace he retired to Nova Scotia, and received a large grant of 
land at Digby. He died about the year 1790. His family 
returned to the United States. 

BARTRAM, JOHN. Of Pennsylvania. An eminent botanist. 
He was born in Chester County, Pennsylvania, in 1701. His 
taste was for botany, from his youth, and in this department 
he became so eminent as to be appointed American botanist 
to George the Third. The first botanic garden in this country 
was founded by him on the Schuylkill, about four miles below 
Philadelphia. He was so earnest in pursuit of knowledge that 
he hardly allowed himself time to eat. He was a proficient 
in the learned languages, in medicine and surgery, and in 
natural history. Linnaeus pronounced that he was "the 
greatest natural botanist in the world." Besides these ac 
complishments, he was an ingenious mechanic ; built his own 
stone house, and made most of his own farming tools and other 
articles required on his estate. He was gentle in manners, 
amiable in disposition, modest, and charitable. Pie died in 
1777, aged seventy-five. 

His son, William, who was elected Professor of Botany in 
the University of Pennsylvania, in 1782, but declined on ac 
count of ill health, deceased in 1823, at the age of eighty-four. 
His youngest son, John, who succeeded him in the botanic 
garden above mentioned, died in 1812. 

BASS, REV. EDWAKD, D. D. First Bishop of Massachu 
setts. He was born in Dorchester in 1726, and graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. He fitted for the ministry as a 
Congregationalist. Ordained in England in 1752 ; he was 



BATES. - BAUM. 215 

Rector of St. Paul s Church, Newburyport, fifty-one years. 
Elected Bishop of Massachusetts in 1797, his jurisdiction 
was subsequently extended over the Episcopalian churches 
in Rhode Island and New Hampshire. His course in the 
Revolution is in dispute ; but. of his loyalty I entertain no 
doubt. He died at Newburyport in 1803, after two days 
illness, aged seventy-seven. A marble monument has been 
erected to his memory. "He was a sound divine, a critical 
scholar, an accomplished gentleman, and an exemplary Chris 
tian." 

BATES, WALTER. Of Stamford, Connecticut. In the 
spring of 1783 he arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in 
the ship Union. He settled in King s County, and for many 
years was its sheriff. He died at Kingston in that county in 
1842, aged eighty-two. 

BATWELL, REV. DANIEL. Of Pennsylvania. Episcopal 
minister in York and Cumberland Counties. He received a 
grant of land from the Proprietaries of the Colony near Car 
lisle. Soon after the Declaration of Independence he became 
an active Loyalist, was apprehended and committed to York 
jail. Congress gave him leave to dispose of his personal es 
tate, and to remove with his family to the city of New York. 
In 1782 he was chaplain of the third battalion of the New 
Jersey Volunteers. He went to England, and died there. 

BAUM, JEREMIAH. Of Maine. He was tried by a court- 
martial, and executed in Maine in 1780, by General Wads- 
worth, who commanded the Eastern department between the 
Piscataqua and the St. Croix. This act of severity gave the 
General himself great pain, and was condemned by many 
Whigs ; but it appears to have been necessary, and to have 
checked the treacherous intercourse of the eastern Tories 
with their British friends who held Castine. 

Eaton, in his history of Warren, thus relates the transac 
tion : 

" General Wadsworth issued a proclamation denouncing 
death upon any one convicted of aiding or secreting the 
enemy. Subsequent to the proclamation, a man by the name 



216 BAXTER. 

of Jeremiah Baum, residing back of Damariscotta, was taken 
up, charged with piloting a party of the British through the 
back country for the purpose of pillaging. He was tried on 
the twenty-third and twenty-fourth of August, by a court- 
martial at Wadsworth s head-quarters, condemned and sen 
tenced to be hung." Many efforts were made to procure his 
pardon, but Gen. W. remained inflexible. 

" On the day after the sentence, a gallows was erected on 
Limestone Hill, and the miserable man was conducted to it in 
a cart, fainting at the sight, and rendered insensible from fear. 
Mr. Coombs, who was standing near, was asked to lend his 
handkerchief to tie over the prisoner s eyes. Supposing it a 
farce, he complied; and the prisoner, to appearance already 
dead, was swung off, to the astonishment of the spectators. 
The General was greatly moved, and was observed walking 
his room in apparent agitation the most of the following day. 
Many friends of the Revolution regretted that such an ex 
ample of severity, however necessary, should fall on such a 
victim." 

BAXTER, SIMON. Of New Hampshire. Was proscribed 
and banished, and lost his estate under the Confiscation Act. 
He fell into the hands of a party of Whigs during the war, 
and was condemned to die. When brought out for execution, 
he broke and fled with the rope about his neck, and succeeded 
in reaching Burgoyne s army. He went to New Brunswick 
at the peace, and died at Norton, King s County, in 1804, 
aged seventy-four. His widow, Prudence, died the same 
year, at the age of seventy-three. 

BAXTER, STEPHEN. Of Bedford, New York. He made 
humble confession at Stamford, Connecticut, December 1775, 
that he " had opposed the liberties of America by horrid curs 
ing and profane swearing," and lie asked the forgiveness of 
those whom he had abused personally, and of the Whigs gen 
erally. But a "Recantcr" was still a Tory; and in 1783 
he went to Nova Scotia. 

BAXTER, JOSEPH. Settled in New Brunswick and died 
there. Joanna, his widow, died in that Province in 1842, 
aged eighty-six. 



BAXTER. - BAYARD. 217 

BAXTER, ELIJAH. Died at Norton, King s County, New 
Brunswick, in 1852. 

BAYARD, SAMUEL VETCH. Of New York. In 1777 Gov 
ernor Tryon appointed him to succeed Golden as Surveyor 
and Searcher of the Customs, and said to Lord George Ger 
main : " From the steady loyalty of his father, and the depre 
dations made on his estate, and in consideration that his two 
sons are now in the Provincial service, I rest in absolute con 
fidence that his Majesty will confirm my appointment in oppo 
sition to all solicitations whatever." 

I find the death of a Samuel Vetch Bayard, at Wilmot, 
Nova Scotia, in 1832, aged seventy-five. Possibly, one of the 
" sons " mentioned by Tryon, as it is said " he served under 
the Crown, and was a military officer." 

BAYARD, SAMUEL. Of New York. In 1774 lie was en 
gaged in a controversy with other proprietors of lands in 
New York, and in behalf of himself and associates, submitted 
a memorial to the British Government, praying to be put in 
quiet possession of a part of the tract called the Westenhook 
Patent. After General Lee took command in the city in 
1776, Mr. Bayard was made prisoner, and placed under 
guard at the house of Nicholas Bayard. He entered the 
service of the Crown, and in 1782 was major of the King s 
Orange Rangers. 

BAYARD, WILLIAM. Of New York. Head of the mer 
cantile house of William Bayard & Co. He was associated 
with Jay, Lewis, and others, as a member of the Committee of 
Fifty, and he appears to have been of Whig sympathies at the 
beginning of the controversy. In 177o, Mr. Quincy, of Mas 
sachusetts, on his return from the South, passed through New 
York, and recorded in his journal, under the date of May 
12th, " Spent the morning in writing and roving, and dined 
with Colonel William Bayard at his seat on the North River." 
In 1775 the Massachusetts delegates to the Continental Con 
gress were his guests also. In 17 70 he was an Addresser of 
Lord and Sir William Howe. He went to England, and his 
property was confiscated. Governor Franklin recommended 

VOL. I. 19 



218 BAYLEY. - BEACH. 

him to Lord George Germain, for relief. He died very acred, 
in 1804, at his seat, Greenwich House, Southampton, Eng 
land. 

BAYLEY, RICHARD. Of New York. An eminent physician. 
He was born in Connecticut in 1745, and in 1769 and 1770 
attended lectures and hospitals in London. In 1772 he began 
practice in New York, and his attention was early attracted to 
the croup, which professional men had treated as putrid sore 
throat. His experiments resulted in the adoption of active 
treatment, and in an entire change of remedies for that for 
midable disease. In 1776 he was in the British Army under 
Howe, as a surgeon, but incapable of enduring separation from 
his w r ife, he resigned just before her decease in 1777. For 
the remainder of his life he \vas engaged in duties of a profes 
sional kind. He occupied the chairs of anatomy and surgery 
in Columbia College, and published letters and essays on med 
ical subjects. He died in 1801, aged fifty-six. He is repre 
sented as a man of high temper, strong in his attachments, in 
vincible in his dislikes, and of honorable, chivalrous character. 

BAYLEY, PHILIP. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. In 
1775 he signed and published a Submission, or Recantation, 
in which he asked forgiveness for the past, and promised that 
his future conduct should convince the public that he would 
risk his life and interest in defence of the liberties of the coun 
try. In his case, as in several others, the written recantation 
was probably extorted from an unwilling mind to avert some 
impending blow. Many recanters went into exile. Bayley, 
in 1778, was proscribed and banished. The captain-lieutenant 
of the Royal Fencible Americans in 1782 was Philip Bailey, 
and, possibly, the subject of this notice. 

BEACH, REV. ABRAHAM, D. D. Episcopal minister. He 
was born in Cheshire, Connecticut, in 1740, and graduated at 
Yale College in 1757. He went to England for ordination in 
1767, and was appointed missionary at New Brunswick, and 
Piscataqua, New Jersey. In July, 1776, he was told that un 
less he omitted prayers for the King and Royal Family, he 
must discontinue service on the Sabbath. As he would not 



BEACH. 219 

consent to this condition, lie shut the churches in which he 
officiated. In a few months, however, worship was resumed 
in one of them. Early in 1777 he said : " My present con 
dition is truly distressing, being situated about a quarter of a 
mile beyond the picket-guard of the King s troops. Parties 
of Washington s army are every day skulking about me. A 
few days ago, they drove off my cattle, horses and sheep ; and 
since I sat down to write this letter, about fifty of them sur 
rounded my house, and fired from thence on the out-sentry 
of the Hessians," c. Until the peace, he continued in his 
perilous position, but, u dispensing spiritual consolation alike 
to Whigs and Tories." In 1783 he was appointed temporary 
missionary at Amboy ; and in 1784, assistant minister of 
Trinity Church, New York. After twenty -nine years duty, 
and in 1813, he resigned ; when the Vestry, " in consideration 
of his very long and faithful services in the church, as one of 
its most faithful pastors, granted him an annuity of =1500 for 
life, secured by bond, under seal of the Corporation." He 
retired to his farm on the Raritan River, where he passed the 
remainder of his life. lie died in 1828, at the age of eighty- 
eight. His wife Ann, daughter and sole heiress of Evart Van 
Winkle, one of the original Dutch settlers of New Jersey, 
died in 1808. " In his intercourse with society, no man could 

be more frank or more free from all guile While 

his dignified person, expressive countenance, and lively feel 
ings, commanded the respect and affection of all who knew 
him." 

BEACH, REV. Joiix. He graduated at Yale College in 
1721, and for several years was a Congregational minister in 
Connecticut ; but finally became an Episcopalian. In 1732 
he went to England for ordination, and on his return, was 
employed as an Episcopalian missionary in Reading and New- 
town, Connecticut. After the Declaration of Independence, 
he continued to pray for the King, and to give other evidence 
of his loyalty. His course gave great displeasure to the Whigs, 
and he suffered at their hands. He died in March, 1782. 
Durino- his life, he was engaged in one or more religious 



220 BEACH. 

controversies. Several of his compositions of this description, 
and a number of sermons, were published. The following 
extracts from two of his letters to the Society for the Prepa 
ration of the Gospel, whose missionary he was, contain inter 
esting information. The last, as will be seen, was dated only 
a few months before his death. 

a NEWTOWN, May 5, 1772. 

" As it is now forty years since I have had the advantage 
of being the venerable Society s missionary in this place, I 
suppose it will not be improper to give a brief account how I 
have spent my time, and improved their charity. Every Sun 
day I have performed divine service, and preached twice, at 
Newtown and Reading alternately. And in these forty years 
I have lost only two Sundays through sickness ; although in 
all that time I have been afflicted with a constant colic, which 
has not allowed me one day s ease or freedom from pain. 
The distance between the churches at Newtown and Reading 
is between eight and nine miles, and no very good road, yet 
have I never foiled one time to attend each place according to 
custom, through the badness of the weather, but have rode it 
in the severest rains and snow-storms, even when there has 
been no track, and my horse near miring down in the snow 
banks, which has had this good effect on my parishioners, 
that they are ashamed to stay from church on account of 
bad weather, so that they are remarkably forward to attend 
the public worship. As to my labors without my parish, I 
have formerly performed divine service in many towns where 
the Common-prayer had never been heard, nor the Scriptures 
read in public ; and where now are flourishing congregations 
of the Church of England, and in some places where there 
never had been any public worship at all, or any sermon 
preached by any preacher of any denomination. 

" In my travelling to preach the Gospel, once was my life 
remarkably preserved in passing a deep and rapid river. The 
retrospect on my fatigues, as lying on straw, &c., gives me 
pleasure, while I flatter myself that my labor has not been 



BEACH. 221 

quite in vain, for the Church of England people are increased 
much more than twenty to one ; and what is infinitely more 
pleasing, many of them are remarkable for piety and virtue ; 
and the Independents here are more knowing in matters of 
religion than they who live at a great distance from our 
church. We live in harmony and peace with each other, 
and the rising generation of the Independents seem to be 
entirely free from every pique and prejudice against the 
church, &c., &c. 

" JOHN BEACH." 

"NEWTOWN, October 31, 1781. 
" It is a lono 1 time since I have done my duty in writino- to 

r") i/ i/ O 

the venerable Society, not owing to my carelessness, but to the 
impossibility of conveyance from here, and now do it sparingly. 
A narrative of my troubles I dare not now give. My two 
congregations are growing ; that of Reading being commonly 
about three hundred, and at Newtown about six hundred. I 
baptize about one hundred and thirty children in one year, 
and lately two adults. Newtown, and the Church of England 
part of Reading are, (I believe,) the only parts of New England 
that have refused to comply with the doings of the Congress, 
and for that reason have been the butt of general hatred ; but 
God has delivered us from entire destruction. I am now in 
the eighty-second year of my age, yet do constantly alter 
nately perform and preach at Newtown and Reading. I have 
been sixty years a public preacher, and, after conviction, in 
the Church of England fifty years ; but had I been sensible 
of my insufficiency, I should not have undertaken it. But 
now I rejoice in that I think I have done more good towards 
men s eternal happiness than I should have done in any other 
calling. I do most heartily thank the venerable Society for 
their liberal support, and beg that they will accept of this, 
which is, I believe, my last bill, 325, which, according to 
former custom, is due. 

u At this age I cannot well hope for it, but I pray God I 
may have an opportunity to explain myself with safety ; but 
19* 



222 BEAMAN. BEARDSLEY. 

must conclude now with Job s expression Have pity upon 
me, have pity upon me, O ye my friends. 

BEAMAN, THOMAS. Of Petersham, Massachusetts. Cap 
tain. In 1770, he claimed that a school-house in town was 
on his land, and to prevent the obnoxious Whig school-master 
from entering it, [see Ensign Man^\ he locked it. How and 
Man broke in, and Beaman commenced a suit for trespass ; 
the case was in the courts for some time ; the costs were con 
siderable, and finally paid by the defendants. April, 1775, 
Beaman acted as a guide to the British troops on their march 
to Lexington and Concord. He fled to Nova Scotia. In 

O 

1778 lie was proscribed and banished. 

BEAN, THOMAS. He went from New York to St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783, and of the latter city was a grantee. 
He and Dowling were contractors for the building of Trinity 
Church, St. John. He died at Portland, New Brunswick, in 
1823, aged seventy-nine. 

BEARD, - . Of North Carolina. Captain of Tories. 
After a bloody affray in the house of a Whig, whose daughter 
had refused his hand, he was captured, tried by a court-mar 
tial, and hung. 

BEAIIDSLEY, REV. JOHN. Of Poughkcepsie, New York. 
Episcopal minister. He was born in Stratford, Connecticut, 
in 1732. He entered Yale College, but did not graduate ; 

O O / 

King s (now Columbia) College, New York, however, con 
ferred the degrees of A. B. and A. M. He went to Eng 
land for ordination, and returned early in 1762. In addition 
to the performance of his parochial duties at Poughkeepsie, he 
officiated a part of the time at Fishkill. At the beginning of 
the war he refused to take the oath of allegiance to Congress, 
and suffered indignities in consequence. In the end, his prop 
erty was seized, and poor and even destitute, he and his family 
took refuge in New York. In 1778, he was appointed chap 
lain in the Loyal American Regiment, commanded by Bever- 
ley Robinson, who had been a chief supporter of the Episcopal 
Church at Fishkill. At the peace, Mr. Beardsley accompan 
ied his regiment to New Brunswick. After many depriva- 



BEARMORE. - BEDLE. 

tions and sufferings, lie was settled over the parish in Mau- 
gerville, on the river St. John, and remained there more than 
seventeen years. His pastoral relations were dissolved in con- 
sequcnce of his infirmities. He retired to Kingston in that 
Province, on the half-pay of a chaplain, and died there in 
1810. He had four daughters. The eldest married a Ger 
man officer who, some years after the peace of 1783, returned 
with his wife and children to his native land. His son John 
died at Woodstock, New Brunswick, in 1852. His youngest 
son, Hon. Bartholomew Crannel Beardsley, who died in Can 
ada West, in 1855, was Chief Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, and a member of the House of Assembly of New Bruns 
wick. His grandson, II. II. Beardsley, of Woodstock, is 
(1852) a counsellor at law, and a member of the Assembly. 

BEAKMORE, - . Major in a Loyalist corps, New York. 
In 1.778, he attacked a Whig force of about forty, quartered 
in a dwelling-house and barns. He was taken prisoner the 
next year, much to the joy of the people who called him " a 
troublesome officer." 

BECKWITH, NEHEMIAH. He settled at St. John, New 
Brunswick, but removed to Fredericton, where he died in 
1815. 

BECRAFT, - .A Tory leader, cruel, and noted for deeds 
of blood. He boasted to his associates of having assisted to 
massacre the family of a Mr. Vrooman, in Schoharie, New 
York. The family, he said, were soon despatched, except 
a boy of fourteen, who ran from the house, when he started 
in pursuit, overtook him, and cut his throat, took his scalp, 
and hung his body across the fence. After the peace, he had 
the hardihood to return to Schoharie. He was seized, stripped 
naked and bound to a tree, and whipped nearly to death by 
ten men, some of whom had been his prisoners, and had heard 
him recount this exploit. Thus beaten, he was dismissed with 
a charge never to show himself in that country again ; an in 
junction which he carefully kept. 

BEDLE, JOHN. Of Staten Island, New York. Born in 
1757. In the Revolution, private secretary to Colonel Bil- 



224 BELL. BENEDICT. 

lop. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and was 
employed a year or two in surveying that city. Removed to 
Woodstock about the year 1704, where he was a magistrate 
for forty years ; and after the division of York County, was a 
magistrate, a Judge of Common Pleas, and Register of Wills 
and Deeds for the County of Carlton ; he died in 1838, aged 
eighty-three. He married Margaret Dibble, now (1852) liv- 
ino- at the ao-e of eio-htv-six. His children were ten : Wil- 

JT3 O O / 

liam Jarvis and Paul M., magistrates ; John, a Judge of the 
Court of Common Pleas ; George A., Register of Deeds ; 
Joseph, Tyler, Walter Dibble, and three daughters. 

BELL, ANDREW. Of New Jersey. Secretary to Sir Henry 
Clinton. A diary kept by him during the march of the Brit 
ish Army, prior to the battle of Monmouth, is preserved in 
the Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society. In 
1783 he was a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. [See 
Alujali Willard.~\ A correspondent who knew him well, 
says, he " esteemed him highly for his probity, intelligence, 
and urbanity." His wife was Susannah, daughter of Daniel 
O Brien, of Perth Amboy. Governor Paterson, of New Jer 
sey, married his sister. He died without children in 1843. 

BELL, JOSEPH. Of New York. He was born in Eng 
land, and emigrated to America just before the Revolution. 
He settled on a farm near Troy, but removed to the city of 
New York. At the peace, having suffered much for his loy 
alty, he went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in command of a 
company of exiled Loyalists, accompanied by his family of 
three and a servant. In 1792 he removed to Yarmouth, 
Nova Scotia, where he died in 1829, aged eighty-nine. His 
wife died in 1809 ; but two children survived him. One, a 
daughter, married Joseph Bond, M. D., who arrived at New 
York in a privateer, who volunteered to serve in the army, 
was present at the capture of Cornwallis, was an officer of the 
customs and sheriff in Nova Scotia after the war, and who 
died in 1830, aged seventy-two, leaving ten children. 

BENEDICT, ELI. Of Danbury, Connecticut. Guide to 
the British troops to his native town. In 1782 an ensign in 



BENNERMAN. BERNARD. 225 

the Guides and Pioneers. At tlic pence he returned to Dan- 
bury with the intention of living there. Threatened with a 
ride on the wooden-horse, he fled. In 1799, administration on 
the estate of a person of this name, in the Province of New 
Brunswick. 

BENNERMAN, JOHN. Of Portsmouth, Virginia. A cap 
tain. He went to England, and was one of " his Majesty s 
Band of Gentleman Pensioners." In 1781 he married a Miss 
Holt of Lincolnshire. He died in England in 1785. 

BERNARD, SIR THOMAS, Baronet. He was the third 
son of Sir Francis Bernard, Baronet, Governor of Massa 
chusetts, and graduated at Harvard University in 17()7. He 
went to England, where he married a lady of fortune. On 
the death of his brother, Sir John Bernard who was a 
Whig he succeeded to the title. His time was much de 
voted to institutions of benevolence in London ; and he wrote 
several essays with a design to mitigate the sorrows, and im 
prove the condition of the humbler classes of English society. 
The University of Edinburgh conferred on him the decree 

t/ O O 

of Doctor of Laws. He died in England in 1818. Lady 
Bernard died in 181o, while preparing to go to church. 

BERNARD, SIR JOHN, Baronet. The brother of Sir 
Thomas above mentioned remained in America ; and, 
as remarked, was a Whig. To preserve the following inci 
dents, then, is the reason for this notice. Soon after the 
Revolution he was in abject poverty, and the misfortunes 
of himself and his family seem to have unsettled his mind. 
When, in 1769, Sir Francis was recalled from the govern 
ment of Massachusetts, he possessed a considerable landed 
estate in Maine, of which the large island of Mount Desert, 
Moose Island, (now Eastport,) and some territory on the 
main, formed a part. John, at or about the time of his 
father s departure, had an agency for the settlement of these 
and other lands ; and, probably, until the confiscation of the 
property of Sir Francis, in 1778, was in comfortable circum 
stances. His place of residence during the war appears to 
have been at Bath, thouidi he was sometimes at Machias. 



226 BERNARD. BERGUYN. 

Not long after the peace, lie lived at Pleasant Point, a few 
miles from Eastport, in a small hut built by himself, and 
with no companion but a dog. An unbroken wilderness was 
around him. The only inhabitants at the head of the tide 
waters of the St. Croix were a few workmen, preparing to 
erect a saw-mill. Robbinston and Perry were uninhabited. 
Eastport contained a single family. Yet, at the spot now 
occupied by the remnant of the tribe of the Passamaquoddy s, 
he attempted to make a form. He had been bred in ease, 
had hardly done a day s work in his life ; and yet he believed 
that he could earn a competence by labor. He told those 
who saw him, that " other young men went into the woods, 
and made themselves farms, and got a good living, and he 
saw no reason why he could not/ But he cut down a few 
trees, became discouraged, and departed. His abject condi 
tion in mind and estate rendered him an object of deep com 
miseration ; and his conduct during hostilities having entitled 
him to consideration, the Legislature of Massachusetts restored 
to him one half of the island of Mount Desert. Of his sub 
sequent history, while he continued in the United States, but 
little is known to me. He came to Maine occasionally, and 
was much about Boston. Later in life he held offices under 
the British crown at Barbadoes and St. Vincent ; and was 
known as Sir John Bernard, Baronet. He died in the West 
Indies in 1809, in his sixty-fifth year, without issue, and was 
succeeded by his brother Thomas. 

BERGUYN, - . Of North Carolina. Was in Eng 
land, June, 1778, and about to return to America, on news 
that the Assembly of that State had voted to admit all Loy 
alists who might apply. In 1786 the Commissioner for the 
district of Wilmington, instead of selling his whole property 
as allowed by law, consented to the sale of a part of it, in a 
manner to test the legality of the Confiscation Act itself. The 
next year he was party to a suit, in which the question of 
his right to sue was decided in his favor, and a lawyer wrote 
" We may be sure " that the attempt to forfeit his estate 
" will end in smoke." 



BERTON. BETTYS. 227 

BERTON, PETER. Of Long Island, New York. He went 
to New Brunswick in 1788, and was a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. His youngest son, James D., a native of 
Long Island, died at Fredericton in 1848, aged seventy. 

BETHUNE, JOHN. Of North Carolina. Chaplain in the 
Loyal Militia. Taken prisoner in the battle at Cross Creek, 
1770, confined in Halifax jail, but ordered, finally, to Phil 
adelphia. After his release, his continued loyalty reduced 
him to great distress. He was appointed chaplain to the 
84th Regiment, and restored to comfort. At the peace he 
settled in Upper Canada, and died at Williamstown in that 
Colony in 1815, in his sixty-fifth year. 

BETIIUXE, GEORGE. Of Boston. He graduated at Har 
vard University in 1740. In 1774 he was an Addresser of 
Hutchinson in May, and one of the Protesters against the 
proceedings of the town meeting in June of that year. The 
next year he had retired to Jamaica, New York, where he 
was suspected of carrying on a correspondence with the Brit 
ish forces, and was summoned to appear before the Committee 
with his papers. He died in 1785, at Cambridge, aged sixty- 
four. Marv, his widow, daughter of Benjamin Faneuil, died 
at the same place in 171>7, aged sixty-three. 

BETTS, AZOR. Of New York. Physician. In January, 
1776, he was arraigned before the Committee of Safety, for 
denouncing Congresses and Committees, both Continental and 
Provincial, and for uttering that they were ; a set of damned 
rascals, and acted only to feather their own nests, and not to 
serve their country," &c. Ordered to close confinement in 
Ulster County jail. In April the Committee of Safety voted 
his discharge, on condition of acknowledging penitence, pay 
ing expenses of confinement, and taking an oath to be of 
good behavior ; or, dispensing with the oath, executing a 
bond with sureties in <200. He settled in Nova Scotia, and 
died at Digby in that Province in 1809. His widow, Glori- 
annah, died at St. John, New Brunswick, soon after, aged 
sixty-nine. 

BETTYS, JOSEPH. A noted Tory. " Joe Bettys " was 



99* 



BETTYS. BIDDLE. 



known as a shrewd, intelligent, daring, and bad man. It is 
said, that pity and mercy were emotions which he never felt, 
and that to all the gentler impulses he was thoroughly insen 
sible. At the breaking out of the Revolution he lived at 
Ballston, New York, and was a Whig. Entering the Whig- 
service he performed feats of extraordinary valor in Arnold s 
battle with Carleton on Lake Champlain, where he was taken 
prisoner and carried to Canada. While a captive, he was un- 
fortunatelv seduced to attach himself to the interests of the 
Crown, and to accept the commission of ensign. Admirably 
fitted to act as a messenger and spy, he undertook to perform 
the duties of one or both as occasion should require, but was 
captured by his former friends, tried, -and condemned to the 
gallows. Washington, however, spared his life on his promise 
of reformation, on the entreaties of his aged parents and the 
solicitations of influential Whigs. But Bettys returned di 
rectly to the ranks of the enemy, and his subsequent career 
was marked by almost every enormity that can disgrace a 
human being. His very name struck terror, and a record of 
his enterprises and crimes would fill a book. He burned the 
dwellings of persons whom he hated, or took them off by 
murder. Fatigue, distance, or danger, were no obstacles in 
the accomplishment of his designs. He knew that he carried 
his life in his hand. He scorned disguise or concealment. 
He fell upon his victims at noon as well as at midnight. 
Many plans were laid, many efforts made to seize him. At 
last, in 1782, the Whigs were successful, and detected him 
with a despatch to the commander of the British forces in 
New York. He was taken to Albany and executed as a spy 
and traitor. His death was deemed an event of no small 
consequence, both because it put an end to his own misdeeds, 
and because his fate was calculated to awe others who were 
engaged in the same perilous employments. 

BIDDLE, JOHN. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Was 
collector of excise, and a deputy-quartermaster of the Whig 
Army. He changed sides, and in 1779 his estate was confis 
cated. His office of collector of excise was worth, in 1775, 



BIGG. BILLOPP. 229 

but c15. In a Loyalist tract published at London in 1784, 
he is called u a creature of John Potts, and once a rebel com 
missary." 

BIGG, JOHN. He died in New Brunswick in 1830, aged 
seventy-eight. 

BILLOPP, CHRISTOPHER. Of Staten Island, New York. 
Prior to the Revolution, " the eldest son of Thomas Farmar 
married the daughter of Captain Christopher Billopp, an officer 
in the British Nary, who had succeeded in obtaining a patent 
for a large tract of land on Staten Island, containing one or 
two thousand acres. Young Farmar, upon his wife s inher 
iting this estate, adopted her father s name, and became a very 
noted character." He commanded a corps of Loyalists, or 
of loyal militia, raised in the vicinity of New York city, and 
was actively employed in military duty. He was taken pris 
oner by the Whigs, and confined in the jail at Burlington, 
New Jersey. Mr. Boudinot, the commissary of prisoners, 
in the warrant of commitment, directed that irons should be 
put on his hands and feet, that he should be chained to the 
floor of a close room, and that he should be fed on bread and 
water, in retaliation for the cruel treatment of Leshier and 
Randal, two Whig officers who had fallen into the hands of 
the Royal troops. In 1782 Colonel Billopp was Superintend 
ent of Police of Staten Island. His property, which was large, 
was confiscated under the Act of New York. At the old 
Billopp House, which he erected, Lord Howe, as a commis 
sioner of the mother-country, met Franklin, John Adams, 
and Edward Rutledge, a Committee of Congress, in the hope 
of adjusting difficulties, and of inducing the Colonies to return 
to their allegiance. During the war, Lord Howe, General 
Kniphausen, Colonel Simcoe, and other officers of rank in 
the Royal service, were frequent guests of Colonel Billopp, 
at this house. In 1788 he was one of the fifty-five petitioners 
for lands in Nova Scotia. [See Alijah Willard.~\ He went to 
New Brunswick soon after, and for many years bore a prom 
inent part in the administration of its affairs. He was a 
member of the House of Assembly, and of the Council, and 
VOL. i. 20 



230 BIRDSILL. BISSETT. 

on the death of Governor Smythe, in 1823, he claimed the 
Presidency of the Government, and issued his proclamation 
accordingly ; but the Honorable Ward Chipman was a com 
petitor for the station, and was sworn into office. Colonel 
Billopp died at St. John in 1827, aged ninety. His wife Jane 
died at that city in 1802, aged forty-eight. His daughter 
Louisa married John Wallace, Esq., Surveyor of the Cus 
toms. His daughter Mary, the wife of the Reverend Arch 
deacon Willis, of Nova Scotia, died at Halifax in 1834, at 
the age of forty-three. His daughter Jane, wife of the Hon 
orable William Black, of St. John, died in 1836. His two 
sons settled in the city of New York, and were merchants. 
They were partners, and in business at the time of the yel 
low fever ; the one married, the other single. The unmar 
ried brother said to the other, " It is unnecessary that both 
should stay here. You have a family, and your life is of 
more consequence than mine ; go into the country until the 
sickness subsides." The married brother retired from the 
city accordingly, while the other remained and was a victim 
of the fever. The survivor, whose name was Thomas, failed 
in business some time after ; joined the expedition of the cel 
ebrated Miranda, and was appointed a captain ; was taken 
prisoner by the Spaniards and executed. 

BIRDSILL, BENJAMIN. Of New York. Went to New 
Brunswick in 1783, and settled in Queen s County. He 
died at Gagetown in that county in 1834, at the age of 
ninety-one. Descendants to the number of two hundred 
and two survived him. Rachel, his widow, died at Gage- 
town in 1843, aged ninety-seven. 

BISSETT, REV. GEORGE. Of Newport, Rhode Island. 
Episcopal minister. Employed as assistant and school-mas 
ter in 1767 ; he succeeded Mr. Browne, as Rector of Trinity 
Church, four years later, and continued in office until the 
evacuation of the town by the Royal Army, in 1779. Leav 
ing his wife and child " in the most destitute circumstances," 
he followed the British troops to New York. His furniture 
was seized ; but, on petition of Mrs. Bissett, the General 



BLAIR. BL ANCH ARD. 231 

Assembly restored it, and gave her permission to join her 
husband. Soon after his departure, the church was entered, 
and the altar-piece ornamented with emblems of royalty 
was torn down and spoiled. I lose sight of him until 1786, 
when he was in England, about to embark for America. 
He resumed his professional duties in St. John, Ne\v Bruns 
wick, and died there in 1788. His wife was Penelope, daugh 
ter of James Honyman, Judge of the Court of Vice- Admi 
ralty, Rhode Island. 

The Rev. Dr. Peters said of Mr. Bissett, " He is a very 
sensible man, a good scholar and compiler of sermons, although 
too bashful to appear in company, or in the pulpit." 

BLAIR, JAMES. Died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, where he 
was Barrack-master, in 1883, aged seventy-five. 

BLAIR, JOHN. Was tried as a spy in 1778, and executed 
at Hartford, Connecticut. A large amount of counterfeit 
money was found in his possession. 

BLAIR, CAPTAIN . Of Virginia. Joined Lord 

Dunmore. Taken prisoner and perished, as supposed, on 
the passage to France. 

BLAKE, WILLIAM. Of South Carolina. In 1782 his 
estate was amerced twelve per cent. In an English work, I 
find that there " died in Great Cumberland Place, in 1803, 
in his sixty-fifth year, William Blake, Esq., of South Car 
olina." His remains were interred at Hanway with great 
funeral pomp : twelve outriders, four mourning-coaches, and 
nearly fifty other coaches, forming the procession. He left 
property valued at half a million of dollars. 

BLAKSLEE, ABRAHAM. Of Connecticut. Commanded a 
company in the second regiment of the militia, and the House 
of Assembly appointed a Committee, in 1775, to inquire 
into charges against him of disaffection and contemptuous 
speaking. 

BLAKSLEE, ASA. Removed to St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1783, and died in that city in 1843, aged eighty-seven. 

BLANCH ARD, JOTHAM. Of Dunstable, New Hampshire. 
Served in a Loyalist corps. At the peace he settled in Nova 



232 BLANVELT. - BLISS. 

Scotia : received a grant of lands ; carried on an extensive 
business in lumber ; was active in exploring the country and 
in obtaining grants for fellow-exiles, and was a colonel in the 
militia. He died about the year 1800. 

BLANVELT, TUNIS. Of New Jersey. In the war an active 
" bush-ranger." Lost considerable property in consequence 
of his loyalty. At the peace, went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, 
with a family of six and three servants. Settled finally in 
Tusket, Nova Scotia, where he kept a boarding-house. Died 
in 1830, leaving several sons, of whom two are now (18(31) 
shipmasters. His second wife was Hannah, daughter of 
Gabriel Van Nordan. 

BLEAU, WALDRON. Of New York. In 1776 an Ad 
dresser of Lord and Sir William Howe ; in 1782 a Captain 
in the third battalion New Jersey Volunteers. Went to 
St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and died five days after 
landing there. His house and land in the city of New York 
confiscated, but restored to his widow and daughter. 

BLEAU, URIAH. Was an Ensign in the third battalion of 
New Jersey Volunteers in 1782. Taken prisoner in the 
battle of Eutaw Springs. 

BLISS, DANIEL. Of Concord, Massachusetts. Was a son 
of Rev. Samuel Bliss, of that town. He was born in 1740, 
graduated at Harvard University in 1760, and died at Lin 
coln, near Fredericton, in the Province of New Brunswick, 
in 1806, aged sixty-six years. He was one of the barristers 
and attorneys who were Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774 ; 
and was proscribed under the Act of 1778 ; and joining the 
British Army, was appointed Commissary. After the Revo 
lution, he settled in New Brunswick, and became a member 
of the Council, and Chief Justice of the Court of Common 
Pleas. His widow died in 1807, at the age of sixty. 

BLISS, JOHN MURRAY. Son of Daniel Bliss. He was 
a native of Massachusetts, whence he removed at the begin 
ning of hostilities. He did not settle in New Brunswick until 
1786. Having practised law for several years, and filled 
several offices connected with his profession, and ha vino- 



BLISS. BLOWERS. 

represented the County of York in the House of Assembly, 
he was, in 1816, elevated to the bench and to a seat in his 
Majesty s Council. In 1824, on the decease of the Honorable 
Ward Chipman, who was President and Commander-in-Chief 
of the Colony, Judge Bliss succeeded to the administration 
of the o;overnment, and continued in office until the arrival of 

O 

Sir Howard Douglas, a period of nearly a year. At his 
death, he was senior Justice of the Supreme Court. He 
commanded universal confidence and esteem. His manners 
were dignified, and his conduct open, frank, and independent. 
Pie died at St. John, August, 1834, aged sixty-three years. 
His daughter Jane died at Halifax in 1826, and his daughter 
Sophia Isabella died at St. John the same year. 

BLISS, JONATHAN. Of Springfield, Massachusetts. Gradu 
ated at Harvard University in 1763, and died at Fredericton, 
New Brunswick, in 1822, at the age of eighty years. His 
wife and the wife of Fisher Ames were sisters. He was a 
member of the General Court of Massachusetts in 1768, and 
one of the seventeen Rescinders ; and was proscribed under 
the Act of 1778. In New Brunswick, he was a personage of 
distinguished consideration, and attained, finally, to the rank 
of Chief Justice, and to the Presidency of the Council. 

BLISS, SAMUEL. Of Massachusetts. Was a brother of 
the Honorable Daniel Bliss. He died at St. George, New 
Brunswick, in 1803. 

BLOOMER, JOSHUA. Episcopal clergyman of Jamaica, 
New York. He graduated at King s College, New York, in 
1761, and went to England for ordination in 1765. In 1769 
he settled at Jamaica, where he continued until his death, in 
1790. Before taking orders, he was an officer in the Pro 
vincial service, and a merchant in New York. While at 
Jamaica, he officiated, occasionally, at Newtown and Flush 
ing, and Domine Rubell, an itinerant Dutch minister, whose 
loyalty induced him to pray heartily for the royal family, 
occupied his pulpit. 

BLOWERS, SAMPSON SALTER. Of Boston. Proscribed and 
banished. He graduated at Harvard University in 1763. 
20* 



234 BLOWERS. 

The class of that year is celebrated for the numbers of Loy 
alists and Judges of Courts. Mr. Blowers entered upon the 
study of law with Hutchinson, then Judge of Probate and 
Lieutenant-Goyernor. In 1770 he was associated with Messrs. 
Adams and Quincy in behalf of the British soldiers who 
were tried for their agency in the Boston Massacre, so 
termed, in that year. In 1774 he went to England, and 
returning, in 1778, found his name in the Proscription Act. 
He was imprisoned, but being soon released, went to Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, and in that Colony was long a distinguished 
character. I find the following in a Halifax newspaper of 
January 26, 1784 : 

" Extract from General Orders, Head-quarters. 

" That the outstanding Accounts against Government, for 
contingent Expenses incurred within this District, may be 
properly considered and liquidated ; all Applications for Mo 
nies due on such Accounts are to be presented before the 1st 
May next ; after which no Memorial for Payment will be 
received. 

" Published by Order of Major- General Campbell. 

" S. S. BLOWERS, Secretary." 

In 1785 he was appointed Attorney-General, and Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, and in 1797 was created Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court ; having had for some years 
previous to his judicial elevation a seat in his Majesty s 
Council. He retired from public life in 1833. When ex- 
President Adams was in Nova Scotia, in 1840, he paid Judge 
Blowers a visit. The Judge himself, it is believed, never 
set foot on the land of his nativity, after he was driven from 
it. Sarah, his widow 7 , died at Halifax, July, 1845, in the 
eighty-eighth year of her age. She, I think, was a daughter 
of Benjamin Kent, of Massachusetts, who, at first a Whig, 
became a Loyalist and a refugee. Judge Blow r ers died in 
1842. He " never wore an overcoat in his life," says the 
Hon. Joseph Howe, in a speech which is published. 



BOARDMAN. - BOND. 235 

BOAKDMAX. REV. RICHARD. Minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. lie was born in England in 1788, and 
in 1763 was received by Wesley as an itinerant preacher. 
In 1701), lie arrived at Philadelphia and began his labors as 
a missionary, confining his services principally to that city, to 
New York, and the adjacent country. In the spring of 1772, 
however, lie made a visit to the North, and preached at va 
rious places on his way. At Boston he formed a society. 
Thus, as it appears, he introduced " Methodism in New Eng 
land one year before the first Conference was held in Amer 
ica, and eleven years before Jesse Lee, who has been styled 
the Apostle of Methodism in New England, entered the 
travelling connection." At the approach of the Revolution, 
Mr. Boardman, unwilling to renounce his allegiance to the 
Crown, returned to his native land. He died at Cork, Ire 
land, in 1783. 

BOGGS, JAMES. Of Pennsylvania. He entered the service 
of the Crown, and was attached to the medical staff of the 
Royal Army. In 1788 he went to Nova Scotia, and for many 
years was surgeon of the forces at Halifax. He died in that 
city in 1832, at the age of ninety-one. His daughter Eliza 
beth, widow of John Stuart, died at Halifax in 1852, in her 
eighty-fifth year. 

BOND, PHIXEAS. Of Philadelphia. Physician. He re 
ceived the principal part of his medical education in Europe, 
and enjoyed a high professional reputation. He was one of 
the founders of the University of Pennsylvania, and a profes 
sor in that institution. In 1777 he signed a parole, but noti 
fied the Council that he did not consider himself bound by it, 
because his liberty was restrained contrary to the promise 
made to him when the paper was presented. In 1780 he 
was appointed British Consul for the Middle States, and the 
question of recognizing him as such, was discussed in Con 
gress the folio win 0- year. Mr. Jav reported in favor. Mr. 

to >r^ . _ I 

Madison was opposed on public grounds. Mr. Varnum ob 
jected because of Mr. Bond s " obnoxious character." Mr. 
Bond was also Commissary for Commercial Affairs, which 



236 BOND. - BONNETT. 

Mr. Jay thought was designed to confer some of the powers 
of a Minister to the United States, and recommended that in 
that capacity he should not be recognized. He was finally 
received as Consul, and continued in office many years. A 
correspondent remarks, that when a little boy he heard the 
" Rogue s March " played before Dr. Bond s door, on the oc 
casion of the attack on the Chesapeake. He died in England 
in 1816. 

BOND, THOMAS. Physician. Of Philadelphia. About 
1754, he published medical memoirs on professional topics, 
which were reprinted in London. He always rode in a 
small phaeton. 

Chief Justice Shippen wrote to his father, at Lancaster, 
from Philadelphia, January 8, 1758 : " Our Assembly 
have taken up William Moore and the Provost, and put 
them into custody for writing a libel against the former 
Assembly. Thomas Bond and Phineas (Bond), were on 
the point of being committed on the same account. The 
latter was actually in the custody of the Sergeant-at-Arms, 
but afterwards discharged. How the matter will end is yet 
uncertain." Dr. Bond died in 1784. 

BONNELL, ISAAC. Of New Jersey. Sheriff of Middlesex 
County under Governor William Franklin, of whom he was 
an intimate friend and correspondent. In 1776 he was ap 
prehended by order of Washington, and directed by the Pro 
vincial Congress to remain at Trenton on parole ; but leave 
was given, finally, to live elsewhere. Subsequently, he re 
tired to the British lines, and became Barrack-master on 
Staten Island. At the peace, he went to Digby, Nova Scotia, 
where, for fifty guineas, he bought a log-hut, with windows 
of greased paper, and a lot of land. His property in New 
Jersey was confiscated. In Nova Scotia he was a merchant, 
and a Judge of the Court of Common Pleas. He died in 
1806, aged sixty-nine. His only son bore the name of Wil 
liam Franklin, as does a grandson, who is now (1861) Post 
master of Gagetown, Ne\v Brunswick. 

BONNETT, ISAAC. He was born in New Rochelle, New 



BONSALL. BORLAND. 237 

York. He abandoned his property at the close of tlie war, 
and removed to Annapolis Royal, Nova Scotia, where he 
passed the remainder of his life. He died in 1888, aged 
eighty-six, leaving a widow and five children. 

BONSALL, RICHARD. He was a native of Wales, and a 
brother of Sir Thomas Bonsall. He commenced the study 
of medicine, but abandoned it. In consequence of a dis 
agreement with Sir Thomas, lie emigrated to New York some 
years prior to the Revolution, where he remained until the 
close of hostilities. In 1783 he went to St. John, and was 
a grantee of that city. He died at that city in 1814, aged 
seventy-two. His wife was a lady of the name of Smith, of 
Long Island, New York. Six children survived him ; only 
one is now (1846) living. 

BOIILAND, JOHN. Of Boston. Son of Francis and Jane 
Borland. He owned and occupied the mansion in Cambridge 
built by Rev. Dr. Apthorp, first Rector of Christ Church in 
that town. In 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson. 
He died in 1775, aged forty-six, in consequence of " injuries 
received by a misstep in descending stairs, after his removal 
to Boston," and his remains were deposited in the family tomb, 
in Granary burying-ground. His widow, Anna Vassal!, mar 
ried William Knight of Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and died 
a widow at Boston, in 1823. Mr. Borland was the father of 
twelve children, namely : Phebe, who married George Spooner, 
of Boston ; John Lindall, of whom presently ; Francis, who 
graduated at Harvard University in 1774, became a physician, 
and died in 1826 ; Jane, who was the wife of Jonathan Simp 
son ; Leonard Vassal!, who died on shipboard on a voyage 
from Batavia, in 1801 ; James, who entered the University 
just mentioned, but did not graduate, and who deceased soon 
after the year 1783 ; Samuel, who graduated at Harvard Uni 
versity in 1786, and died at Hudson, New York ; and five 
others, who did not survive childhood. 

BORLAND, JOHN LINDALL. Of Cambridge, Massachusetts. 
Son of John Borland. Graduated at Harvard University in 
1772, entered the British Army and became lieutenant-colonel. 
He died in Eno-land, November, 1825. 



238 BOSTWICK. BOT8FORD. 

BOSTWICK, REV. GIDEON. Of Massachusetts. Episcopal 
minister. He was born at New Milford in 1742, and was 
bred a Congregationalist. He graduated at Yale College in 
1762. Went to England for ordination ; and in 1770 be 
came Rector of St. James 1 Church, Great Barrington. He 
had charge also of St. Luke s Church, Lanesborough ; and 
late in life officiated a part of the time at Hudson, New York. 
He died in his native town in 1793, while on a visit, aged 
fifty. His remains, after a temporary burial, were removed 
to Great Barrington, " which had so long been the place of his 
residence and the scene of his labors." His wife, who died in 
1787, was Gessie, daughter of John Burghardt. One of his 
daughters married Dr. Benajah Tucker, surgeon in the United 
States Navy. Two sons, John and Henry, settled in Canada, 
and, in the war of 1812, were colonels in the militia. 

BOTSFORD, AMOS. Of Newtown, Connecticut. He grad 
uated at Yale College in 1763. In 1775, in a document re 
markable for its guarded form of expression, though drawn up 
in opposition to a paper which disapproved of the proceedings 
of the Continental Congress, he made known his determina 
tion to be compliant with the measures of that body. But, 
subsequently, adhering to the side of the Crown, he removed 
to New Brunswick after the conclusion of hostilities, and de 
voted himself to the profession of the law. In 1784 he was 
elected a member of the House of Assembly, and was uniform 
ly returned from the County of Westmoreland at every elec 
tion during his life. He was Speaker of the House of Assem- 

C? I 

bly as early as 1792. He died at St. John in 1812, at the age 
of sixty-nine ; and was the senior barrister at law in the Col 
ony. His wife was Sarah, daughter of Joshua Chandler. His 
two daughters married brothers : Sarah, Stephen Milledge, 
Sheriff of Westmoreland County ; and Ann, the Rev. John 
Milledge of the Episcopal Church. His son, the Honorable 
William Botsford, w r as appointed Judge of Vice-Admiralty of 
New Brunswick in 1803, and for a long period subsequently 
was a member of the Council, and a Judge of the Supreme 
Court. I record the following despatch to show the liberal 



BOTSFOHD. 239 

course of the British Government to ao-ed functionaries on 

O 

retiring from office : 

" DOWNING STKEET, 19th January, 1847. 

" SIR, I have read with very lively concern the letter to 
myself from Mr. Botsford, of the llth December, 1846, ac 
companying your despatch of the 23d of that month, (No. 
117.) Lord Stanley obviously accepted Mr. Botsford s resig 
nation under the conviction that the claims of that {gentleman 

o 

to a retired allowance, at his advanced period of life, and after 
so long a course of honorable public service in so high and 
eminent a station, would be favorably received by the Legisla 
ture of New Brunswick ; nor do I doubt that if his Lordship 
had regarded their concurrence in such a grant as question 
able, he would have directed that the resignation should not 
be actually made until that question had been set at rest. To 
have taken such a precaution might indeed have appeared to 
imply some unbecoming distrust of the justice and liberality of 
the Assembly ; and for that reason, as I presume, Lord Stan 
ley omitted to take it. The omission is now irreparable, ex 
cept by a reconsideration on the part of the Local Legislature, 
of their refusal of the proposed grant. Her Majesty has, by 
the Civil List arrangement, been entirely divested of all re 
sources for satisfying any such demands on the justice or 
liberality of the Crown. To the Assembly, therefore, the 
case must be again referred, with as strong a recommenda 
tion of the claim to their favorable notice, as it may be possi 
ble to address to them. I am convinced that if the case had 
been understood by that House, as it is now represented by 
Mr. Botsford and by yourself, they would not have declined 
to accede to his request. A repetition of their refusal, would, 
in any future case, render impossible the voluntary resignation 
of any Judge, however much age or infirmity might have 
disqualified him for his judicial duties. The saving of a 
charge of 300 per annum to the Local Treasury, or even 
the habitual saving of any such charges, would be a very in 
adequate compensation for the injury which the public at 
laro;e would sustain from the continuance on the Bench of 



240 BOUCHER. 

men who had survived the power of discharging aright that 
most important and arduous trust. 

" I have, &c., 

" (Signed,) GREY. 

" Lieut-Governor SIR WILLIAM COLEBROOKE." 

BOUCHER, JONATHAN. Episcopal clergyman of Virginia. 
He was Rector, first of Hanover, and then of St. Mary. Gov 
ernor Eden gave him also the rectory of St. Anne, Annapolis, 
and of Queen Anne. His home was in Maryland, several 
years, and he owned an estate there which was confiscated, 
He was an unshaken and uncompromising Loyalist. In 
1775, resolving to quit the country, he preached a farewell 
sermon, in which he declared that as long as he lived, he 
would say with Zadok, the priest, and Nathan, the prophet, 
" God save the king. Arriving in England, lie was ap 
pointed Vicar of Epsom, and there he spent the remainder of 
his life. He died in 1804, aged sixty-seven. He was re 
garded as one of the best preachers of his time. While in 
Virginia, the son of Mrs. Washington, by her first marriage, 
was his pupil. During the last fourteen years of his life, 
Boucher was employed in making a glossary of provincial 
and archaeological words, and in 1831 his manuscripts were 
purchased of his family by the proprietors of " Webster s Dic 
tionary." In 1799 were published fifteen discourses preached 
in America, between the years 1763 and 1775, on the causes 
and consequences of the American Revolution, which were 
dedicated to his old friend, Washington. 

His wife, Eleanor, of the name and family of Addison, died 
at Paddington, in 1784. She bore without a murmur, the 
loss of country, friends, fortune, and preferment, consequent 
upon her husband s loyalty ; and " was a woman of great 
merit, possessing the esteem and friendship of all who knew 
her." His third daughter, Jane, died in London, in 1810, 
of inflammation of the lungs, after a few days illness, in the 
sixteenth year of her age. In the " Gentleman s Magazine " 
it is said : " An elegant form, and a countenance of engaging 



BOURA. BOUTINEAU. 241 

sweetness, were among the least attractions of tin s amiable 
girl, whose mild and placid temper, whose affectionate dis 
position, whose solid understanding beyond her years, whose 
compassionate feeling for the distresses of others, had justly 
endeared her to her family, and rendered her a child of un 
common promise." 

BOURA, PETER. An early settler at St. John, New Bruns 
wick. In 1795 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery of 
that city. He died in 1804, while on a homeward passage 
from Jamaica, at the age of forty-nine. He was a ship 
master. 

BOURK, WILLIAM. Of North Carolina. In March, 1776, 
he was charged with being inimical to the liberties of Amer 
ica ; and on a hearing before the Council, John Strange, a 
witness against him, sw r ore, in the course of his testimony, 
that Botirk said " General Gage deserved to be d d, be 
cause he had not let the guards out at Bunker Hill ; and it 
would have settled the dispute at that time." This, and other 
particulars, Bourk acknowledged ; when it w r as resolved to 
commit him to close jail until further orders. 

BOURN, EDWARD, ELISHA, LEMUEL, and WILLIAM. Of 
Sandwich, Massachusetts. Were proscribed and banished. 
Lemuel joined the Royal forces at Rhode Island. Citizen 
ship restored to Edward and Elisha, by Act of the Legisla 
ture, 1788. 

BOURNE, SHEARJASHUB. Of Scituate, Massachusetts. He 
graduated at Harvard University in 1743. In 1774 he was 
among the barristers and attornies-at-law who were Address 
ers of Governor Hutchinson on his departure. He died at 
Bristol, Rhode Island, in 1781. 

BOUTINEAU, JAMES. Of Boston. Attorney-at-law. Was 
appointed Mandamus Counsellor in 1774, and was one of the 
ten who took the oath of office. He was included in the 
Conspiracy Act of 1779, and his estate was confiscated under 
its provisions. In 1772 his son-in-law, John Robinson, a 
commissioner of the customs, was found guilty of a most 
violent assault on James Otis, for which the jury assessed 

VOL. I. 21 



242 BOUTINEAU. 

two thousand pounds sterling damages. Boutineau appeared 
as attorney for Robinson, and in his name signed a submis 
sion, asking the pardon of Otis, who, thereupon, executed a 
free release for the two thousand pounds. Otis never recov 
ered from the effect of this assault, and, shattered in health 
and reason, soon retired from public life. 

Mr. Boutineau went to England, and died there. I have 
been allowed to copy three letters, from which I make such 
extracts as serve to show the course of affairs among the Loy 
alists in exile. The first is dated at Bristol, England, April 
6, 1778, and is addressed to Mrs. Mary Ann, wife of Edward 
Jones, merchant, Boston, and sister of Mrs. Boutineau. Both 
ladies, it may be remarked, were sisters of Peter Faneuil ; and 
Mrs. Jones was then at Halifax, Nova Scotia. Mr. Boutineau 
speaks of an attack of the gout which had compelled him to 
keep house for some time, and then discourses upon matters 
which are not without interest at the present time. Thus, he 
says, that " Mr. and Mrs. Faneuil, who lodge in the same 
house with us, make it agreeable ; " and that " there are one 
or two other genteel gentlemen and ladies, so that during the 
winter we drank tea with each other four days in the week." 
Of other fellow-Loyalists, he writes, that " Lodgings have 
been taken for Mr. Sewell, of Cambridge, and family, they 
are expected here this day. Colonel Murray s family are gone 
to Wales, as well as Judge Brown and Apthorp s. All the New 
England people here, are Barnes and family, Captain Fenton 
and daughter, besides those in the house." In a postcript, he 
adds : u I desire you to inform me (if you can) who lives 
in my house in Boston." 

The first letter of Mrs. Boutineau is addressed to her 
nephew, Edward Jones, merchant, Boston, and is dated at 
Bristol, February 20, 1784. It relates principally to affairs 
of business. " I had determined," she says, " to send a 
power-of-attorney to you and another gentleman to settle 
with [Mr. Bethune] and likewise to dispose of all my prop 
erty in America ; but upon reflection I have deferred it, un 
til the acts of your Assembly s that are inimical to persons 



BOUTINEAU. .BOWDEN. 243 

of my description arc repealed, for which reason I have asked 
the favor of Judge Lee to let my brother Faneuil s bond re 
main in his hands. This, I say, is my present idea ; perhaps 
some occurrence may take place which may alter it ; in the 
meantime, I beg the favor of you to send me a blank power- 
of-attorney drawn in as full and ample a manner as possible, 
to sell real estates, &c. My addition must be, Susanna Bou- 
tineau, widow, and sole executor of James Boutineau, Esq. 
If you have no objection, I should be glad it might be got 
from Mr. James Hughes, to whom you will please to present 
my compliments, and thank him in my name for the letter I 
received from him. I should be glad to be informed at the 
same time, if it is necessary to send an authenticated copy of 
my late husband s will from Doctors Commons, which w r ill 
be expensive, but if necessary, it must be done. About two 
years since, Mr. Bethunc made me (through Mr. Prince) an 
offer of .500 sterling for my third of sister Phillips s estate, 
which you may be sure I refused. Mr. Prince is to pay me 
in a few days, by Mr. Bethune s order, 100 sterling, I sup 
pose on account of rents," &c. &c. 

The second letter of Mrs. Boutineau is also addressed to 
her sister, Mrs. Mary Ann Jones, who, at its date, April 1, 
1785, had returned to Boston. Like the first, it is devoted 
to matters of unsettled business, and especially to her share 
of her sister Phillips s estate. It would seem that this letter 
was delivered by Mr. James Hughes, to whom, with Mr. Na 
thaniel Bethune, she had sent a power-of-attorney to effect 
a final adjustment of her interest in the estate just mentioned. 
She concludes with the remark, that her health is " very in 
different," that " Mr. Fanueil had a letter lately from Mr. 
Jones, who is going soon to be very well married," &c. &c. 

BOWDEX, THOMAS. Of New York. Entered the military 
service, and in 1782 was Major in De Lancey s Second Bat 
talion. At the peace he went to England. 

BOWDEX, REV. JOHN, I). I). Of New York. Was born 
in Ireland in 1751. Graduated at King s (Columbia) Col- 
leo-e in 1772. Was ordained in 1774, and the same year was 



244 BOWES. BOWIE. 

settled as Assistant Rector of Trinity Church, New York. 
Soon after the beginning of hostilities he retired to Norwalk, 
Connecticut, but returned to New York when the British 
obtained possession of the city. Informed that harm was 
intended him, he fled to Long Island at night, where he 
occasionally assisted the Rector of the Episcopal Church of 
Jamaica. In 1784 he accepted the Rectorship of the Church 
at Norwalk. In 1T89 he took charge of a small parish in the 
West Indies. In 1801 he was elected Professor of Moral 
Philosophy, Belles-lettres and Logic in Columbia College. 
He died at Ballston Spa in 1817, aged sixty-five. His wife 
whose maiden name was Mary Jervis bore him three 
sons, one of whom, James J., graduated at Columbia College 
in 1813, Avas Rector of St. Mary s Parish, St. Mary s County, 
Maryland, and died at the age of twenty-six. 

BOWES, WILLIAM. Merchant of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He went to 
Halifax in 1776, accompanied by his family of four persons. 
In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He died in Eng 
land in 1805. 

BOWERS, JERATHMIEL. Of Swansey, Massachusetts. In 
1777, by a resolve of the General Court, he was disqualified 
from holding any post of honor or profit in Massachusetts 
In 1783 he was elected a member of that body, and petitions 
for his exclusion therefrom, setting out that " he had not 
shown himself friendly in the late struggle with Great Brit 
ain," were sent by the Selectmen of Rehobolh, and sundry 
inhabitants of his own town. The House held that the re 
solve above mentioned, was still in force, and that therefore 
Mr. Bowers was not entitled to membership. He vacated 
his seat accordingly. 

BOWIE, REV. JOHN, D. D. Of Maryland. Episcopal 
minister. He was a native of Prince George s County, 
Maryland, and was admitted to Holy Orders in England. 
About the year 1771 he became a Curate in Montgomery 
County. In 1774 he was Rector of a parish in Worcester 
County. He was a violent Loyalist, and, in consequence, 



BOWLES. 245 

was imprisoned at Annapolis two years. On being released 
lie settled in Talbot County, where he taught school, and was 
Rector of the parish in which he lived. In 1785 he was in 
charge of another parish ; and in 1790 of still another. lie 
died in 1801, leaving three sons and a daughter. He was a 
man of great talents, " a complete classical scholar, and of 
unblemished morals. 

BOWLES, WILLIAM AGUSTUS. Of Maryland. In 1791 he 
was among the Creeks, with whom he possessed great influ 
ence, and styled himself General William Augustus Bowles. 
On the 18th of May, 1792, James Seagrove, Esquire, our 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, in " a talk " with the kings, 
chiefs, headmen and warriors of the Creek nation, said of 
him : " This Bowles is an American of low. mean extraction, 
born in Maryland ; he was obliged, on account of his villany, 
to fly from home and follow the British Army, where he was 
despised and treated as a bad man and a coward. Finding 
he could not live there, he returned to America ; but being 
too la/y to work at his trade for a living, he renewed his bad 
acts, for which he was compelled to fly from his native coun 
try, or be hanged." Bowles had assumed to act among the 
Indians under authority of the British Government ; but on 
inquiry by the President, the ministry promptly and explicitly 
denied that they had afforded him countenance, assistance, or 
protection. At the time of Seagrove s " talk," it would ap 
pear that Bowles had absented himself from the Creek coun 
try ; but in 1801 he was again in mischief there, or in its 
vicinity, and means were taken by our Government to coun 
teract his plans and plots. A gentleman connected with 
Indian Affairs, saw a portrait of this creature suspended in 
the house of a chief, under which was written, " General 
Bowles, Commander-in-Chief of the Creek and Cherokee na 
tions." He saw also a number of engraved dinner-cards, 
which Bowles had received while in England, styling him 
" Commander-in-Chief of the Creek nation." 

He was undoubtedly a bold and wicked man. At one 
time the Spanish Government offered a reward of six thou- 
21* 



216 BOWLES. BOYD. 

sand dollars for his apprehension, on account of his pernicious 
influence over the Florida Indians. He was accordingly 
seized, and sent prisoner to Madrid, and thence to Manilla. 
Obtaining leave to go to Europe, he repaired to the Creek 
country, where he commenced his mischievous course anew. 
In 1S01 he fell into Spanish hands a second time, and was 
sent to the Moro Castle, Havana. Deprived of light and air, 
fed on bread and water, and losing, finally, all hope of release, 
he refused sustenance, and died in December, 1805, of star 
vation. His wife was a Creek woman. 

BOYD, . Of Carolina. Colonel, and in command of 

a corps of Tories, who were robbers rather than soldiers. 
What they could not consume or carry off, they burned. 
Boyd himself was bold, enterprising, and famed for his dis 
honesty. He had a conference with Sir Henry Clinton at 
New York, and planned an insurrection in the back part of 
South Carolina, to be executed as soon as the Royal Army 
should obtain possession of Savannah. 

In 1779, at the head of eight hundred men. he passed 
through the district of Ninety-Six on his way to Georgia, 
and destroyed life and property by sword and fire, along his 
whole route. In a skirmish with a party of Whigs, under 
Anderson, of Pickens s corps, he acknowledged a loss of one 
eighth of his command in killed, wounded, and missing. He 
endeavored to avoid Pickens himself, but, overtaken by that 
officer, when unapprehensive of danger, was surprised and 
defeated. He received three wounds, which proved mortal. 
After the battle he was visited by Pickens, who recommended 
preparation for death, and tendered services suited to the oc 
casion. Boyd expressed thanks ; said the Whigs owed their 
success to his fall ; desired that two men might remain with 
him to give him water, and to bury his body after he died ; 
and asked that his wife should be informed of his fate by 
letter, and that some articles about his person should be sent 
to her. Neighbor had fought against neighbor ; and in the 
exasperation of the moment, the Whigs doomed seventy of 
their prisoners to death ; but they executed only five. About 



BO YD. BOYLSTON. 247 

three hundred escaped, and formed the intended junction 
with the British troops in Georgia. 

BOYD, GEORGE. Of Portsmouth, Xevv Hampshire. A 
member of the Council under the Royal Government of that 
Province. On approach of the troubles of the Revolution, lie 
abandoned the country, and was included in the Proscrip 
tion Act of New Hampshire of 1778. While abroad he 
acquired wealth. In 1787, he adjusted his affairs, and em 
barked for his native land, full of hope. Riding was among 
his enjoyments ; and he procured a handsome coach and an 
English coachman. He died at sea, two days before the 
ship arrived at Portsmouth, and his remains were interred 
from his elegant mansion. 

D 

His wife was Jane, daughter of Joseph Brcwster. She 
bore him five sons and five daughters. Sulunt, the youngest 
of the latter, born in 1774, was thus named, as is said, to 
indicate his opinion of the duty of the Colonies in the exist 
ing controversy with the mother country. 

BOYLE, ROBERT. Went to New Brunswick in 1783. and 
died at Portland, in that Province, in 1848. 

BOYLSTON, WARD NICHOLAS. Of Boston. He was born 
in that town in 1749. His father was Benjamin Hallowell, 
one of the Commissioners of the Customs. I have before 
me the original license, bearing the signature of George the 
Third, by which he was authorized to change his name ; it 
recites that " Nicholas Boylston, his uncle by his mother s 
side, has conceived a very great affection for him, the peti 
tioner, and has promised to leave him, at his death, certain 
estates, which are very considerable," &c., &c. In 1773 Mr. 
Boylston went to Newfoundland, thence to Italy, Turkey, 
Svria, Palestine, Egypt, and along the coast of Barbary ; and 
arrived in England in 1775, through France and Flanders. 
He dined at Governor Hutchinson s, London, with some 
fellow-Loyalists, July 29, 1775, and entertained the company 
with an account of his travels ; and, at subsequent periods, 
he exhibited the curiosities which he brought from the Holy 
Land, Egypt, and other countries, to the unhappy exiles from 



248 BOYLSTON. 

liis native State. In the autumn of the next year, he was 
in lodgings at Shepton Mallet. He was a member of the 
Loyalist Association, formed in London in 1779. He returned 
to Boston in the year 1800. In 1810 he presented Harvard 
University with a valuable collection of medical and ana 
tomical works and engravings. He died at his seat, Iloxbury, 
in 1828, aged seventy-eight. His son, John Lane Boylston, 
died at Princeton in 18-47, aged fifty-eight. 

BOYLSTOX, THOMAS. Of Boston. John Adams said of 
him in 1760, "Tom is a firebrand. Tom is a perfect 
viper, a Jew, a devil, but is orthodox in politics, however." 
He was among the citizens of Boston who were detained by 
General Gage, in consequence of the imprisonment of Jones 
and Hicks in the jail at Concord ; and was released by ex 
change, August, 1775. He fell off. In 1777 he was as 
is said the hero of the following incident, which is related 
by Mrs. Adams : 

44 It was rumored," she wrote her husband, " that an em 
inent, wealthy, stingy merchant, (who is a bachelor,) had a 
a hogshead of coffee in his store, which he refused to sell to 
the Committee under six shillings per pound. A number of 
females, some say a hundred, some say more, assembled with 
a cart and trucks, marched down to the warehouse, and 
demanded the keys, which he refused to deliver. Upon 
which one of them seized him by the neck and tossed him 
into the cart. L T poii his finding no quarter he delivered the 
keys, when they tipped up the cart and discharged him ; then 
opened the warehouse, hoisted out the coffee themselves, put 
it into the truck, and drove off. ... A large concourse of 
men stood amazed, silent spectators of the whole transaction." 

He went to England, invested his fortune in commerce, 
and was utterly ruined. Said Aspden, a fellow-Loyalist, in 
1793, " I called to see, in Newgate, Mr. Thomas Boylston, 
of Boston, whom they want to bring in as a sleeping partner 
in the house of Lane, Son & Frazer, lately failed ; or, if this 
won t do, to milk him for lending them money at usurious 
interest. So much for beiiur a stranger and friendless." He 



BOYLSTON. BRATEN. 249 

died in London in 1798, of a broken heart. The simple 
record is kt Aged 77, Thomas Boylston, late a very eminent 
merchant of Boston, and relative of the President of the 
United States." 

BOYLSTON, JOHN. Of Boston. Merchant. Went to 
England in 1776, and was at Bristol in Ainmst of that 

O O 

year. Remained abroad, and died at Bath, England, in 1795, 
aged eighty-six. 

BRADFORD, WILLIAM. Of Massachusetts. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1760. He removed from the country, 
and held an office under the Crown at the Bahamas. He 
died in 1801. 

BRADISH, EBENEZKR. A lawyer of Worcester, Massachu 
setts. He graduated at Harvard University in 1769. In 
1774 he was one of the barristers and attorneys who were 
Addressers of Hntchinson. He died in 1818. 

BRADSIIAW, ELEAZER. Of Waltham, Massachusetts. Said 
he would sell " tea," and do as he thought fit, in spite of Whig 
committees, and that he would be the death of any person 
who should molest him. The committees of Waltham, New 
ton, Watertown, Weston, and Sudbury, examined the case, 
and resolved that he had proved himself inimical to his coun 
try, and cautioned all persons against dealing with him until 
he should repent. 

BR ANNAN, CHARLES. He was in the King s service during 
the war, and at its close went to St. John, New Brunswick. 
He removed from that city to Fredericton in 1785, and con 
tinued there until his decease in 1828, at the age of eighty-one. 

BRANTLEY, - . Of Georgia. Captain of a Tory 
band. The captor of three Whigs, who, doomed to die, 
were stripped to the shirt, and placed in a position to be shot. 
Two were killed, the other escaped. The survivor, David 
Emanuel, lived to become President of the Senate, and to fill 
the Executive-chair of Georgia. 

BRATEN, THOMAS. Of Charlotte County, New York. He 
was a constable ; and in 1775 some Whigs declared that 
" they would have him, if he could be found above ground." 



250 BRATTLE. 

BRATTLE, THOMAS. Of Massachusetts. He was born at 
Cambridge in 1742, and graduated at Harvard University in 
1760, and received the degree of A. M. at Yale and at Nas 
sau. His family connections were among the most respect 
able of New England. In 1775 he went to England, and 
was included in the Proscription and Banishment Act of 1778. 
While abroad, he travelled over various parts of Great Britain, 
and made a tour through Holland and France ; and was no- 

O 

ticed by personages of distinction. Returning to London, he 
zealously and successfully labored to ameliorate the condition 
of his countrymen, who had been captured, and were in 
prison. In 1779 he came to America, and landed at Rhode 
Island. In 1784 the enactments against him in Massachusetts 
were repealed, and he took possession of his patrimony. He 
was a gentleman of liberality, humanity, and science ; of pub 
lic spirit, and of large and noble views of men and things. 
He died in February, 1801. 

The late Governor James Sullivan, who knew him well, 
thus w y rote : " Major Brattle exercised a deep reverence to 
the principles of Government, and was a cheerful subject of 
the laws. He respected men of science as the richest orna 
ment of their country. If he had ambition, it was to excel in 
acts of hospitality, benevolence, and charity. The dazzling 
splendor of heroes, and the achievements of political intrigues, 
passed unnoticed before him ; but the character of the man 
of benevolence rilled his heart with emotions of sympathy." 
. ..." In his death, the sick, the poor, and the distressed, 
have lost a liberal benefactor ; politeness an ornament ; and 
philanthropy one of its most discreet and generous supporters. 

BRATTLE, WILLIAM. Of Massachusetts. A man of more 
eminent talents and of m-eater eccentricities has seldom lived. 

O 

He graduated at Harvard University in 1722 ; and, subse 
quently, was representative from Cambridge, and for many 
years a member of the Council. He seems to have been of 
every profession, and to have been eminent in all. As a 
clergyman, his preaching was acceptable ; as a physician, he 
was celebrated, and had an extensive practice ; as a lawyer, 



BRATTLE.-BRENTON. 251 

lie had an abundance of clients ; while his military aptitudes 
secured the rank of major-general of the militia, an office in 
his time of very considerable importance and high honor. 
lie loved good living. He possessed the happy faculty of 
pleasing the officers of Government and the people. An Ad 
dresser of Gage, and approving of his plans, he at length 
forfeited the good will of the Whigs, and went into exile. 
Accompanying the British troops at the evacuation of Bos 
ton, he went to Halifax, and died there in 1776, a few months 
after his arrival. His father was Reverend William Brattle 
of Cambridge. His first w r ife was a daughter of Governor 
Saltonstall. His son, Thomas Brattle of Cambridge, died in 
1801. 

BRATTLE, JAMES. Servant to Governor Tryon, and sub 
sequently to James Duane, a member of Congress. He was 
in the habit of stealing the papers of the latter, and of trans 
mitting them, with other information, to the former. He was 
detected, and sent to England by Tryon. 

BREMXER, JOHN. Of Queen s County, New York. In 
177(3 he signed a profession of loyalty and allegiance. A 
person of this name died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1807, 
aged fifty-four. 

BREXTOX, JAHLEEL. Of Rhode Island. Hear- Admiral 
in the Royal Navy. The Brentons emigrated to Massachu 
setts in the reign of Charles the First. The first Jahleel was 
a civil officer of some note in Boston, and, removing to Rhode 
Island, died Governor of that Colony near the end of the 
reign of Charles the Second. The second Jahleel, who was 
son of the first, was Collector of the Customs in New Eng 
land, in the reign of William and Mary. The third Jahleel 
was a large land-owner, and married a daughter of Samuel 
Cranston, Governor of Rhode Island ; this Jahleel was the 
father of five sons, of whom notices follow ; of three other 
sons, and of seven daughters. 

The fourth Jahleel is the subject of this notice. He was 
born in 1729, entered the navy in his youth ; and, a lieutenant 
at the beginning of the Revolution, was living quietly on his 



252 BRENTON. 

patrimonial estate. It is stated that lie was a gentleman of 
high character and respectable talents, that he had many 
warm friends among the Whig leaders who endeavored to 
enlist his sympathies on the popular side, and who offered him 
the hio-hest rank in the naval service of Congress. Unyield- 

O / 

ing in his loyalty, a system of annoyance and persecution was 
commenced against him, which compelled him to leave his 
wife and younger children, and to seek shelter on board of an 
armed ship of the Crown on the coast. Two of his elder sons 
accompanied him. He went to England, and was put on 
active duty. Before the peace he was a post-captain. His 
estate in Rhode Island was confiscated. During the latter 
years of his life, he received " the comfortable appointment 
of Regulating Captain at Edinburgh," which situation he held 
until his death in 1802. His wife was Henrietta Crowley, 
and was the mother of a large family. She joined him in 
England in 1780, with the children, who remained with her 
at his flight. Of Jahleel, the oldest, presently. Edward 
Pelham, the second son, who died a post-captain, in London, 
in 1839, and whose widow, Margaretta Diana, died in the 
same city in 1843, wrote the " Naval History of Great Brit 
ain from 1783 to 1822, " and a Biography of Admiral Earl 
St. Vincent, and was the founder of the Children s Friend 
Society. James, the third son, lost his life in 1799, while 
performing a daring exploit in the Mediterranean, under Nel 
son. His widow, Henrietta, died in 1820, in her seventy- 
seventh year. Mary, his second daughter, died at Bath, 
England, in 1845, aged seventy-six. 

BREXTOX, SIR JAHLEEL, Baronet. Of Rhode Island. 
Reai-Admiral of the Blue, K. C. B. and K. S. F. The fifth 
Jahleel, and son of the fourth. He was born in Rhode Island 
in 1770 ; entered the navy as a midshipman in 1781, and 
served first in the Queen, commanded by his father. At the 
peace he was placed in the Naval School, Chelsea, where he 
remained two years. From 1787 to 1789, he was an officer 
of the Dido, Captain Sandys, employed in surveying the coast 
of Nova Scotia. Until the peace of Aineins, in 1802, he was 



BRENTON. 253 

constantly afloat, and performed much hard duty. The cap 
tains under whom he served during this period, uniformly 
commended his conduct. Among the distinguished naval 
officers who were his warm friends in after life, were Sauma- 
rez, St. Vincent, Collingwood, and Nelson. After several 
years service in the renewed warfare against Napoleon, and 
in 1812, he was appointed to the command of the Stirling 
Castle 74, but resigned that ship the same year ; was created 
a Baronet, and commissioned Resident-Commissioner of the 
Balearic Islands. In 1815 he was transferred to the Cape 
of Good Hope, as Commissioner of the Dock-yard, and re 
mained in office until 1821. He returned to England in 
1822, and the year after was appointed a Colonel of Marines. 
In 1829 he was in command of the ship Donegal, at Sheer- 
ness. Subsequently, he was created Vice-Admiral and Lieu 
tenant-Governor of Greenwich Hospital. He retired from 
duty in 1840, and received the pension " dropped " by the 
decease of his old companion, Sir Sidney Smith. He estab 
lished his residence in Westmoreland, thence removed to a 
cottage in Staffordshire. He died at Elford, April, 1844, 
in his seventy-fourth year. 

His first wife, who died at the Cape of Good Hope in 1817, 
was Isabella, daughter of Anthony Stewart, a Loyalist of 
Maryland. Sir Jahleel met her at Halifax, (to which place 
her father had fled during the Revolution) in 1787, when a 
midshipman on the Nova Scotia station ; and though a mutual 
attachment arose, they were separated eleven years without 
seeing each other once. They met in England, and were 
married in the year 1802. His second wife (whom he mar 
ried in 1822) was his cousin Harriet, daughter of James 
Brenton, of Halifax. 

BRENTON, BENJAMIN. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
fourth Jahleel. In the Revolution, a " contractor " for the 
Royftl forces. Estate confiscated. Died in 1830. His wife 
was Rachel, daughter of Silas Cooke. 

BRENTON, SAMUEL. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
fourth Jahleel. I glean simply, that he died in 1797 ; and 

VOL. i. 22 



254 BRENTON. BREWERTON. 

that his wife was Susan Cooke, sister of the wife of his 
brother Benjamin. 

BRENTON, JAMES. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
fourth Jahleel. He went to Nova Scotia, and was a notary- 
public as early as September, 1775, at Halifax. He was 
afterward a Judge of the Supreme Court, and a member of 
the Council. In the year 1800 he was appointed Judge of 
Vice-Admiralty. He died at Halifax in 1806, or early the 
year following. 

His first wife was Rebecca Scott ; his second, a Miss Rus 
sell, of Halifax. Edward, the only son of the first marriage, 
was bred to the law, and in 1835 was a Judge in Newfound 
land. Another son, John, was secretary to Admiral Provost 
on the East India station, and a captain in the British Navy. 
Harriet, a daughter, married her cousin, (the fifth Jahleel), 
Admiral Sir Jahleel Brenton. 

BRENTON, WILLIAM. Of Rhode Island. Brother of the 
fourth Jahleel. Born in 1749. In exile during the Revolu 
tion, he was allowed, by a law of 1783, to visit and remain 
with his friends one week ; then required to depart and not 
to return. His wife was Frances Wickham. In 1835 two 
of his sons were in the British Navy. 

BREWERTON, GEORGE. Of New York. In the French 
war he was in command of a regiment of that Colony. In 
June, 1776, he was charged with dangerous designs and trea 
sonable conspiracies against the Whig cause ; and, at the in 
stance of Livingston, Morris, and Jay, a warrant was issued 
by General Greene for his apprehension and the seizure of 
his papers. Brewerton surrendered himself to the General, 
who sent him to his accusers. In his examination he stated 
that instead of aiding the Ministerial armies, he had advised 
and persuaded men to enlist in the Continental service." 
But he was held to good behavior to the Whigs in a bond 
for <500, with Jacob Brewerton as surety. Subsequently, 
he entered the service of the Crown, and commanded the 
second battalion of De Lancey s brigade. He died in 1779. 
His widow, three sons, and two daughters, arrived at New 
York, from London, September, 1786. 



BRICE. BRINLEY. 255 

BRICE, RIGDEN. Of Georgia. In the effort to reestablish 
the Royal Government, in 1779, he was appointed Marshal of 
the Court of Admiralty. In 1782 he was Muster-master- 
General of the Loyalist forces in the South. He went to 
England and died there in 1796. 

BRIGDEN, EDWARD. Of North Carolina. An estate, con 
fiscated during the war, was restored to him- by Act of Novem 
ber, 1785 ; I find it said, at the express recommendation of 
Dr. Franklin. 

BRIGG, STEPHEN. In December, 1783, warrant issued on 
petition of the Selectmen of Stanford, Connecticut, ordering 
him to depart that town forthwith, and never return. 

BRIDGHAM, EBENEZER. Merchant of Boston. Was pro 
scribed and banished in 1778. He went to Halifax in 1776, 
with his family of four persons. In 1782 he was Deputy 
Inspector-General of the Loyalist forces. In 1783 he went 
to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that city. 

BRIDGMAN, . An "American Loyalist," whose 

daughter married Sir John Hatten, Baronet, of Long Stan- 
ton, Cambridgeshire, in 1798. Sir John died in 1811, and 
was succeeded by his brother, Thomas Dingley Hatten, 
the present Baronet. 

BRIDGEWATER, JOHN. In 1782 he was a captain in the 
Prince of Wales American Volunteers. He went to Eng 
land, and died there in 1803, in his seventieth year. 

BRILL, DAVID. Went to New Brunswick in 1783. Died 
in Queen s County in 1848, aged eighty-seven. 

BRINLEY, THOMAS. Merchant of Boston. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. His name appears among the 
one hundred and twenty-four merchants and others, who ad 
dressed Hutchinson at Boston, in 1774 ; and among the ninety- 
seven gentlemen and principal inhabitants of that town, who 
addressed Gage in October of the following year. He went 
to Halifax in 1776, and to England the same year. In 1778 

5 / 

he was proscribed and banished. He died in 1784. Eliza 
beth, his widow, died in England in 1793. 

BRINLEY, GEORGE. Merchant of Boston. An Addresser 



256 BRINLEY. 

of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775 ; was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. He was in England in 1783, at which 
time he was Deputy Commissary-General. In 1799 he was 
appointed Commissary-General of his Majesty s forces in Brit 
ish America. He died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1809 ; and 
Mary, his widow, died at the same place in 1819. His son 
Thomas, Lieutenant-Colonel in the army, and Quartermaster- 
General of the British troops in the West Indies, died in 1805 
on one of the islands of his station. I find the death of Wil 
liam Birch Brinley, at Halifax, 1812, aged forty. 

BRINLEY, NATHANIEL. Of Framing-ham, Massachusetts, 
and son of Colonel Francis Brinley. About the year 1760, 
he leased the " Brinley Farm " of Oliver DeLancey, agent of 
the owner, Admiral Sir Peter Warren of the Royal Navy, 
and, as is said, employed fifteen or twenty-negroes, (slaves, 
probably,) in its cultivation. It is related, too, that Daniel 
Shays, the leader of the insurrection in 1786, was in the ser 
vice of Mr. Brinley on this farm. In 1775, our Loyalist was 
an Addresser of Gage, and was ordered, in consequence, to 
confine himself to his own leasehold. He soon fled to the 
Royal Army in Boston. After the evacuation of that town, he 
was sent to Framing-ham by sentence of a Court of Inquiry, 
ordered to give bond in 600, with two sureties, to remain 
there four months and to be of good behavior. In September, 
1776, Ebenezer Marshall, in behalf of the Committee of 
Correspondence, Inspection and Safety, represented that the 
" people take him for a very villian," as he had declared that 
" Parliament had an undoubted right to make void the char 
ter in part or in whole ; " that " ten thousand troops, with 
an artillery, would go through the Continent, and subdue it 
at pleasure ; " that he had conveyed u his best furniture to 
Roxbury, and moved his family and goods into Boston," 
and had himself remained there " as long as he could have 
the protection of the British troops ; * that " he approved of 
General Gage s conduct in the highest terms ; " that " his 
most intimate connections were some of our worst enemies 
and traitors ; " and that, while he had been under their in- 



BRINLEY. BRITTAIN. 257 

spection, they had seen nothing " either in his conduct or dis 
position, that discovers the least contrition, but otherwise." 

To some of these allegations, Mrs. Brinley replied in two 
memorials to the General Court. She averred that, by the 
conditions of the recognizance, her husband was entitled to 
the freedom of the whole of the town of Framingham ; that 
he was in custody on the sole charge of addressing Gage ; and 
that, instead of being a refugee in Boston, he was shut up in 
that town while accidentally there, &c. She complained that 
at one time, he had been compelled to work on John Fisk s 
farm, without liberty to go more than twenty rods from the 
house, unless in Fisk s presence ; and that he was denied the 
free nse of pen, ink and paper. Again, she said that Mr. 
Brinley, after his transfer to the care of Benjamin Eaton, was 
restricted to the house, and was fearful that his departure from 
it would occasion the loss of his life ; and that no person, even 
herself, was allowed to converse with him, unless in the hear 
ing of some member of Eaton s family. And she prayed that 
he might be removed to some other inland town, and be treated 
in accordance with his sentence. Mr. Brinley s defence of him 
self seems to have been the simple remark : " I am a gentle 
man, and have done nothing to forfeit that character." 

I am able to trace this unhappy " Government-man " only 
a step farther. On the 17th September, 1776, the General 
Court, by resolve, committed him to the care of his father, on 
security in X600 for his appearance ; and, in October of the 
same year, the Committee of Framingham reported to the 
Council that they had disposed of his farm-stock, farm-uten 
sils, and household furniture. Possibly, Nathaniel Brinley, 
who died at Tyngsborough in 1814, aged eighty-one, was the 
subject of this notice. 

BRITTAIN, JAMES. Of New Jersey. He wished to take 
no part in the Revolutionary controversy, but having become 
obnoxious, his house was surrounded by a party of about thir 
ty, who robbed and plundered him at pleasure. He escaped 
to the woods, where his wife fed him for nearly a month. 
Emerging from his hiding place, he joined Skinner with 
*22 



258 BRITTAIN. - BROKENBOROUGH. 

seventy men, whom he had engaged to bear arms against 
the rebels. He was in a number of battles. In one, he 
was taken prisoner, and doomed to suffer death. The day 
before that appointed for his execution, he broke from prison, 
swam the Delaware, and joined his corps. In 1782 he was an 
ensign in the first battalion of New Jersey Volunteers, and at 
the peace, a lieutenant. In 1783 he went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, in the ship Duke of Richmond, and was the gran 
tee of a city lot. He received half-pay. He was a colonel of 
New Brunswick militia, and, at his decease, the oldest magis 
trate in King s County. He died at Greenwich in that county 
in 1838, at the age of eighty-seven. Ten children survived 
him. His widow, Eleanor, died at Greenwich in 1846, aged 
ninety-four. His daughter Eleanor married Walker Tisdale, 
Esquire, of St. John. 

BRITTAIN, JOSEPH. Of New Jersey. Brother of James. 
He was an ensign in the New Jersey Volunteers, and was 
taken prisoner with James, doomed to the same fate, and 
made his escape at the same time. He went to St. John in 
the ship Duke of Richmond in 1780, and died in 1830, at the 
age of seventy-two, in King s County. He received half-pay. 

BRITTAIN, WILLIAM. Of New Jersey. Brother of James 
and Joseph. He was in the King s service, but not in com 
mission. He shared in the captivity, and in the escape of 
James and Joseph. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. He died in New 
Brunswick about the year 1811. 

BRITTENNY, JOHN. In 1783 he removed to New Bruns 
wick, and settled in King s County, where he continued to 
reside until his decease, a period of upwards of sixty-three 
years. He died at Greenwich in 1846, in the ninety-fifth 
year of his age. 

BROKENBOROUGH, AUSTIN. Of Virginia. He was son of 
Colonel William Brokenborough, and served with Washing 
ton under Braddock. " Like some of the old clergy, he 
thought he was perpetually bound by his oath of allegiance 
to the king." He wished to remain here, however, on ac- 



BROKENBOROUGII. BROOKS. 259 

count of his family, friends, and property ; and petitioned the 
Assembly to be allowed the position of a neutral to obey 
the laws, but to keep clear of the " rebellion." His request 
was not only refused, but five companies of men proceeded to 
his house to inflict signal punishment for his contumacy. He 
escaped and went to England. While abroad, he lived prin 
cipally in London, with several other Loyalists of the South, 
who, by his account, " had a merry time of it, dining and 
supping at various inns," visiting theatres and other places of 
amusement. He " speaks of taking two dinners at different 
taverns . . . the same day, and of two suppers the same 
night, and of being quite drunk, with all the rest of the com 
pany," on another occasion. Again, he mentions an evening 
at Vauxhall with ladies, and says that all, except the young 
ones, " drank too freely, and were vociferous." But he went 
to church, and was a frequent listener to the debates in Par 
liament. It was his fortune to hear Chatham s last speech, 
when, as all recollect, his Lordship fainted and was carried 
home. 

Mr. Brokenborough was absent seven years. Time, finally, 
passed heavily. His father and youngest son were dead ; his 
estate was mismanaged, wasting away, and liable to confisca- 

O O t/ 

tion. He resolved to return, and arrived in Virginia in 1782, 
but, by advice of his brother, did not venture home. For 
awhile, he was in Charleston, S. C. ; but, at last, resumed his 
abode in the Old Dominion. 

BROOKS, JAMES. It was reported that letters written by 
him, by Dr. Kearsley, and others, were in possession of a 
woman who concealed them in a pocket sewed to the lower 
part of her inner garment, and who was on ship-board, bound 
to London ; and the letters having been secured, and found 
abusive of the Whigs and of their cause, he was committed to 
prison in Philadelphia, thence transferred to the jail of Lan 
caster. The Committee of Safety of Pennsylvania resolved 
that he was an enemy to the liberties of America. 

He was kept in confinement two years, lacking a single 
day. His own account is, that the windows next to the street 



260 BROOKS. BROWNE. 

were blocked up ; that thirty-five barrels of gunpowder were 
stored on the floor above his head, and tons more in the 
next room, defended from the common misfortune of fire by 
a shingled roof merely ; that a guard of fourteen men beat 
their drums for the sake of persecution ; that he was denied 
the sight and speech of mankind, and the use of pen, ink and 
paper ; and that he " had the use of his legs taken from him 
by day, and was brought to by warm water at night." 

BROOKS, CAPTAIX . Commanded a party of plun 
derers. On one occasion, early in 1783, while on an expedi 
tion in the Delaware, a Methodist preacher fell into his hands, 
and was required to preach or to be whipped to death. The 
minister declining: to give a sermon to such hearers, was tied 

& O 

up and received nearly one hundred lashes. On his promise 
never to serve the rebels more, he was allowed to depart, much 
exhausted and lacerated. 

BROWNE, THOMAS. Of Augusta, Georgia. Was an early 
victim of a mob, and was tarred and feathered, soon after the 
division and array of parties in the Southern Colonies. He 
entered the Royal service, and commanded, as lieutenant- 
colonel, a corps called the King s Rangers, Carolina. At the 
peace, he retired, it is believed, to Florida, and thence to the 

Bahamas. He was known during hostilities as a sanguinary 

& j 

and active officer, and his conduct is open to severe censure. 

Such the text, such the meagre account of this partisan 
leader, in the first edition. The notice of him now is as full 
as the reader can desire, and is the result of more labor than 
I care to state. 

Mr. Simms, in the Advertisement to " Mellichampe" says 
that Barsfield s story, as related in the thirty-seventh chapter 
of that work, " bears a close resemblance to the recorded 
history of the notorious Colonel Browne, of Augusta, one of 
the most malignant and vindictive among the Southern Loyal 
ists, and one who is said to have become so solely from the 
illegal and unjustifiable means employed by the Patriots to 
make him otherwise." And, adds Mr. Simms, with truth, 
" The whole history is one of curious interest, and, if studied, 



BROWNE. 261 

of great public value. It shows strikingly the evils to a whole 
nation, and through successive years, of a single act of pop 
ular injustice." 

Whoever would know the nature of the warfare between 
the Whigs and Tories at the South, should carefully read 
u Mellichampe," and the other tales of the distinguished au 
thor, of the same era. He vouches for their general historical 
accuracy, and no well-informed person will question the faith 
fulness of his pen. The perusal of the tale in question, exci 
ted my own curiosity, I confess, and led me to examine every 
book and document within reach, which seemed likely to afford 
me information of the original of " Barsfield." 

I find Browne at Augusta in 1775, expressing his enmity 
to the Whigs, and ridiculing them in toasts at dinner. 
Warned of danger, he fled. By order of the " Committee," 
he was pursued to New Richmond, South Carolina, brought 
back, tried, and sentenced to be tarred and feathered ; to be 
publicly exposed in a cart ; to be drawn three miles, or until 
he should confess his error, and swear fealty to the popular 
cause. He refused to make any concession, was punished as 
doomed, and published as " no gentleman." To conceal his 
disgrace as well as he could, he kept his hair short, and wore 
a handkerchief around his head. He soon retreated to 
Florida. In 1776 he was in command of a corps, and made 
fearful incursions on the banks of the Savannah ; but his force 
was small. In 1778, when he was joined by about three hun 
dred Tories from the interior of Georgia and South Carolina, 
his regiment was completed, and put in uniform. A year 
later, at the head of four hundred mounted men, he made 
a forced march to Augusta ; and, after being wounded, and 
twice defeated by Whigs under Twiggs and Few, he reached 
that place, and established a military post. Reinforced by 
detachments from other corps, of undoubted skill and bravery, 
exact in discipline, among the very people who had treated 
him with the greatest indignity, and relentless in his mode 
of warfare, the " Rebels " had everything to fear from his 
disposition and his operations. As soon as the condition of 



262 BROWNE. 

the Whigs would allow, and in 1780, Colonel Clarke appeared 
with a force, sufficient, as was thought, to compel him to 
submit to terms of capitulation. Browne s conduct during 
the siege illustrates the best and the worst qualities of his 
character. The accounts are conflictino-. But it seems certain 

cr^ 

that, as the town did not afford an eligible position for defence, 
Browne marched out with his troops and some Indians, 
assailed Clarke on an eminence, and dislodged him, after a 
sanguinary fight. It appears, also, that the Loyalist leader 
was subsequently driven, with the men under his personal 
command, into a sort of garrison house, from which he main 
tained a desperate resistance ; that he himself was shot 
through both thighs ; that while tortured with the pain of 
dangerous wounds and swollen legs, he still directed every 
movement ; that the besiegers cut off the supply of water, 
for which, in the fertility of his resources, he found a remedy, 
in saving and dealing out urine, of which he was the first to 
drink ; that his wounded died for the want of surgical aid 
and hospital stores ; that he was repeatedly summoned to 
surrender ; and that he held out four days, and until relieved 
by Cruger. All this, in a military man, is admirable; what 
followed is unconditionally infamous. Clarke, in his retreat, 
left a part of his wounded, of whom thirteen were hung in the 
stair-way, and four in other parts of the garrison-house, and 
several others were turned over to the Indians and burned 
alive. The thirteen, it is said, were executed in Browne s 
presence, " that he might have the satisfaction of seeing the 
victims of his vengeance expire." So, too, in 1780, he 
ordered five persons to be hung, and when nearly dead, they 
were cut down and delivered to the Indians, who scalped and 
and otherwise mutilated one of them. One of these was a 
youth of seventeen, and the son of a widow. 

He kept Augusta until June, 1781, when, after a siege of 
nearly three months, in which he displayed his usual courage, 
activity, and patience under sufferings, he surrendered the 
post to Pickens and Lee. The accusation against him at this 
time is, that he placed an aged prisoner in a bastion, where 



BROWNE. 263 

he was exposed to death from the hands of his own son, who 
commanded a Whig battery. By the terms of capitulation, 
Colonel Browne was allowed to go to Savannah ; and he was 
so generally hated that, had he not been specially and strongly 
guarded, while on the way thither, it is probable he would 
have been torn limb from limb. He passed among the inhab 
itants whose houses he had burned and whose relatives and 
friends he had executed. The mother of one whom he had put 
to death said to him : " In the late day of your prosperity, I 
visited your camp, and on my knees supplicated for the life of 
my son, but you were deaf to my entreaties. You hanged him, 
though a beardless youth, before my face. These eyes saw 
him scalped by the savages under your immediate command. 
. . . When you resume the sword, I will go five hundred 
miles to demand satisfaction at the point of it. 7 

This woman met Browne and his escort, as is said, armed 
with a knife, for the purpose of killing him, but was not allowed 
to speak to him until she promised to forbear ; and she was ac 
companied by a son who went with the same intention. Though 
he escaped assassination, the adherents of the Crown seem to 
have expected that he would be publicly executed. After the 
fall of Charleston, the firm Whigs who refused to swear alle 
giance were sent to Florida, and the officer in command at St. 
Augustine threatened to hang six of them if Browne was not 
treated as a prisoner of war. After he was exchanged, he 
served at Savannah. In May, 1782, he marched out of the 
garrison at the head of a considerable force, with the apparent 
intention of attacking the Whigs ; but Wayne, by a bold 
movement, got between him and the town, assailed him at 
midnight, and routed his whole command. 

In October, 1782, the Rangers were sent from Charleston 
to relieve the troops at St. Augustine. At the peace, when 
they were disbanded, a part remained in Florida, and a part 
attempted to settle at a place in Nova Scotia, called St. Mary s. 
Colonel Browne had estates in Georgia and South Carolina, 
which were confiscated ; and, attainted of treason in both 
States, he retreated to the Bahamas. From these islands, and 



264 BROWNE. 

in 1786, he wrote an elaborate reply to Ramsay s comments 
on his conduct during the war, addressed to the historian 
himself. The paper is not without ability. 

He relates the unjustifiable course of the Whigs, and dwells 
with emphasis on special cases ; he insists that in the instances 
which are cited to show his own barbarity, he did but execute 
retributive justice on offenders who were identified, and who 
confessed their crimes. He refers to the tarring and feathering 
twelve years previously, in these words : " Could violations 
of humanity be justified by example, the cruelties exercised 
on my person by a lawless committee .... might have jus 
tified the severest vengeance ; but, esteeming it more honor 
able to forgive than to revenge an injury to those men who 
had treated me with the most merciless cruelty, I granted 
protection and safeguards to such as desired them." He 
avers that all the allegations against him which touch his 
reputation as an officer and as a man, are false ; and thus, 
" In the discharge of the duties of my profession, I can say 
with truth, I never deviated from the line of conduct the 
laws of war and humanity prescribed." And again : " The 
criminal excesses of individuals were never warranted by au 
thority, nor ever obtained the sanction of my approbation." 
He speaks of Lee, as a gentleman of the most honorable and 
liberal sentiments ; but of Pickens, as permitting murder of 
prisoners under his own eye. 

In 1809, Colonel Browne was in England, and petitioned 
for a grant of Crown lands in the West Indies. The govern 
ment gave him six thousand acres in the island of St. Vin 
cent. I find it stated that, by some mistake, a part of the 
tract had been previously granted to persons who could not 
be dispossessed without great injury ; and that the munificent 
sum of 30, 000 was allowed him in money as an equivalent. 
It is said, too, that the Colonel was subsequently implicated 
in matters connected with this very domain ; and that, in 
1812, he was convicted in London of forgery. The story 
seems to me improbable. There was hardly a Loyalist in the 
thirteen Colonies who, for his individual losses, received so 



BROWNE. 2(35 

large a sum as in whole numbers one hundred and fifty 
thousand dollars ; and, at the period in question, a man 
adjudged guilty of forgery, in England, would have been 
executed, especially if the crime, as alleged in this case, 
- was a fabrication of the signatures of high officers of the 
Government. 

Colonel Browne died in St. Vincent in 1825. His wife died 
there in 1807. Of his own decease there appeared the fol 
lowing notice : " At an advanced age, Colonel Thomas 
Browne. During the American war he distinguished himself 
as a gallant and enterprising officer, and among other re 
peated marks of his Sovereign s approbation, was promoted 
to the rank of Colonel-Commandant of his Majesty s late 
regiment of South Carolina, or Queen s Rangers, and made 
also Superintendent-General of Indian Affairs, in the South 
ern districts of North America." 

BIIOWXE, WILLIAM. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was a 
grandson of Governor Burnet, a great-grandson of Bishop 
Burnet, and a connection of Winthrop, the first resident 
Governor of Massachusetts ; and graduated at Harvard Uni 
versity in 1755. A member of the General Court in 1768, 
he was one of the seventeen Rescinders. He was a Colonel 
of the Essex County militia ; one of the ten Mandamus 
Counsellors who were sworn in, and a Judge of the Supreme 
Court. 

In 1774, John Adams l said : " I had a real respect for 
the Judges. Trow r bridge, dishing, and Browne, I could call 
my friends." That very year, the Essex County Convention 
voted, " That a Committee be raised to wait on the Honor 
able William Browne, Esquire, of Salem, and acquaint him, 
that with grief this County has viewed his exertions for car 
rying into execution the Acts of Parliament, calculated to 
enslave and ruin his native land," &c., &c. 

This Committee consisted of Jeremiah Lee, Samuel Hoi- 
ton, and Elbridge Gerry. They waited upon Mr. Browne in 
Boston, on the 19th of September, who returned a written 

1 A classmate of Judge Browne, at Harvard. 
VOL. i. 23 



266 BROWNE. 

answer, in which he says that he " cannot consent to defeat 
his Majesty s intentions and disappoint his expectations, by 
abandoning a post to which he lias been graciously pleased to 
appoint him, " etc., and that, " as a Judge, and in every other 
capacity/ he " intended to act with honor and integrity, 1 
&c., &c. 

He was an Addresser of Gage, was included in the Ban 
ishment Act of 1778, and in the Conspiracy Act of the year 
following. He was the owner of immense landed estates, 
which were confiscated. Prior to the Revolutionary troubles, 
lie enjoyed great popularity, and strong inducements were 
held out to him to join the Whigs. He was in London as 
early as May 4, 1776, and gave his fellow-exiles some par 
ticulars relative to the evacuation of Boston. His wife, 
who complained of her treatment at Salem and Boston, 
after his departure, does not appear to have joined him in 
England, until the spring of 1778. In 1781, he was ap 
pointed Governor of the Bermudas, and administered the 
affairs of these islands in a manner to secure the confidence 
and respect of the people. He died in England, February, 
1802. aged sixty-five. 

BROWNE, ARTHUR. Of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. 
An Episcopal clergyman. Was educated at Trinity Col 
lege, Dublin. He was ordained by the Bishop of London, 
and assumed the charge of a society at Providence, Rhode 
Island. In 1736 he removed to Portsmouth, and became 
the first minister of the Episcopal Church of that town, and 
continued his connection until his decease. He died at Cam 
bridge, Massachusetts, in 1773, aged seventy-three. His re 
mains were carried to Portsmouth and deposited in the Went- 
worth tomb. 

In the Episcopal Church, he was considered a man of most 
noble and benevolent disposition, of sound doctrines, and a 
good preacher. He married Governor Benning Wentworth 
to his servant girl. The story, as told by Brewster is, that 
" the Governor invited a dinner party, and with many other 
guests, in his cocked hat, comes the beloved Rev. Ar- 



BROWNE. 267 

tliur Browne. The dinner is served up in a style becom 
ing the Governor s table, the wine is of good quality, &c. 
In due time, as previously arranged, Martha Hilton, the 
Governor s maid-servant, a damsel of twenty summers, 
appears before the company. The Governor, bleached by 
the frosts of sixty winters, rises : Mr. Browne, I wish you 
to marry me. To whom, asked the Rector, in wondering 
surprise. To this lady, was the reply. The Hector stood 
confounded. The Governor became imperative. ; As the 
Governor of yew HampsliiTe 1 command you to marnj me." 1 
The ceremony was performed, and Martha Hilton became 
Lady Wentworth." 

On the day Mr. Browne married Governor Joltu \Vent- 
worth to Atkinson s widow, and soon after he had performed 
the ceremony, he fell over a number of stone steps and broke 
his arm. 

He was missionary of the Society for the Propagation of 
the Gospel in Foreign Parts. His salary in 1754 was <l>0, 
and clo additional for officiating at Kittery. Until the ap 
pointment of his son as assistant missionary, he was the only 
Episcopal clergyman in New Hampshire. 

In honor of the consort of George the Second, his church 
was called " Queen s Chapel." Dr. Franklin was one of the 
benefactors and a proprietor. There was a pew which, prior 
to the Revolution, was fitted up in state, and known as the 
u Governor s." It contained two chairs, which were the gift 
of the Queen, for the use of the Governor and his secretary. 
The decorations were taken down after the war ; but the pew 
and the chairs remained, and were occupied by Washington 
and Ids secretary in 1780, when they attended service in Ports 
mouth. 

Mr. Browne s children were four sons and five daughters, 
namely : Thomas, who died young ; Marmaduke, of whom 
presently ; Arthur, who, after a long service in the British 
Army, sold his commission and was Governor of Kinsale ; and 
Peter, who entered the army at the age of fourteen, and rose 
to the rank of major. The daughters were all married : 



268 BROWNE. - BROWN. 

LUCY, to Colonel Smith, of the British Army ; Jane, to Samuel 
Livormore, Chief Justice of New Hampshire and Senator in 
Congress from that State ; Mary, to the Rev. Win wood Ser 
jeant ; Anne, to Captain George St. Loe, of the British Navy, 
from whom she was divorced, and, the widow of a second hus 
band, a third time to one Kelly, who, " of reckless character, 
treated her with the utmost neglect ; " and, last, Elizabeth, 
who was the wife of the noted Major Robert Rogers, and, 
after his decease, of Captain John Roche, of Concord, New 
Hampshire. 

BROWNE, REV. MARMADUKE. Son of Arthur. He was 
born in Providence, Rhode Island, in 1731, and graduated at 
Trinity College, Dublin, in 1754. On taking orders, he was 
first employed as an itinerant missionary in New Hampshire. 
In 1700, he became Rector of Trinity Church, Newport, R. I., 
and died there in 1771. His wife deceased in 1767, and his 
own death was " doubtless hastened by the severity of that 
affliction." His son Arthur, who was Doctor of Laws, and 
King s Professor of Greek in Trinity College, Dublin, who 
erected a marble tablet to his memory on the wall of Trinity 
Church, Newport, in 1795, and who was a very eminent man, 
died in 1805. 

BROWNE, WILLIAM. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Son of 
Judo-e William Browne. An officer in the British Armv, 

O / ~ 

and at the siege of Gibraltar. He was in England in 
1784. 

BROWN, THOMAS. Of Boston. Embarked with his family 
of five persons for Halifax, in 1776. Went into business, and 
failed soon after the year 1779, and established a school. 
Rev. Jacob Bailey wrote in 1781 : " This poor gentleman is 
still detained under complaint of his unmerciful creditors. 
Mr. Brown was in Halifax as late as 1792. I find the death 
of a Thomas Brown, at Salem, Massachusetts, in 1809, at the 
age of eighty-six. 

BROWN, REV. THOMAS. Episcopal minister. He came to 
America in the French war, as supposed, with the 27th Regi 
ment, of which he was chaplain, and which he accompanied 



BROWN. BRUCE. 2(39 

on the expedition to Martinico, in 1702. He returned to 
England : and, in 1704, was appointed a missionary to Amer 
ica. He was in charge of St. Peter s Church, Albany, tor 
three or four years ; and in 1772, was appointed Hector of 
Dorchester, Maryland. He died in 1784, aged forty-nine. 
His wife, whose maiden name was Martina Hogan, and \vho 
belonged to Albany, and seven children, survived him. 

BROWN, EEISHA. Of Northampton, New York. 4k Cow 
boy/ Killed by a fellow u co\v-boy " named Norton, in an 
affray, in 1783. 

BROWN, DANIEE. Of Maine. Emigrated in early youth 
from Scotland to Castine, and in the Revolution took an active 
part in the Royal cause. At the peace he removed to New 
Brunswick, where he passed the remainder of his days. He 
died at St. Stephen, March, 1835, aged ninety-one, and left 
upwards of two hundred descendants. His memory was good, 
and the events of his life were impressed upon its tablets to 
the last. His daughter Catharine died a few days after him, 
aged fifty-five. 

BROAVN, ZACHARIAH. Residence unknown. A lieutenant 
in De Lancey s Third Battalion, retired to New Brunswick, 
received halt-pay, and died in the county of Sunbury, in 1817, 
aged seventy-eight. 

BROWN, HENRY B. Settled in New Brunswick. Was 
Registrar of Deeds and Wills for the county of Charlotte, 
and died there. 

BROWNELL, JOSHUA, and JEREMIAH. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace. The first was a grantee of 
that city ; the other died in Westmoreland County, in that 
Province, in 1835, aged eighty-eight. 

BROTHERS, JOSEPH. He died at Carleton, New Bruns 
wick, in 183(3, aged seventy-two. 

BRUCE, JAMES. Of Boston. Was proscribed and banished. 
This gentleman, 1 conclude, commanded the ship Eleanor; 
and if so, he, like Hall, of the Dartmouth, and Cofh n, of the 
Beaver, is connected with the celebrated tea controversy. The 
Eleanor^ Captain James Bruce, arrived in Boston, December 
23 * 



270 BRUNSKILL. BRUSH. 

1, 1773, with a part of the tea sent over by the East India 
Company, which, after several days of fruitless negotiation, 
was thrown into the harbor, at Griffin s Wharf. There was 
a Loyalist of this name at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, about the 
year 1805. 

BRUNSKILL, REV. JOHN. Of Virginia. Episcopal minis 
ter. About the beginning of the Revolution, on an occasion 
when his church was full, two or three Whigs entered in regi 
mentals. He rose and rebuked them, said they were rebels, 
and that he should immediately inform the King of their mis 
deeds. Nearly every person left the house ; some, as they 
departed, warning him that on a repetition of such language, 
he would be insulted and treated harshly. He never preached 
again ; but lived uncomfortable and secluded at the glebe un 
til his death. He never married ; and for years, " it is be 
lieved, he was a dead weight upon the church." 

BRUSH, CREAX. Of Cumberland County, " New Hamp 
shire Grants." Born in Dublin, Ireland, about the year 1725, 
and bred to the law ; he emigrated to America, probably in 
1762. In New York, he w r as admitted to practice, and had 
employment in the office of the Provincial Secretary. In 
1771, he removed to the "Grants," and was soon appointed 
Clerk and Surrogate of Cumberland County. In the troubles 
which existed on the " Grrants" as Vermont was then called, 
he took the side of New York ; and, elected to the Assembly 
of that Colony, he became a man of considerable note and in 
fluence. In 1775, he delivered a set-speech against electing 
delegates to the second Continental Congress, which the Whig 
leaders, Clinton, Schuyler, and Woodhull, answered. Trum- 
bull, in McFingal, refers to him thus : 

" Had I the poet s brazen lungs, 
As sound-board to his hundred tongues, 
I could not half the scribblers muster 
That swarmed round Rivington in cluster ; 
Assemblies, councilmen, forsooth : 
Brush, Cooper, Wilkins, Chandler, Booth: 
Yet all their arguments and sap ence 
You did not value at three half-pence." 



BRUSH. 271 

At Boston, January, 1770, lie proposed to Sir William 
Howe to raise a body of volunteers, not less than three hun 
dred, on the same terms, as to pay and gratuity, as the Royal 
Fencible Americans, a corps just organized. The result is to 
be inferred from the fact, that on the 10th of March, he was 
ordered by Sir William to take possession of the goods of cer 
tain described persons, and put them on board of the ship Mi 
nerva, or the brigantine Elizabeth. Under this commission, 
Brush, at the head of parties of Tories, broke open stores 
and dwelling-houses, stripped them, and conveyed his plun 
der to the ships. Lawless bands of men from the fleet and 
army, followed his example ; and Boston, for the last few days 
of the siege, was given to violence and pillage. As for Brush, 
he was captured after the evacuation, on board of the brigan 
tine above mentioned. 

The property on board the Elizabeth was worth quite one 
hundred thousand dollars ; difficulties arose between the claim 
ants and the captors, which were expensive and vexatious, but 
which I have no room to relate. The robber, Brush, w r as 
rightly enough put in close jail in Boston, and denied privi 
leges, which, to an educated man, are invaluable ; but he 
endeavored to lesson his woes by intemperance. Early in 
1777 he was joined by his wife. The term of his imprison 
ment was more than nineteen months. Later in the autumn 
of the year last mentioned, Mrs. Brush provided him with 
money and a horse, preparatory to his escape ; and on the 
night of the 5th of November, he passed the turnkey, dis 
guised in her garments, and fled to New York. We hear 
of the miscreant next in Vermont, where he went to look 
after his lands. But his career was nearly at an end. The 
Whigs sequestered his estate ; and the British Commander- 
in-Chief, to whom he applied to redress his personal wrongs 
and compensate his losses, not only refused, but told him that 
his "conduct merited them, and more." His cup was full. 
" Goaded by the scorpion whip of remorse, too proud to 
strive to redeem the errors of his past life by an honorable 
future," in May, 1778, he put a pistol to his head, and was 



272 BRYAN. 

found dead, " his brains besmearing the walls of the apart 
ment." Such, rapidly traced, was the life of Crean Brush. 
He was ambitious to be a man of consideration, to be pro 
prietor of a vast domain. He became an outcast ; and, of 
nearly fifty thousand acres of the soil of New York, and the 
" New Hampshire Grants, which he owned, his heirs recovered 
possession of a small part only. His step-daughter, Frances, 
was wife of no less a character than Ethan Allen. She Avas 
a widow, dashing, and imperious ; and though fascinating 
and accomplished, sometimes spoke in tones as rough and 
unseemly as the summoner of Ticonderoga himself. His 
only child, Elizabeth Martha, married Thomas Norman, of 
Ireland. Of her it is said that she was a lady of refined 
manners, of dignified deportment, and in every other re 
spect an ornament to her sex. 

BRYAN, SAMUEL. Of North Carolina. Authorized by 
Governor Martin, January, 1776, to erect the King s stand 
ard, to enlist and array in arms the loyal subjects of Rowan 
County, and " to oppose all rebels and traitors." In 1780, 
with a corps of eight hundred Loyalists, who abandoned their 
homes to avoid prison and death, after Moore s defeat by 
Rutherford, he marched towards South Carolina, and ar 
rived unmolested at Cheraw Hill, where he joined the de 
tachment of British under McArthur. Many had not seen 
their families for months, but had lived in the woods to avoid 
the parties of Whigs that were in constant pursuit at this 
period. Three of his companies were nearly annihilated by 
the Whig Major Davie, near Hanging Rock. Soon after 
ward, Sumter fell upon the remainder of his troops, and put 
them to flight ; they " dispersed as soon as pressed." But, 
reassembled, Bryan s corps was in the rear division under the 
orders of Lord Rawdon, at the battle of Camden. The estate 
of Colonel Bryan was confiscated in 1779. The excitement 
against him was intense. Our Loyalist was indeed an un 
fortunate man, since it seems that his conduct gave serious 
offence to his own party, as well as to the Whigs. In a 
letter to Sir James Wright, dated in London, March, 1783, 



BRYMEIl. BULL. 273 

Lord Cornwallis states, that " the premature rising at Rams- 
our s, Colonel Bryan s junction with us in South Carolina, 
both directly contrary to my recommendation," with the de 
feat of Ferguson on King s Mountain, " occasioned the ruin 
of many families, and furnished pretexts to exercise cruelties 
on individuals, to a degree neither believed nor conceived 
in " Eno-land. 

O 

BRYMER, ALEXANDER. Merchant of Boston. An Ad 
dresser of Gage in 1775. Was proscribed and banished in 
1778. In 1782 a gentleman of this name, and supposed to 
be the same, was sworn in as a member of his Majesty s 
Council of Nova Scotia. The Councillor died at Rarnsgate, 
England, in 1822, aged seventy-five. 

BUCHANAN, JOHN. Of Maryland. Went to England, 
and established himself as a merchant in London. His widow 
died at Bromley, Kent, in 1784. 

BUDD, ELISIIA. Of New York. Ensign in the King s 
American Regiment. Pie was born at White Plains, and 
settled in Rye. His father, James Budd, was shot at his 
own door by a party of " cow-boys." He was at the siege 
of Savannah, and in several engagements at the South. His 
property was confiscated ; and at the peace he went to Digby, 
Nova Scotia, where he became a merchant and a Justice of 
the Common Pleas. He died at Liverpool, England, in 1813, 
aged fifty-one. His widow, a daughter of Isaac Bonnell, died 
in 1850, at the age of eighty-two, leaving five children, of 
whom three now (1861) reside at Digby. 

BULL, WILLIAM. Lieutenant-Governor of South Carolina. 
His father, who died in 1755, at the age of seventy-two, had 
the same Christian name, and held the same office. He was 
a pupil of Boerhaave. Returning to this country, after com 
pleting his studies, he rose to distinction in literature, medical 
science, and politics. In 1751 he was a member of the Coun 
cil ; in 1763 Speaker of the House of Delegates; and -in 
1764 Lieutenant-Governor. In the last office he continued 
many years, and was Commander-in-Chief of the Colony. 
He accompanied the British troops to England in 1782, and. 



274 BULL. BULYE A. 

continuing there, died in London, July 4, 1701, aged eighty- 
one. 

BULL, GEORGE. He was born in the city of New York. 
In 1782 he was a lieutenant of cavalry in the American 
Legion under Arnold. He retired on half-pay at the peace, 
and settled in Xew Brunswick. He died at Woodstock, in 
1838, at the age of eighty-six. 

BULL, CAPTAIN - . Of New York. He was in the 
service of the Crown, and his name appears in the interview 
between the celebrated Mohawk, Brant, and the Whig Gen 
eral Herkimer, at Unadilla, Xew York, in 1777. When the 
Indian chief met the Whig, he was accompanied by Bull, a 
son of Sir William Johnson by Brandt s sister, Mary, or Molly, 
and about forty warriors. During the meeting, Herkimer 
demanded the surrender of several Tories, which Brant per 
emptorily refused. This was the last conference held with 
the hostile Mohawks. 

BULLMAN, REV. Joiix. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Episcopal minister. In 1774 he preached a sermon which 
gave great offence. I extract a single passage : u Every idle 
projector who cannot, perhaps, govern his own household, or 
pay the debts of his own contracting, presumes he is qualified 
to dictate how the State should be governed, and to point out 
the means of paying the debts of a nation." Again : " Every 
silly clown and illiterate mechanic will take upon him to 
censure the conduct of his Prince or Governor, and contri 
bute, as much as in him lies, to create and foment those mis- 
understandino-s . . which come at last to .... sedition 

<3 

and rebellion," &c. 

A meeting of his parishioners was called, when it was found 
that, exclusive of the vestry and church-wardens, forty-two 
disapproved, and thirty-three approved, of his conduct in the 
pulpit. Attempts at reconciliation followed, but without suc 
cess ; and in March, 1775, Mr. Bullman sailed for England. 

BULYEA, JOHN, and ABRAHAM. The first, in 179-"), was 
a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. John, New Bruns 
wick. Sarah, his widow, died in King s County, in that 



BUNIIILL. BURNET. 275 

Province, in 1843, aged ninety-nine, leaving six children, 
fifty-five grandchildren, and fifty-seven great-grandchildren. 

t, "> / O o 

Abraham settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and died in 

King s County in that Colony, in 1833, aged seventy-seven. 

BUNIIILL, SOLOMON. Of Lanesborough, Massachusetts. In 

the battle of Bennington he shot two of his neighbors through 

O ^5 O 

the head, as was alleged, and was sent to Northampton jail. 
An agent was appointed to procure the evidence against him, 
and to attend his trial. His property was confiscated, and in 
1784 advertised for sale by a Committee of the Common 
wealth. 

BUNTING, ROLAND. He died at Loch Lomond, New Bruns 
wick, in 1839, at the great age of one hundred years. 

BURCII, WILLIAM. Commissioner of the Customs, Boston. 
Was proscribed and banished in 1778, and included in the 
Conspiracy Act of 1779. He went to England, where, I con 
clude, he took no part in affairs. Charles Paxton, one of his 
fellow-commissioners, died at his seat ; and this is the only 
instance that I find his name so much as mentioned. 

BURNET, JOHN. Of Georgia. To cover his dark deeds, 
he pretended to be a Whig. When, in 1781, Browne surren 
dered Augusta, the goods and stores which were found in Fort 
Cornwallis, and which were allotted to the Georgia troops, 
were placed in his possession for safe keeping until a division 
coidd be safely made of them. His party had previously se 
creted about sixty negroes, who, he averred, had been taken 
from the enemy, and who he promised to add to the other 
property at the time of distribution. The officers, not sus 
pecting him, were duped. He proceeded towards the moun 
tains on pretence of seeking a place of safety, passed through 
Kentucky to the Ohio River, procured boats and descended 
to Natchez, where he and his companions appropriated the 
fruits of their knavery. 

BUKNET, MATHIAS. Of Jamaica, New York. He was 
born in New Jersey, and graduated at Princeton College in 
1769. He was settled at Jamaica in 1775, and continued 
with his people during the war. After the peace, and in 



276 BURNS. BURTON. 

1785, lie was compelled, by the force of party spirit, to dis 
solve the connection. It is said that he was the only Presby 
terian minister of Queen s County who was reputed to be a 
friend to Government. His wife was an Episcopalian, and, 
removing to Norwalk, Connecticut, he took charge of a church 
of that communion. He died at Norwalk in 1806. 

BURNS, WILLIAM and MICHAEL. Of Connecticut. Broth 
ers. The first was a forage-master in the Royal Army, who 
settled on Digby Neck, Nova Scotia, at the peace, and died 
in 1797. Michael settled at the same place, and died in 1817. 
Phebe, daughter of William, married Edmund Fanning, and 
has two daughters now (1861) living in England. 

BURRIS, SAMUEL. A Whig soldier. In 1778 lie was tried 
on a charge of attempting to desert to the Royal side. He 
confessed his guilt, and was sentenced to receive one hundred 
lashes. 

BURTIS, WILLIAM. Of West Chester County, New York. 
In 1779 he was sent prisoner from White Plains by Burr, 
who wrote Malcolm that Burtis wished to secure the favor of 
the Whigs by giving them information. In 1780 he was con 
fined at West Point, under sentence of death, for communica 
tion with the British General Mathews. At the peace he 
went to New Brunswick, and died at St. John in 1885, 
aged seventy-five. 

BURTON, NAPIER CHRISTIE. General in the British Army. 
" An American by birth," who entered the military service in 
August, 1775, as an ensign. He was in several actions in 
New Jersey, and accompanied his regiment to Virginia, and 
to South Carolina. He was engaged in the affairs of the Ca- 

O O 

tawba and Yadkin, in the battles of Guilford and Cross 
Creek, and was taken prisoner in the siege of Yorktown. In 
1789 he attained the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel, and subse 
quently served in Flanders. In 1799 he was appointed Lieu- 
tenant-Governor of Upper Canada. His commission of Lieu- 
tenant-General, bears date January 1, 1805, and of General, 
June 4, 1814. From 1796 to 1806, he was a member of 
Parliament for Beverley. For several years previous to his 



BURWELL. BUSKIRK. 277 

decease, lie was an invalid. He died in England, in January, 
1835, in his seventy-seventh year. 

BURWELL, JAMES. Of New Jersey. Born at Rockaway, 
January 18, 1754. His father, Samuel Burwell, was eldest 
son of John Burwell, who removed from Jamestown, Vir 
ginia, in the year 1721, a relative of the extensive family of 
Burwells, in this country, formerly from Bedford and North 
ampton, England, the first of whom was buried at York River, 
Gloucester County, 1052. One of his ancestors was of the 
Virginia deputation in the year 1646, to invite the fallen mon 
arch, Charles the First, to come to America for protection 
against the rebellious Puritan subjects. Our Loyalist enlisted 
in his Majesty s service in the year 1776, at the age of twenty- 
two, and served seven years, and was present at the battle of 
Yorktown, when Lord Cornwallis surrendered, and was there 
slightly wounded. After the war he moved to Nova Scotia, 
where he remained four years ; he then returned to New Jer 
sey, to take care of his aged mother ; married, and removed 
to Pennsylvania, and from thence came to Upper Canada in 
the year 1796, too late to obtain the king s bounty of family 
land, but was placed on the Upper Canada list, and received 
two hundred acres for himself and each of his children. He 
removed to the Talbot settlement in the year 1810. He 
died in the county of Elgin, Canada, July, 1853, aged ninety- 
nine years and five months. 

BUSKIRK, . Lieutenant-Colonel of a Loyalist corps. 
In 1777, he attempted to cut off a party of Whig militia sta 
tioned at Paramus ; but the commander had notice of the de 
sign, and escaped by moving to another post. In 1779, with 
a considerable part of the garrison of Powle s Hook, and some 
other troops, he proceeded up the North River for the purpose 
of falling in with a detachment of Whigs, supposed to be out 
foraging upon the Tories. He met a larger force than he 
expected, and retreated. The illustrious John Marshall states 
the facts in detail, from his personal observation. 

In 1780, with one hundred dragoons and upwards of three 
hundred infantry, he crossed from Staten Island to Elizabeth- 

VOL,. I. 24 



278 BUSKIRK. BUTLER. 

town, at midnight, took several prisoners, burnt the church 
and town-house, plundered some of the inhabitants, and re 
tired without loss. He was with Arnold in the expedition to 
New London, and in command of a regiment or battalion. 

BUSKIRK, . Son of Lieutenant-Colonel Buskirk, 

and lieutenant in the New Jersey Volunteers, or, " Skinner s 
Greens." In the attack by General Dickinson, November, 
1777, he was made prisoner. I suppose the Captain Buskirk 
wounded in the battle of Eutaw Springs, 1781, was the same. 

BUSKIRK, HEXRY. Of New York. He removed to Nova 
Scotia in 1783, and was many years a magistrate of King s 
County. He died at Aylesford, Nova Scotia, in 1841. 

BUSTIN, THOMAS. Of Virginia. He joined the Royal Ar 
my at New York after the commencement of hostilities ; and 
at the peace removed to St. John, New Brunswick, where he 
lived until his decease, at the age of ninety. Seven children 
survived him. Mary, his widow, died in the same city, in 
1848, at the age of ninety-two. 

BUTLER, JOHN. Of Try on, now Montgomery, County, 
New York. Before the war, Colonel Butler was in close 
official connection with Sir William, Sir John, and Colonel 
Guy Johnson, and followed their political fortunes. At the 
breaking out of hostilities, he commanded a regiment of New 
York militia, and entered at once into the military service of 
the Crown. During the war his wife was taken prisoner, and 
exchanged for the wife of the Whig Colonel Campbell. The 
deeds of rapine, of murder, of hellish hue, which were per 
petrated by Butler s corps, cannot be related here. It is 
sufficient, for the purpose of these Notes, to say, that he 
commanded the sixteen hundred incarnate fiends who deso 
lated Wyoming. I feel quite willing to allow, that history 
has recorded barbarities which were not committed. But 
though Butler did not permit or directly authorize women to 
be driven into the forest, where they became mothers, and 
where their infants were eaten by wild beasts, and though cap 
tive officers may not have been held upon fires with pitch 
forks until they were burned to death, sufficient remains 



BUTLER. 279 

undoubted, to stamp his conduct with the deepest, darkest, 
most damning guilt. The human mind can hardly frame an 
argument which shall clear the fame of Butler from obloquy 
and reproach. To admit even as a solved question, that the 
Loyalists were in the right, and that they were bound by the 
clearest rules of duty to bear arms in defence of lawful and 
existing institutions, and to put down the rebellion, will do 
Butler no good. For, whatever the force of such a plea in 
the minds of those who urge it, lie was still bound to observe 
the laws of civilized warfare. 

That he, and he alone, will be regarded by posterity as the 
real and responsible actor in the business and slaughter at 
Wyoming, may be considered, perhaps, as certain. The 
chieftain Brant was, for a time, held accountable, but the 
better information of later years transfers the guilt from the 
savage to the man of Saxon blood. There was nothing for 
which the Mohawk s family labored more earnestly than to 
show that their renowned head was not implicated in this 
bloody tragedy, and that the accounts of historians, and the 
enormities recounted in Campbell s verse, as far as they relate 
to him, are untrue. It has been said very commonly, that 
the Colonel Butler who was of the Whig force at Wyoming, 
and Colonel John, were kinsmen ; but this, too, has been con 
tradicted. The late Edward D. Griffin, a youth, a writer, 
and a poet of rare promise, and a grandson of the former, 
denied the relationship. 

Colonel John Butler was richly rewarded for his services. 
Succeeding, in part, to the agency of Indian Affairs long 
held by the Johnsons he enjoyed, about the year 1796, a 
salary of 500 sterling per annum, and a pension as a military 
officer of 200 more. Previously, he had received a grant of 
five hundred acres of land, and a similar provision for his chil 
dren. His home, after the war, was in Upper Canada. He 
was attainted during the contest, by the Act of New York, 
and his property confiscated. He lived before the Revolution 
in the present town of Mohawk. His dwelling was of one 
story, with two windows in front, and a door in the centre. 



280 BUTLER. 

It was standing in 1842, and was then owned and occupied 
bv Mr. Wilson. The site is pleasant and commanding, and 
overlooks the valley of the Mohawk. 

BUTLER, WALTER N. Son of Colonel John Butler. En 
tered the British service, and became a major. His name is 
connected with some of the most infamous transactions of the 
Revolution. While a lieutenant under St. Leger, he was 
taken prisoner at the house of a Loyalist who lived near 
Fort Dayton, and was put upon his trial as a spy, convicted, 
and received sentence of death. But at the intercession of 
several American officers who had known him while a student 
at law in Albany, his life was spared by a reprieve. The 
friends of the Butler family, in consequence of his alleged ill 
health, induced his removal from rigorous confinement to a 
private house under guard, and he soon escaped, and joined 
his father. It is believed that he took mortal offence at his 
treatment while a prisoner of the Whigs, and that he rccn- 
tered the service of the Crown, burning with resentment and 
thirsting for revenge. His subsequent career was short, bold, 
cruel, and bloody. He w r as killed in battle in 1781, and his 
remains were left to decay without even the rudest rites of 
sepulture. It is represented that his disposition was so vin 
dictive and his passions so strong, that British officers of rank 
and humanity viewed him with horror. The late Doctor 
D wight a careful writer relates, that at Cherry Valley 
he ordered a woman and child to be slain in bed, and that 
the more merciful Brant interposed and said : " What ! kill 
a woman and child ! No ! That child is not an enemy to 
the Kino;, nor a friend to the COUOTCSS. Long before he will 

O 7 5 O 

be big enough to do any mischief, the dispute will be settled." 
BUTLER, JAMES. Of Georgia. Went to England, and 
died there in 1817, aged seventy-nine. " An American 
Loyalist," says the record. 

BUTLER, BENJAMIN. Of Norwich, Connecticut. He 
was a gentleman of respectability and talents, and continued 
loyal throughout the contest. Arrested and imprisoned, in 
1776, for defaming the Continental Congress, he was tried 



BUTLER. - BYLES. 28 L 

by the Superior Court, and sentenced to be deprived of the 
liberty of wearing arms, and of being incapable of holding 
office. He died of a lingering disease in 1787. While in 
health, he selected a small tree to be used at his decease to 
enclose his remains ; but the sapling grew slowly, and his 
coffin was constructed of other wood, and kept in his chamber 
for years, to remind him of his end. The expressive motto 
on his gravestone "ALAS, POOR HUMAN NATURE!" 
was placed there by his own direction. " His wife, Diadema, 
and his daughters, Rosamond and Minerva, repose by his side " 
in the Norwich burial-ground. The survivors of his family 
removed to Oxford, New York. The wife of Commodore 
John Rogers, United States Navy, was a granddaughter. 

BUTLER, JOSIAH. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1812, aged fifty. 

BUTLER, CAPTAIN . He was a Tory leader, whose 

crimes and ferocity were well known in the region of the 
Pedee. During a period of Whig ascendency in that part of 
South Carolina, he went into General Marion s camp at Birch s 
Mills, and submitting himself, claimed the protection which 
the Whig officer had granted to some other Loyalists who had 
preceded him. Against this some of Marion s officers, whose 
friends had suffered at Butler s hands, protested. But Ma 
rion took the humbled Butler to his own tent, and declared 
that he would protect him at the hazard of his own life. The 
officers, still determined to gratify their hate, sent their com 
mander an offensive message, to the effect that " Butler should 
be dragged to death from his tent," and that, " to defend such 
a wretch was an insult to humanity." Marion was not to be 
intimidated ; and though the meeting among his followers 
threatened to be formidable, he succeeded in conveying Butler 
under a strong guard to a place of safety. 

BUTLER, ELEAZER. Of Pennsylvania. On the Royal side 
in the slaughter at Wyoming. Went to Nova Scotia, and is 
now (1854) living at Yarmouth. 

BYLES, MATHER, D. D. Of Boston. He was born in 
Boston in 1706, graduated at Harvard University in 1725, 
24* 



282 BYLES. 

and was ordained the first pastor of the Hollis Street Church 
in 1733. On his mother s side, he was descended from Rich 
ard Mather and John Cotton. He continued to live happily 
with his parish until 1776, when the connection was dissolved, 
and never renewed. In 1777 he was denounced in town-meet 
ing, and having been by a subsequent trial pronounced guilty 
of attachment to the Royal cause, was sentenced to confine 
ment, and to be sent with his family to England. This doom 
of banishment was never enforced, and he was permitted to 
remain in Boston. He died in 1788, aged eighty-two years. 
He was a scholar ; and Pope, Lansdowne, and Watts were 
his correspondents. His witticisms would fill many pages ; 
some of his finest sayings having been preserved. In his 
pulpit he avoided politics, and on being asked the reason, 
replied : u I have thrown up four breastworks, behind which 
I have entrenched myself, neither of which can be enforced. 
In the first place, I do not understand politics ; in the second 
place, you all do, every man and mother s son of you ; in the 
third place, you have politics all the week, pray let one day 
in seven be devoted to religion ; in the fourth place, I am 
engaged in work of infinitely greater importance ; give me 
any subject to preach on of more consequence than the truth 
I bring to you, and I will preach on it the next Sabbath." 
On another occasion, when under sentence of the Whigs to 
remain in his own house, under guard, he persuaded the sen 
tinel to go on an errand for him, promising to perform senti 
nel s duty himself; and to the great amusement of all gravely 
inarched before his own door with a musket on his shoulder, 
until his keeper returned. This was after his trial ; and allud 
ing to the circumstances that he had been kept prisoner, that 
his guard had been removed, and replaced again, he said, 
that "he had been guarded, re-guarded, and disregarded." 
Near his house, in wet weather, was a very bad slough. 
It happened that two of the selectmen who had the care 
of the streets, driving in a chaise, stuck fast in this hole, 
and were obliged to get out in the mud to extricate their 
vehicle. Doctor Byles came out, and making them a re- 



BTLES. 283 

spectful bow, said: "Gentlemen, I have often complained to 
you of this nuisance, without any attention being paid to it, 
and I am very glad to see you stirring in this matter now." 
On the celebrated Dark-day in 1780, a lady who lived near 
the Doctor, sent her young son with her compliments, to 
know if he could account for the uncommon appearance. 
His answer was : " My dear, you will give my compliments 
to your mamma, and tell her that I am as much in the dark 
as she is." He paid his addresses unsuccessfully to a lady, 
who afterwards married a gentleman of the name of Quincy ; 
the Doctor, on meeting her, said : " So, madam, it appears that 
you prefer a Quincy to Byles." " Yes, for if there had been 
anything worse than biles, God would have afflicted Job with 
them." 

Doctor Byles s wit created many a laugh, and many an 
enemy. In person he was tall and commanding. His voice 
was strong and harmonious, and his delivery graceful. His 
first wife w r as a niece of Governor Belcher, the second, a 
daughter of Lieutenant-Governor Tailer. His two daughters 
lived and died in the old family house at the corner of Nassau 
and Tremont streets. One of them deceased in 1835, the 
other in 1837. They were stout, unchanging Loyalists to 
the last hour of their existence. Their thread of life was 
spun out more than half a century after the Royal govern 
ment had ceased in these States ; yet they retained their love 
of, and strict adherence to, monarch and monarchies, and re 
fused to acknowledge that the Revolution had transferred 
their allegiance to new rulers. They were repeatedly of 
fered a great price for their dwelling, but would not sell it, 
nor would they permit improvements or alterations. They 
possessed old-fashioned silver plate, which they never used, 
and would not dispose of. They worshipped in Trinity 
Church under which their bodies now lie and wore on 
Sunday dresses almost as old as themselves. Among their 

v O 

furniture was a pair of bellows two centuries old ; a table on 
which Franklin drank tea on his last visit to Boston ; a chair 
which more than a hundred years before the Government of 



284 BYLES. 

England hacT sent as a present to their grandfather, Lieuten 
ant-Governor Tailer. They showed to visitors commissions 
to their grandfather, signed by Queen Anne, and three of the 
Georges ; and the envelope of a letter from Pope to their 
father. They had moss, gathered from the birthplace of the 
unfortunate Lady Jane Grey. They talked of their walks, 
arm-in-arm, on Boston Common, with General Howe and 
Lord Percy, while the British Army occupied Boston. They 
told of his Lordship s ordering his band to play under their 
windows for their gratification. 

In the progress of the improvements in Boston, a part of 
their dwelling was removed. This had a fatal influence upon 
the elder sister ; she mourned over the sacrilege, and, it is 
thought, died its victim. " That," said the survivor, " that 
is one of the consequences of living in a Republic. Had we 
been living under a king, he would have cared nothing about 
our little property, and we could have enjoyed it in our own 
way as long as we lived. But," continued she, " there is one 
comfort, that not a creature in the States will be any better 
for what we shall leave behind us." She was true to her 
promise, for the Byles s estate passed to relatives in the Colo 
nies. One of these ladies, of a by-gone age, wrote to William 
the Fourth, on his accession to the throne. They had known 
the " sailor-king " during the Revolution, and now assured 
him that the family of Doctor Byles always had been, and 
would continue to be, loyal to their rightful sovereign of 
England. 

BYLES, MATHER, JR., D. D. Of Boston. An Episcopal 
clergyman. Son of Mather Byles, D. D. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1751. In 1757, at about the age of 
twenty-three, he was ordained at New London ; his father 
preached the sermon. Eleven years after, his ministry came 
to an abrupt termination. Without previous intimation, he 
called a meeting of his church, and requested dismission, that 
he might accept an invitation to become Rector of the North 
Episcopal, or Christ Church, Salem street, Boston. 

Among the reasons he gave in the course of the discussions 



BYLKS. BYRNE. 285 

that ensued, were, that " another minister would do much 
better for them than lie had done or could do, for his health 
was infirm, and the position of the church very bleak, the 
hill wearisome, .... he was not made for a country minis 
ter, and his home and friends were all in Boston," c., &c. 
He also complained bitterly of the persecutions he had suf 
fered from the Quakers, and the negligence of the authorities 
in executing the laws against them. 

The debate was long and warm, and produced total aliena 
tion. April 12, 1768, the record is, " The Rev. Mr. Byles 
dismissed himself from the church and congregation." He 
hastened to depart with the rapidity of a criminal escaping 
for crime. His change to Episcopacy was soon a matter of 
discussion all over New England. In New London his con 
version was ridiculed. The song " The Proselyte," set to 
the tune of the " Thief and Cordelier," which embraced the 
facts of the case, was sung about the country. Before the 
close of 1708, he was inducted into the desired rectorship ; 
and of Christ Church, was the third in succession. He con 
tinued to discharge his ministerial duties until 1775, when 
the force of events compelled him to abandon his flock. In 
1776, accompanied by his family of four persons, he went to 
Halifax. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He set 
tled at St. John, New Brunswick, after the war, and was 
Rector of the city, and Chaplain of the Province. He died 
at St. John in 1814. His daughter Anna married Thomas 
Deisbrisay, Lieutenant-Colonel of Artillery in the British 
Army, in 1799. His daughter Elizabeth married William 

/ 7 O 

Scovil, Esquire, of St. John, and died in 1808, at the age of 
forty-one. His son Belcher died in England in 1815, aged 
thirty-five. His daughter Rebecca, born in New London, 
1762, married W. J. Almon, M. D., and died at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, 1853. His son Mather died at Grenada, in 
1803, aged thirty-nine. 

BYRNE, BENEDICT. Of Maryland or Virginia. He en 
tered a Loyalist corps and was taken prisoner, but made his 
escape to New York, where he was employed as a pilot. At 



286 CALDWELL. - CALLAHAN. 

the peace, accompanied by his family of three persons, and by 
two servants, he removed to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where 
the Crown granted him fifty acres of land, one town and one 
water lot. His losses in consequences of his loyalty were 
estimated at <300. He went to England soon afterwards 
to obtain compensation for his services and sufferings, but 
was unsuccessful. He died at Digby, Nova Scotia, in 1830, 
aged eighty-six. His first wife was Hannah Carroll, of Vir 
ginia, who died in Nova Scotia in 1786 ; his second, Mrs. 
Wilson, a widow, of Sbelburne. His daughter Margaret 
married William Wbipple, of Boston. 

CALDWELL, CAPTAIN . Was killed in Pennsylvania 

in 1780, by a Whig captain, McMahon, whom he and an 
Indian had taken prisoner. Possibly William Caldwell, of 
Chester County, Pennsylvania, who was attainted of treason 
by proclamation, and whose property was confiscated. 

CALEF, JOHN. Of Ipswich, Massachusetts. Physician. 
Son of Robert Calef, and Margaret, daughter of Deacon John 
Staniford. He was born in Ipswich, 1725, and represented 
that town in the General Court several years. Driven into 
exile by the Revolution, he became surgeon of one of the 
regiments stationed at Castine, Maine, and a part of the time 
officiated as chaplain. At the peace he settled at St. Andrew, 
New Brunswick, and died there in 1812, aged eighty-seven. 
His wife was a daughter of Rev. Jedediah Jewett, of Rowley, 
Massachusetts. 

CALEF, ROBERT. Son of John Calef. Died at Norfolk, 
Virginia, in 1801, at the age of forty-one. 

CALLAHAN, CHARLES. Mariner, of Pownalborough, now 
Wiscasset, Maine ; was proscribed and banished in 1778. 
Though a Loyalist in principle, he was not disposed to be 
active on the side of the Crown, or to abandon the country. 
But, " drafted " repeatedly to serve in the Whig corps, he fled 
to Halifax, Nova Scotia. Made a King s pilot, and subse 
quently, in command of the Grage, an armed vessel of twelve 
guns, he became a terror to the " Rebels." Wrecked, finally, 
and failing to obtain another ship, he was still retained in 



CALF. CAMERON. 287 

service and paid the wages of a pilot. He perished, with one 
hundred and sixty-four others, on board the North ship-of- 
war, near Halifax, in 1779. His widow received a pension 
of X40 annually ; she returned to Pownalborough about the 
year 1790, and died there in 1810. The estate of her 
husband was confiscated, but his farm and buildings came 
into her possession. 

CALP, PHILIP. Of Pennsylvania. In 1778, he was tried 
for attempting to carry flour to a post occupied by the Royal 
forces, and was sentenced to receive fifty lashes, and to be 
employed on the public works during the time the British 
remained in Pennsylvania, unless he would enter the Whig 
service for the war. The lashes were disapproved by the 
Commander-in-Chief, and were not inflicted. 

CAMERON, ALEXANDER. Deputy Indian Agent of the 
Cherokees. Connected with the first settlement of East 
Tennessee. In 1768, a few adventurers from the neigh 
borhood of Raleigh, North Carolina, crossed the mountains 
in search of a new home. Cameron soon ordered them to 
remove. They refused, received accessions, organized a sort 
of government, and continued prosperous. When it was 
apparent that the controversy would end in general war, 
Cameron changed his course, and by flattering promises of 
protection, if they would remain loyal, endeavored to seduce 
them to the side of the Crown. They could send five hun 
dred riflemen to the field, at the least, and their adhesion was 
worth the effort. They were a lone people, in the midst of 
savages, and yet they declined his offers unanimously and 
peremptorily. His Majesty s official then formed a design to 
destroy them with a force of Cherokees, by falling upon them 
suddenly, and in all quarters at the same moment. The plan 
was discovered. Most of the hapless Whigs fled to the sev 
eral places of their nativity. A few established and maintained 

a garrison until succored. In 1775, the Council of Safety 

j 

proposed to him to join the popular side, and offered him a 
salary equal to that which he received from the British Gov 
ernment, and compensation for any losses he might sustain ; 



288 CAMERON. CAMPBELL. 

he declined the overture, and, to ensure his personal safety, 
retired to the Cherokees. In 1776, he was in arms at the 
head of Tories and Indians, and was in several skirmishes ; 
but he abandoned them, and fled to St. Augustine, in the 
belief that the Whigs would subdue them. 

Among the papers taken with Moses Kirkland on his way 
to Boston to confer with Gage, was a " talk " between Cam 
eron and Indian chiefs, in which the latter expressed their 
readiness to aid in the massacre of the people in the back 
settlements of Georgia and South Carolina. Cameron owned 
two large plantations near the Savannah river, on which he 
had placed a number of negroes, horses and cattle, and from 
the produce of which he promised himself a fortune in a few 
years. 

CAMERON, MEDERICH. Of New York. His son Mede- 
rich, who was a Whig, fled from school, and joined the army 
as a drummer. The father followed the youth to camp, and 
succeeded in obtaining his release. At the peace, Mr. 
Cameron went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. He owned three 
houses in the city of New York, two of which he demolished 
at leaving, and transported the bricks of w r hieh they w r ere 
built to Shelburne, to serve in the construction of a new 
dwelling there. He died at Liverpool, Nova Scotia, during 
the war of 1812, at the ao-e of ninety-eight. Two children 

O J C> 

survived him. The son above mentioned went to Nova Scotia 
with his father, but returned to New York. 

CAMPBELL, LORD WILLIAM. Last Roval Governor of South 
Carolina. He was the youngest son of the fourth Duke of 
Argyle. Entered the navy, and became a captain in 1762. 
The year after, he married Sarah, daughter of Ralph Izard, 
of Charleston, South Carolina, and in 1764 was a member of 
the British House of Commons. In 1766, he was appointed 
Governor of Nova Scotia, and remained there until 1773. 
He assumed the Executive Chair of South Carolina in 1775, 
while the first Provincial Congress was in session, and refused 
to acknowledge that body. He was zealous in opposing the 
popular movement, and, distrustful, finally, " of his personal 



CAMPBELL. 289 

safety, retired to the Tumor sloop-of-war." In the attack on 
Charleston, in 1770, he served on board of one of the British 
ships, and received a wound which in the end was mortal. 
He died September, 1778. 

While Governor of Nova Scotia, he granted to Captain 
William Owen, father of the late Admiral Owen, the island 
of Campo Bcllo, opposite Eastport and Lubec, Maine. " Lord 
William and the Captain," remarked the Admiral to the 
writer, " were both poor at the time of the grant." 

CAMPBELL, FARQUARD. Of North Carolina. Was a gen 
tleman of wealth, education, and influence, and regarded as a 
" flaming Whig." Was elected a member of the Provincial 
Congress, took his seat, and evinced much zeal in the popular 
cause. When, however, Governor Martin abandoned his 
palace and retreated, first to Fort Johnston, and thence to 
an armed ship of the Crown, it was ascertained that he visited 
Campbell at his residence. And this circumstance gave rise 
to a suspicion of his fidelity. Soon after, the Governor asked 
Congress to give his coach and horses safe conduct to Camp 
bell s house in the county of Cumberland. The President of 
Congress submitted the request to that body, when Mr. Camp 
bell rose in his place, and expressed his surprise that such a 
proposal should have been made without his knowledge and 
consent, and implored that his Excellency s property might 
not thus be disposed of. On this positive disclaimer, a reso 
lution was passed, which not only acquitted him of all im 
proper connection with the Governor, but asserted his devo 
tion to the Whig interests. But his character never recovered 
from the shock, and the belief that he continued a secret 
correspondence with the retreating representative of Royalty, 
was commonly entertained by his associates. Yet his votes, 
his services on committees, and his course in debate, remained 
unchanged. After the Declaration of Independence, his part 
became too difficult to act, and his double-dealing could no 
longer be concealed. In the fall of 1776 he was seized at his 
own house, while entertaining a party of Loyalists, and borne 
off for trial. His name next appears in the Revolutionary 

VOL. i. 25 



290 CAMPBELL. 

annals of North Carolina, in the Banishment and Confisca 
tion Act. But several years after the Revolution, he was a 
member of the Senate of North Carolina. 

CAMPBELL, ALEXANDER. Of Falmouth, Virginia. Mer 
chant. Emigrated from Scotland some years before the war, 
adhered to the Crown, and returned, probably, in 1776. 
Thomas Campbell, the poet, was his youngest son. Another 
son married a daughter of Patrick Henry. His brother 
Archibald, an Episcopal minister, was a Whig, and Wash 
ington and the Lees were among his parishioners. This 
array of great names may be completed by adding, that 
Patrick Henry " was descended on his mother s side from 
the stock of Robertson, the historian, and in that way a re 
lative of Lord Brougham." 

CAMPBELL, PETER. Of Trenton, New Jersey. He entered 
the military service of the Crown, and at the peace was a 
captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. He had property in 
Pennsylvania, and was directed by the Executive Council of 
that State to surrender himself for trial within a specified time, 
or stand attainted of treason. He settled in New Brunswick, 
and received half-pay. He died at Maugerville, in that Col 
ony, in 1822, and was buried at Fredricton. 

CAMPBELL, COLIN. Was an ensign in De Lancey s Second 
Battalion, quartermaster of the corps, and subsequently a 
lieutenant. His son, Colin Campbell, was Sheriff of Char 
lotte County, New Brunswick. Died at St. Andrew, in that 
Province, in 1843. 

CAMPBELL, WILLIAM. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. In 
1775 the Committee of that town appointed to watch and deal 
with the disaffected, resolved to send him to the Provincial 
Congress at Watertown, to be disposed of as that body, or 
the Commander-in-Chief at Cambridge, should think proper ; 
" it being judged highly improper that he should tarry any 
longer " at Worcester. He was at Boston in 1776, and em 
barked with the Royal Army at the evacuation. In 1783 he 
was at New York, and one of the fifty petitioners for lands 
in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah Willard.] He went to Halifax 



CAMPBELL. CAMP. 291 

in the last mentioned year, where he remained in 1786, when 
lie removed to St. John, New Brunswick. He was Mayor 
of St. John twenty years, and died in that city in 1823, aged 
eighty-two. Elizabeth, his widow, died in 1824, at the age 
of eighty-four. Agnes, his only daughter, died at St. John 
in 1840, aged seventy-eight. 

CAMPBELL, WILLIAM. Major in the South Carolina Roy 
alists. Killed in the affair at Stono Ferry, South Carolina, 
June, 1779. 

CAMPBELL, JOHN. Of North Carolina. Captain in the 
Loyal Militia. Killed in the battle of Cross Creek, 1776. 

CAMP, ABIATHAR, ABIATHAH JR., and ELDAD. Loyal 
ists of Connecticut. Settled at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1788, and received grants of city lots. Abiathar was one 
of the fifty-five petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. He died 
in New Brunswick, in 1841, aged eighty-four. He appears 
to have been a Recanter, but, like most of this class, finally 
became an exile. October 2, 1775, he wrote and subscribed 
the following : 

"I, Abiathar Camp, of New Haven, in the County of New 
Haven, in the Colony of Connecticut, although I well knew 
that it was the opinion of a number of the inhabitants of said 
town, that vessels ought not to clear out under the Restrain 
ing Act, which opinion they had, for my satisfaction, expressed 
by a vote when I was present ; and although I had assured 
that I would not clear out my vessel under said Restraining 
Act, did, nevertheless, cause my vessel to be cleared out agree 
able to said Restraining Act ; and did, after I knew that the 
Committee of Inspection had given it as their opinion, that it 
was most advisable that vessels should not clear out under 
said Restraining Act, send my vessel off to sea with such 
clearance, for which I am heartily sorry ; and now publicly 
ask the forgiveness of all the friends of America, and hope 
that they will restore me to charity. And I do now most 
solemnly assure the public, though I own that I have by my 
said conduct given them too much reason to question my ve 
racity, that I will strictly comply with the directions, and 



292 CANBY. C ANER. 

fully lend my utmost assistance to carry into execution all 
such measures as the Continental Congress have or may 
advise to. ABIATHAR CAMP." 

CANBY, JOSEPH, and THOMAS. Of Pennsylvania. Were 
attainted of treason and lost their property by confiscation. 
Joseph went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, and 
was a grantee of that city. He commenced business as a mer 
chant. In 1795 he was a member of the company of Loyal 
Artillery. He was killed by falling from a wharf in 1814. at 
the age of fifty-seven. 

CANE, BARNEY. He boasted of having killed upon Dia 
mond Island, Lake George, a gentleman named Hopkins, 
who was there with a number of others on an excursion of 
pleasure. " Several were killed by our party," said Cane, 
" among whom was one woman who bad a suckling child, 
which was not hurt. This we put to the breast of its dead 
mother, and so we left it. Hopkins was only wounded, but, 
with the butt of my gun, and the third blow, I laid him 
dead." 

CANER, HENRY, D. D. He graduated at Yale College in 
1724, and in 1727 went to England for ordination. For some 
years, subsequently, his ministry was confined to Norwalk 
and Fairfield, Connecticut ; but in 1747 he was inducted into 
office as Rector of the First Episcopal Church, (King s Chapel) 
Boston. The troubles of the Revolution drove him from his 
flock in 1776. He said, the evacuation of Boston was so 
sudden, that he was prevented from saving his books, furni 
ture, or anything else, except bedding, wearing apparel, and 
a few stores for his small family during the passage. May 
10, 1776, he wrote at Halifax, that he was without means of 
support, and was dependent on the charity of the Rev. Dr. 
Breynton. He took away the King s Chapel church regis 
ters and plate, and a part of the vestry records. After the 
lapse of more than twenty-five years, the registers were ob 
tained of his heirs. He went from Halifax to England ; but 
returned and officiated at Bristol, Rhode Island. He was 
proscribed and banished, under the statute of Massachusetts, 



C ANPIELD. CAPEN. 293 

in 1778. His talents were good, his manners agreeable, and 
he was highly esteemed by his people. A fellow-Loyalist 
wrote, in 1785 : " By letters from London, I am informed 
that Dr. Cancr had retired with his young wife to Cardiff, 
in Wales." 

His estate, which was confiscated, was next to the Chapel 
burying-ground, and is now owned by the Massachusetts 
Historical Society. He died at Long Asliton, England, in 
1792, aged ninety-three. 

CANFIELD, - . Of Northampton, Massachusetts. He 
was a Whig, and a soldier in the 1st New Hampshire Regi 
ment, but deserted and joined the Rangers. While on a plun 
dering excursion in 1782 he was captured, tried for his life, 
and sentenced to be executed at Saratoga on the 6th of June 
of that year. 

CAPEN, HOPESTILL. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774, and a Protestor against the Whigs, the same 
year. He was a Sandemanian. 

In 1776, the Council ordered his arrest, and he was 
committed to the jail in Boston ; and in October of that 
year, his wife petitioned for his release, urging, among other 
reasons, that both herself and children had suffered great 
distress in consequence of his long confinement. More than 
eighty citizens of Boston joined Mrs. Capen, and said in his 
behalf, that he was an honest and peaceable man, and, that 
while the Royal Army occupied the town, he had exerted 
himself to save the property of absentees. In December, Mr. 
Capen himself addressed a paper to Joseph Greenleaf, the 
sheriff, in which he complains of his treatment in severe 
terms, and from which it appears that he had been a close 
prisoner for one hundred and forty-seven days. As the 
sheriff was personally accused, he laid the communication 
before the House, and begged to be protected from Mr. 
Capen s insults. Before me, also, is a long document which 
this unfortunate Loyalist prepared to read to a Court of In 
quiry, expected by him to take cognizance of his case, and 
which, though of some ability, bears evidence of a mind dis- 
25* 



294 CAPERS. CAREW. 

ordered by fanaticism. He was in Boston in 1795, and lived 
near the Market. Before the Revolution, he was a merchant, 
and the celebrated Count Rumford was, at one time, his 
clerk. 

CAPERS, GABRIEL. Of South Carolina. An officer under 
the Crown after the surrender of Charleston. Estate confis 
cated. Probably a Whig at first ; as in 1775 lie was a mem 
ber of the Provincial Congress, and was placed upon an im 
portant standing committee of that body. His wife, and his 
daughter Catherine, (wife of Hugh Patterson), died at 
Charleston in 1808. 

CARBERY, - .A captain in the Whig service, and 
apparently in Colonel Moyland s Regiment. In June, 1788, 
he fled to London witli Lieutenant John Sullivan, in whose 
plot he was implicated. Sullivan says of him : " This young 
gentleman served with eclat in the army, and spent a pretty 
fortune in the service of his country." 

GARDEN, JOHN. Major in the Prince of Wales s Ameri 
can Regiment. In 1780 he was in command of the post at 
Hanging Rock, when, assaulted by Sumter, he exposed him 
self to censure and disgrace, by resigning to Captain Rouslet 
of the Infantry of the Legion, in the heat of the battle. He 
died in April, 1783. 

CAREW, SIR BENJAMIN HALLOWELL. Of Massachusetts. 
Admiral of the Blue in the British Navy, G. C. B., K. St. 
F. M. He was the son of Benjamin Hallowell, one of the 
Commissioners of the Customs at Boston, and entered the 
service at an early age. His commission as Lieutenant, bears 
date August, 1781 ; as Captain, in 1793 ; as Rear-Admiral, 
in 1811 ; as Vice-Admiral, in 1819. He was made a Knight 
Commander of the Bath in 1819, and was promoted to the 
rank of Grand Cross in 1831. His employments at sea were 
various and arduous. He was with Rodney in the memorable 
battle with de Grasse ; in the siege of Bastia ; and in com 
mand of a ship-of-the-line under Hotham, in the encounter 
with the French off the Hieres Islands. He served as a 
volunteer on board the Victory, in the battle of Cape St. 



CAREW. 295 

Vincent. In the battle of the Nile, he commanded the 
Swiftmre, of seventy-four guns, and contributed essentially 
to the success of the day. From a part of the mainmast 
of jL Orient, which was picked up by the Swiftsure, Hallo- 
well directed his carpenter to make a coffin, which was sent 
to Nelson with the following letter : 

" Sir, I have taken the liberty of presenting you a coffin 
made from the mainmast of L? Orient, that when you have 
finished your military career in this world, you may be buried 
in one of your trophies. But that that period may be far 
distant is the earnest wish of your sincere friend, 

BENJAMIN HALLOWELL." 

Southey, in his " Life of Nelson," remarks : " An offering so 
strange, and yet so suited to the occasion, was received in the 
spirit in which it was sent. And, as if he felt it good lor him, 
now that he was at the summit of his wishes, to have death 
before his eyes, he ordered the coffin to be placed upright in 

his cabin An old favorite servant entreated him so 

earnestly to let it be removed, that at length he consented 
to have the coffin carried below ; but he gave strict orders 
that it should be safely stowed, and reserved for the purpose 
for which its brave and worthy donor had designed it." 

After the battle, Nelson said, that had it not been for Trow- 
bridge, Bail, Hood, and Hallowell, he should have sunk under 
the fatigue of refitting the squadron. "All, he stated, "had 
done well ; but these officers were his supporters." 

In 1799, Sir Benjamin was engaged in the attacks on the 
castles of St. Elmo and Capua, and was honored with the 
Neapolitan Order of St. Ferdinand and Merit. Two years 
later, he fell in with the French squadron, and surrendered 
his ship the Swiftsure after a sharp contest. During the 
peace of Amiens, he was stationed on the coast of Africa. 
He was with Hood in the reduction of St. Lucia and Tobago ; 
with Nelson in the West Indies ; in command of the convoy 
of the second expedition to Egypt ; with Martin, off the mouth 
of the Rhone, where he assisted in driving on shore several 
French ships-of-war ; and in the Mediterranean. His last 



296 CARLETON. CARLISLE. 

duty seems to have been performed on the Irish station, and 
at the Nore. 

Sir Benjamin succeeded to the estates of the Carews, of 
Beddington, and assumed the name and arms, pursuant to the 
will of his cousin, Mrs. Anne Paston Gee, who died in 1828. 
These estates are entailed on his sons in succession, and their 
male issue. He died at Beddington Park, in 1834, at the age 
of seventy-three. His wife was a daughter of Commissioner 
Inglefield, of Gibraltar Dock-yard. His son and heir, Charles 
Hallowell Carew, who, at the time of his decease, had attained 
the rank of captain in the Royal Navy, and who married 
Mary, daughter of the late Sir Murray Maxwell, C. B., died 
at the Park, in 1848. In 1851, his fifth son, Robert Hallo- 
well Carew, late captain in the 86th Regiment, married Ann 
Rycroft, widow of Walter Tyson Smythes, 

CARLETON, JOHN. Of Woolwich, Maine. A man, says 
Rev. Jacob Bailey, " of the highest integrity, the most un 
daunted fortitude, and inflexible loyalty." Met in a forest by 
near two hundred men, and required to sign a certain paper, 
or consent to be buried alive, he chose the latter, and assisted 
in di fain o- \ } \ s O wn orave. Swearing that he was a brave 

CT{T"> O t? C3 

fellow, the Sons of Liberty allowed him to depart. Afterwards 
plundered, he escaped to the British post at the mouth of the 
Penobscot, and was there early in 1781. At that time, he 
had a wife and ten children. 

CARLISLE, ABRAHAM. Of Philadelphia. When the Royal 
troops took possession of that city, he received a commission 
from Sir William Howe, to watch and guard its entrances, 
and to grant passports. For this offence he was tried for his 
life in 1778, and having been found guilty of an overt act 
of aiding and assisting the enemy, was executed. Thomas 
McKean, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and 
at that time Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, presided at the 
trial. In 1779, and after his death, the estate of Carlisle was 
confiscated ; but a part was restored to his son Abraham, in 
1792. By some, the execution of Carlisle was denounced as 
judicial murder. Great efforts were made to save him. 



CARLO. CARSON. 297 

CARLO, JOHN, and MARTIN. Of Maine. Brothers. Set 
out to travel to Halifax by land, in 1778, and, after enlisting 
with the " Rebels " to avoid detection, and various other ad 
ventures, they arrived in Nova Scotia. The year following. 
Martin was at Lunenburg, in that Colony, and John at the 
British post at the mouth of the Penobscot. In 1782 Martin 
had u gone to live at home in peace." 

CARMAN, RICHARD. Of New York. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
Sarah, his widow, died in the county of York, New Bruns 
wick, in 1835, aged seventy-one. Several persons of the 
name of Carman, of Queen s County, New York, acknowl 
edged allegiance to Lord Richard and Sir William Howe in 
1776. 

CARNEY, ANDREW. Of Georgia. Captain in the first 
battalion of the Continental line raised in that State. He 
lived between the Altamaha and St. Mary s Rivers, and 
owned a large herd of cattle, which he secretly sold to the 
British. After his own stock was exhausted, he began to steal 
from his neighbors. Alarmed, finally, for his personal safety, 
he purposely exposed himself to capture, and, with his son, 
became active on the side of the Crown. His name was 
stricken from the rolls of the Whig Army, not only as a de 
serter, but a traitor, and his property was confiscated. 

CARPENTER, WILLET. Settled in New Brunswick in 
1783, and died at St. John in 1833, aged seventy-seven. 

CARSON, MOSES. Captain in the Continental Army. He 
deserted to the Royal Army in 1777. In 1779 he was caught, 
and tried by a court-martial, and sentenced to be drummed 
through the army in the vicinity of West Point, with a halter 
round his neck, and a label fastened to his back, bearing these 
words : " Moses Carson, late Captain in the American Army : 
this I suffer for deserting to the enemies of the United 
States of North America." This punishment inflicted, he 
was sentenced, further, to be confined during the remainder 
of the war ; and the Commander-in-Chief approved the find 
ing of the Court. 



298 CASTILLES.-CAZNEAU. 

CASTILLES, WILLIAM. Of Albany, New York. In 1780, 
a lieutenant in Cuyler s corps, and stationed on Long Island. 
At the peace, accompanied by his family and by six servants, 
he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where 
the Crown granted him fifty acres of land, one town and one 
water-lot. His losses, in consequence of his loyalty, were esti 
mated at 500. 

CAYFORD, RICHARD. Of New Jersey. Convicted of en 
mity to his country, of " cursing and ill-treating all Con 
gresses and Committees," by the Committee of Cumberland 
County; and, January, 1776, ordered by the Committee of 
Safety to be disarmed, to pay the expenses of proceedings 
against him, to be kept in close prison until he should manifest 
contrition for his offences, and give security for his future 
good behavior. He entered the service of the Crown, and 
in 1777 was a captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. 

CAZNEAU, ANDREW. Of Boston. His name is found 
among the Addressers of Hutchinson in 1774, and among 
those of Gage in 1775, and in the Banishment and Proscrip 
tion Act of 1778. He was educated to the bar ; was a bar- 
rister-of-la\v and a Judge of Admiralty ; and a gentleman of 
character, talents, and virtue. In 1775 he went to England, 
but not remaining long there, took up his residence in Ber 
muda, where he held an honorable post under the Crown. 
He returned to Boston in 1788, and died at Roxbury, in 
1792. His wife was Hannah, daughter of John Hammock, 
merchant, of Boston. The only daughter who survived him 
married Thomas Brewer, a merchant of the same town, who, 
as is supposed, perished about the year 1812, on a voyage 
from the Cape of Good Hope to Sumatra. The property of 
Mr. Cazneau escaped the Confiscation Act, and was inherited 
by Mrs. Brewer. That lady, a venerable relic of the u old 
school " of manners, respected and beloved, died at Eastport, 
Maine, September, 1851, aged eighty. 

CAZNEAU, EDWARD. Of Boston. He was the foreman 
in the druggist store of Dr. Sylvester Gardiner, and in 1776 
went to Halifax. At the peace he returned to the United 



CECIL. CHALMERS. 299 

States, and settled as a physician at Charleston, South Car 
olina. He died in Boston, unmarried. 

CECIL, LEONARD. Of Maryland. Went to England. In 
July, 1779, he was in London, and met with other Loyalists 
at the Crown and Anchor Tavern. 

CHALMERS, GEORGE. Of Maryland. Was a native of 
Scotland, and was born in 1742. After receiving an education 
at King s College, Aberdeen, and after studying law at Edin 
burgh, he emigrated to Maryland, and entered upon the 
practice of his profession. The revolutionary troubles caused 
his return to England, where he was soon appointed to office. 
For many years he filled the station of chief clerk of the 
Committee of the Privy Council. He died in England in 
1825, aged eighty-two. In person, he was tall, stout, and 
manly, and so nearly resembled Lord Melville, that they 
were often taken for each other. 

He possessed rare opportunities for the examination of 
State papers, which he diligently improved. As a writer he 
was able, honest, and labor-loving, but strongly prejudiced. 
He was never so happy, I will venture to say, as when delving 
among State papers. He had official concern with those of 
England, for nearly half a century. His historical works 
were numerous, are highly esteemed, and generally cited by 
annalists. His style is concise and vigorous, but is deficient 
in simplicity, clearness, and finish. He designed to inform 
political men about political events, rather than to amuse and 
please the general reader. He was fond of short and pithy 
expressions ; but what he thus meant for maxims, is not always 
beautiful or sound. His " Political Annals of the United Col 
onies " appeared in 1780 ; his " Estimate of the Strength of 
Great Britain," in 1782 ; his Opinions on Subjects of Law 
and Policy, arising from American Independence," in 1784 ; 
his " Opinions of Lawyers and English Jurisprudence," in 
1814. His u Life of Mary, Queen of Scots," published in 
1822, shows the ardor and zeal which he could bring to 
bear upon a favorite subject ; it is the plea of an advocate, to 
prove from official documents, that this unfortunate daughter 



300 CHALMERS. 

of the Stuarts was innocent of the murder of her second hus 
band ; and most manfully and earnestly did he perform the 
task. 

In 1845, his " Introduction to the History of the Revolt of 
the British Colonies " was issued at Boston. Its publication 
was commenced in England during the Revolution, but was 
abandoned, and the part printed suppressed. As Mr. Chal 
mers had access to the highest sources of information, as he 
possessed remarkable industry, the " Introduction" is valuable 
to students of history. It embraces a political view of all 
the Colonies, and of the whole period between the early 
settlements in Virginia and the close of the reign of George 
the Second. But the author s dislike to New England was 
unconquerable, and is sometimes manifested at the expense of 
truth and propriety. It was meant to serve a particular end, 
and implicit faith, therefore, is not due to his statements or 
conclusions ; for, as already remarked, his antipathies were 
strong, and sometimes disturbed his judgment. But he often 
laments and severely rebukes the inattention, weakness, and 
ignorance which prevailed in the councils of England with 
regard to her American Colonies ; and few who administered 
her affairs during the period of which he speaks, escape his 
censures. Still, the leading principle or doctrine of the work 
is, that British subjects in America were allowed far too much 
freedom, and that their final independence was the natural 
result of continued and ill-advised indulgence. In other 
words, he thought that carelessness and kindness, and not 
extreme watchfulness and undue severity, were the causes of 
their " Revolt." His opening passage is singular, and thus : 
" Whether the famous achievements of Columbus introduced 
the greatest good or evil by discovering a New World to the 
Old, has in every succeeding age offered a subject for disputa 
tion." Perhaps, were he now alive, he might so far yield his 
prejudices as to admit that the " good of the achievement " 
greatly predominates over the " evil." He was a stout, and 
it is readily conceded, an honest Loyalist. But since he 
would have kept the New World in a state of vassalage to the 



CHALMERS. CIIAMPNEY. 301 

Old, and would have Lad our country to remain as it was 
when lie wrote of it, there need be no better refutation of his 
political errors than can be found in contrasting his own 
account of our condition as Colonies with our present wealth 
and power. 

CHALMERS, JAMES. Of Maryland. He was a gentleman 
of consideration in his neighborhood, and raised and com 
manded a corps called the Maryland Loyalists, with the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. Though more successful than 
Colonel Clifton, he does not appear to have completed his 
quota of recruits. His corps was in service in 1782, but was 
very deficient in numbers. He himself went to England ; 
but, in September, 1788, the Maryland Loyalists embarked 
at New York for St. John, New Brunswick ; were wrecked 
near Cape Sable, and more than half their number perished. 

CHALONER, NIAYON. Settled in New Brunswick, and was 
Register of Deeds and Wills for King s County. He died at 
Kingston in 1885. 

CHALONER, WALTER. Of Rhode Island, and sheriff of 
the county of Newport. He was at New York in 1782, a 
deputy commissary of prisoners. In 1788 he was one of the 
fifty-five petitioners for lands in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah 
Willard.^ He \vent to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
close of the contest, and was a grantee of that city. He died 
at St. John in 1792. Ann, his widow, died in 1803. Eliza 
beth, his daughter, in 1814, and John, his son, in 1827. 

CHALONER, WILLIAM. Of Newport, Rhode Island. Went 
to Nova Scotia, and died there in 1792. 

CHAMPNEY, EBENEZEU. Of New Ipswich, New Hamp 
shire. He was born at Cambridge, Massachusetts, and grad 
uated at Harvard University in 17 02. He designed to enter 
the ministry, and actually officiated for some time ; but, relin 
quishing theology for the law, entered the office of Samuel 
Livermore, and was admitted to the bar in 17(38. He was 
u a moderate Tory," deprecating war, and wishing to pre 
serve his loyalty. During hostilities, he was very unpop 
ular. After the war, however, he gave his adhesion to the 

VOL. i. 26 



302 CHANDLER. 

new Government ; and, in 1795, was appointed Judge of 
Probate for Hillsborough County. He died in 1810, aged 
sixty-seven. 

CHANDLER, REV. THOMAS B., D. D. Of Elizabethtown, 
New Jersey. Episcopal minister. He was born in Wood 
stock, Connecticut, and graduated at Yale College in 1745. 
Bred a Congregationalist, he embraced Episcopacy in 1748 ; 
and, three years later, went to England for ordination. On his 
return, he became Rector of St. John s Church, and long main 
tained a high character for erudition and talents. He was an 
early and an uncompromising Loyalist. He had a contest 
with William Livingston on the subject of Episcopacy, before 
the Revolution ; and he is among the persons to whom was 
ascribed the famous pamphlets, "A Friendly Address to all 
Reasonable Americans," and "What think ye of Congress 
now ? " He advocated the appointment of Bishops for the 
Colonies, in an Address to the Episcopalians of Virginia. 
In 1776, he, with others, petitioned the King for a grant of 
100,000 acres of land in Canada, in consideration of their 
eminent services to the Crown, &c. His flock diminished 
in consequence of his political views and the manner of ex 
pressing them ; but he was not molested, or treated with 
personal indignity. He was elected first Bishop of Nova 
Scotia, but declined on account of failing health. He lin 
gered under a painful disease for ten years, and died in 1790, 
aged sixty-four. Jane, his widow, died in 1801, at the age of 
sixty-eight. General Maxw T ell, in a communication to the 
Legislature, in 1779, said of this lady : " There is not a 
Tory that passes in or out of New Jersey .... but waits 
on Mrs. Chandler, and mostly all the British officers going 
in or out on parole or exchange, wait on her ; in short, the 
Governor, the \vhole of the Tories, and many of the Whigs. 
I think she would be much better off in New York, and to 
take her baggage with her, that she might have nothing to 
come back for." 

One of his daughters, \vho died in 1806, was the w r ife of 
General E. B. Dayton ; another, who died in 1847, of Bishop 



CHANDLER. 303 

Hobart ; and the youngest, who was living in 1857, of Wil 
liam Dayton. Dr. Chandler was an able man. He "was 
large and portly, of fine personal appearance, of a countenance 
expressive of high intelligence, though considerably marred by 
the small pox, of an uncommonly fine blue eye, of a strong, 
commanding voice, and a great lover of music." 

CHANDLER, WILLIAM. Of New Jersey. Son of Rev. Dr. 
Thomas B. Chandler. He graduated at King s (Columbia) 
College, in 1774. He fled in January, 177G, on account of 
his loyalty and parentage, but returned in December, and re 
mained until the evacuation of Elizabethtown by the Royal 
troops, January, 1777. He states these facts in a memorial 
to Lord George Germain, in 1779, and adds, that General 
Skinner gave him a warrant to be captain in the New Jersey 
Volunteers, April, 1777, but that he had received no pay for 
two years ; and he prays his Lordship s recommendation to 
Sir Henry Clinton, for a commission. He died in England 
in 1784, at the age of twenty-eight. 

CHANDLER, JOHN. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. "The 
honest Refugee." He was born in New London, Connecti- 
dut, in 1720. When at the age of eleven years, his father 
removed to Worcester, where he held the principal county 
offices. To these, the subject of this notice, succeeded, lie 
was a Colonel in the militia, and was in service in the French 
war ; and he was Sheriff, Judge of Probate, and County 
Treasurer. In 1774, he was driven from his family, and 
took refuge in Boston. In 177G, he accompanied the Royal 
Army to Halifax ; and, two years after, was proscribed and 
banished. liis estate, which was appraised at ,36,190 1*., 
was confiscated. I am assured that, while he was at Boston, 
he was supported for a considerable time by the sale of silver 
plate sent him by his family ; and that, when he left home, 
he had no intention of quitting the country. I am assured, 
also, that when the Whig Commissioners took an inventory of 
his household furniture, the females were plundered of their 
very clothing. His adherence to the Crown, and his depart 
ure for England, seem to have been his only offences ; yet he 



304 CHANDLER. 

was treated as harshly as though he had borne arms in the 
field. The late President Dwight spoke of Colonel Chandler 
and his family, as distinguished for talents and virtue. He 
represented to the Commissioners of Loyalist Claims, that his 
losses of real and personal estate were 11,067 sterling, and 
of business, offices, &c., about ,6,000 sterling more. His 
statement was so moderate in comparison with many others 
of the same nature, that he was allowed the full amount ; 
and was afterwards known in England as * the honest Refu 
gee." Here, he is spoken of as having been " cheerful in 
temperament, engaging in manner, hospitable as a citizen, 
friendly and kind as a neighbor, industrious and enterpris 
ing as a merchant, and successful as a man of business/ 
He died in 1800, aged eighty, in London. In 1741, he mar- 
maried Dorothy, daughter of Colonel Nathaniel Paine, who 
bore him four children, and died in 174~>. His second wife 
was Mary, daughter of Colonel Church, of Bristol, Rhode Isl 
and, a descendant of the warrior who fought King Philip 
who was the mother of thirteen children, and who died at 
Worcester in 1783. The notices of her decease speak of her 
as an excellent woman. Colonel Chandler was buried at Isl 
ington ; an iron fence and a slab mark the spot where he rests. 
His portrait, in oil, is preserved in the rooms of the American 
Antiquarian Society, Worcester. George Bancroft, the dis 
tinguished historian, and the widow of the late Governor 
John Davis, of Massachusetts, are Colonel Chandler s grand 
children. 

CHANDLER, CLARK. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. Son 
of Colonel John. He w r as born in that town in 1743. At 
first a clerk in the office of the Register of Probate, he 
became joint Register with Timothy Paine. In 1774 he en 
tered upon the town Records a remonstrance of the Loyalists, 
to the great ano er of the Whigs, who, in town meeting, voted 
that he should then and there ; obliterate, erase, or otherwise 
deface, the said recorded protest, and the names thereunto sub 
scribed, so that it may become illegible and unintelligible." 
A vote of admonition followed, which is too long to insert in 



CHANDLER. 305 

tin s work. Mr. Chandler, as required, in open town meeting, 
blotted out the obnoxious record, and the work of the pen not 
being satisfactory, his fingers were dipped in ink and drawn 
over the page. 

He left home in June, 1775, and went to Halifax, Nova 
Scotia, and thence to Canada, lie returned in September 
of the same year, and surrendered himself a prisoner to the 
common jail. Confinement impaired his health, and he was 
removed to his mother s house. Finally, he was allowed to 
go to Lancaster, on giving security that he would not depart 
from that town. He returned to Worcester, subsequently, 
and engaged in trade. His person was small. He wore bright 
red small-clothes, was odd and singular, and often provoked 
the jeers of those with whom he mingled ; but, apt at reply, 
44 he paid the jokers in their own coin." He was never mar 
ried. He died in Worcester in 1804. 

CHANDLER, RUFUS. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. Fifth 
child of Colonel John, by Mary .Church, his second wife. He 
was born in that town in 1747, and graduated at Harvard 
University in 1766. He studied law with his uncle, James 
Putnam, and opened an office in Worcester, and continued 
in practice there until September, 1774, when the courts were 
closed by popular tumult. He was one of the barristers and 
attornies who addressed Hutchinson, in the last-mentioned 
year. He went to Halifax in 1776, and in 1778 was pro 
scribed and banished. His mother used a part of his estate 
for the support of his daughter ; but the remainder, appraised 
at .820 ( ,Kv. was confiscated. He died in London in 1823, 
at the age of seventy-six, and was buried at Islington, by the 
side of his father. His wife was Elizabeth Putnam ; his only 
child, who bore her mother s name, married Solomon V-ose, 
of Augusta, Maine. 

CHANDLER, GARDNER. Of Hard wich, Massachusetts. Son 
of Colonel John. He was born in 1749, and was a merchant 
in that town. His property was confiscated. He made ac 
knowledgments satisfactory to his townsmen, who voted, that, 
as he had said he was sorry for his past conduct, they " would 
26* 



306 CHANDLER. 

treat him as a friend and neighbor as long as he should behave 
well." He removed to Brattleboro , Vermont, and again to 
Hinsdale, New Hampshire. He died in the last-named town. 
His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Brigadier Timothy Rug- 
gles. 

CHANDLER, NATHANIEL. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Son of Colonel John. Pie was born in that town in 1750 ; 
graduated at Harvard University in 1708 ; and commenced 
the practice of the law in Petersham. He was one of the 
eighteen country gentlemen who addressed Gage on his depart 
ure, in 1775. In 1770 he went to Halifax. In 1778 he was 
proscribed and banished. Entering the British service, he led 
a corps of Volunteers. He returned to Petersham in 1784, 
and engaged in trade, but relinquished business on account of 
ill health, and returned to Worcester. Citizenship was restored 
in 1781), by Act of the Legislature of Massachusetts. He was 
a very pleasant companion, and a favorite singer of songs in 
social parties. In early life lie was a pupil of John Adams. 
His brother-in-law, the Rev. Dr. Bancroft, wrote that " he 
possessed personal manliness and beauty," that " he was en 
dowed with a good mind and a lively imagination, that u in 
disposition he was cheerful," but that " his course of life 
drew him from those pursuits which might have rendered 
him a distinguished character." He never married. He 
died at Worcester in 1801. 

CHANDLER, WILLIAM. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Eighth child of Colonel John. He was born in that town 
in 1752, and graduated at Harvard University in 1772. At 
that time, the students in that institution were ranked accord 
ing to " dignity of family ; " and William was placed in the 
highest class. He was one of the eighteen country gentle 
men who were driven from their homes to Boston, and who 
addressed Gage on his departure, in 1775. In 1770 he went 
to Halifax. He was proscribed under the Act of 1778, but 
returned to Massachusetts after the close of the Revolution. 
He died in Worcester in 1793. Seven pairs of silk hose, at 
fourteen shillings; plated shoe-buckless, six shillings; and two 



CHANDLER. 307 

pairs of velvet breeches, are among the articles in the inven 
tory of his estate. 

CIIANDLKR, THOMAS. Of Cumberland County, "New 
Hampshire Grants." Son of John, of Woodstock, Connecti 
cut, and uncle of John, "the honest Refugee." lie was born 
in Woodstock in 1709. He was a lieutenant-colonel in the 
expedition to Cape Breton, in 1745 ; and about the year 17<>2, 
went to Walpole, New Hampshire, intending to settle there. 
In 1704, he removed to the " Grants," and two years after 
obtained for himself and others a patent of the township of 
Chester. As the "grant was from the Governor of New York, 
he was held to be a " Tory," on that account alone. lie, and 
his sons John and Thomas, were allowed their choice of five 
hundred acres each, as the first three settlers. In 1775, when 
the difficulties occurred between the Whigs and Loyalists at 
Westminster, [see IF. Patterson,] lie was Chief Justice of the 
County Court, a.id was induced by Judge Sabin, an associate, 
to favor the New York or Tory side of the controversy. The 
Whigs put him in jail, as being of the " Court party." To 
wards the close of his life he became poor, and was imprisoned 
for debt. He died in Westminster jail, in 1785. One account 
is, that he was buried within its limits; another, that his re 
mains were disposed of " without the ceremony of a funeral." 
His wife was Elizabeth Eliot, of the lineage of John, the 
" Apostle of the Indians." 

CHANDLER, GARDIXKK. Of Worcester, Massachusetts. 
Brother of Colonel John. He was born in Woodstock, 
Connecticut, in 1723. In the French war he was a major, 
and was in service at the surrender of Fort William Henry. 
He was Treasurer of Worcester County eight years, and suc 
ceeded his brother John, as sheriff, in 17* >2. He presented 
Gage an Address in behalf of the Judges of the Court of Com 
mon Pleas, in 1774; and was compelled by a Convention of 
the Committees of Correspondence to sign a "Recantation." 
In time, he regained the confidence of the community, and 
was suffered to live undisturbed. He died in Worcester, in 
1782. His first wife was Hannah Greene, of Providence, 



808 CHANDLER. 

Rhode Island ; his second, Ann Leonard, of Norton, Massa 
chusetts. 

CHANDLER, JOSHUA. Of New Haven, Connecticut. Bar- 
rister-at-law. He was born in Woodstock, in that State, in 
1728, and graduated at Yale College in 1747. He was a 
member of the General Assembly in 1775. In an Address 
to Governor Franklin, August 10, 1782, he said : " After 
placing the most unlimited confidence in the Royal assurances 
we have at different times received, and after our sacrifice and 
loss of property, we should feel ourselves but ill requited, were 
we to be abandoned and dismembered from the empire ; but 
our misery and distress must be complete should we become 
subjected finally to a Republican system." 

His property in and near New Haven, which he valued at 
30,000, was confiscated. In 1783 he went to Annapolis, 
Nova Scotia, and thence to England, to obtain compensation 
for his losses. In March, 1787, he crossed the Bay of Fundy, 
to meet the Commissioners on Loyalist Claims at St. John, 
New Brunswick, and, in a violent snow-storm, missing the 
entrance of the harbor, was wrecked on Musquash Point, 
about nine miles from the city. He himself perished by a 
fall from a precipice? ; his daughter Elizabeth, and the widow 
of Major Alexander Grant, died of cold and exhaustion. The 
Hon. Charles W. Upham, of Salem, Massachusetts, is a grand 
son. Mr. Chandler s son Samuel died in Nova Scotia about 
the year 1840, aged eighty ; and his son Charles died in the 
same Province in 1853, at the age of eighty-five. His daugh 
ter Sarah married Hon. Amos Botsford. 

CHANDLER, WILLIAM. Of New Haven, Connecticut. Son 
of Joshua. He graduated at Yale College in 1773. He con 
ducted the Royal forces to that town, in 1770, and was a cap 
tain in a Loyalist corps. At the peace he retired to Nova 
Scotia. He was with his father [see Jodiua Chandler] in 
the fatal voyage across the Bay of Fundy, in 1787, and was 
crushed to death between the vessel and the rocks. The ill- 
fated Nathan Hale was a class-mate. 

CHANDLER, THOMAS. Of Connecticut. Son of Joshua. 



CHANDLER. CII AUNCEY. 309 

An officer in a Loyalist corps. Assisted liis brother William 
in guiding the Royal forces to New Haven in 1779. Went 
with others of the family to Nova Scotia, in 1783. Married 
a daughter of Major Alexander Grant, whose widow perished 
with the father of the subject of this notice, in 1787. 

CHANDLER, JOHN. Of Connecticut. Son of Joshua. 
Went to Nova Scotia in 1783 ; but returned to his native 
State, and died at New Haven. 

CHAPMAN, SAMUEL. Of Pennsylvania. He joined the 
British Army, as was averred, in 1770, and accepted a com 
mission. He was captured by a vessel-of-war, and carried 
to Massachusetts. In 1780, the President of the Council wrote 
to ask that, having been attainted of treason in Pennsylvania, 
and particularly obnoxious as an officer of a corps employed 
to harass the inhabitants, in stealino- horses and similar of- 

o 

fences, lie might not be exchanged in the ordinary way, but 
be kept in custody until an opportunity occurred to send him 
home to " he dealt with according to his demerits." He was 
tried in 1781, and much to the disappointment of the " vio 
lent Whigs, acquitted. 

CHAPMAN, JOHN. Was a magistrate in New Brunswick, 
and died at Dorchester, in that Colony, in 1833, aged seventy- 
two. 

CHASE, SIIADIIACTT. Of Massachusetts. Was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. In 1782 he was an ensign in De 
Lancey s Third Battalion. He went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that 
city. lie received half-pay. His death occurred in New 
Brunswick about the year 1829. 

CHAUXCEY, JOSIAH, and ISAAC. Of Amherst, Massachu 
setts. The first was charged with disaffection to the popular 
cause, examined in 177"), and required to surrender his fire 
arms, and to burn all the commissions he had ever held under 
the Crown. He gave up the arms, which, however, the 
Whigs soon voted to return to him. He was a great-grand 
son of Charles Chauncey, President of Harvard University. 
Isaac was advertised by the Committee of that town, August, 



310 CHESNEY. CHEW. 

1770, as convicted of being notoriously inimical to tbe Amer 
ican States, and as having disregarded the limits which they 
had assigned to him. 

CHESNEY, ALEXANDER. Of South Carolina. A gentle 
man of family and fortune, who settled in that Colony about 
the year 1758. In the Revolution he bore arms on the side 
of the Crown. He left several children, of whom were Major- 
General Chesney, the Oriental explorer, and Captain Charles 
Chesriey, who died of his wounds in India. Four sons of the 
latter have been distinguished in the military schools of Eng 
land ; and a daughter, Mrs. Pullan, lives (1859) in New York. 

CHEW, BENJAMIN. Of Pennsylvania. Was Recorder of 
Philadelphia, Register of Wills, and Attorney-General, and, 
finally, Chief Justice. His course was doubtful in the early 
part of the controversy, and he w r as claimed by both parties. 
In 1774, Washington dined with him. The same year, John 
Adams records: "Dined with Mr. Chew, Chief Justice of 

the Province We were shown into a grand entry and 

staircase, and into an elegant and magnificent chamber, until 

dinner. About four o clock we were called down 

The furniture was all rich. Turtle, flummery, jellies, sweet 
meats of twenty sorts, trifles, .... and then a desert of 
raisins, almonds, pears, peaches. Wines most excellent and 
admirable. I drank Madeira at a great rate, and found no 
inconvenience in it/ 

In 177(3 his opposition to the Whigs was fixed, and he 
retired to private life. After the Revolution, and in 1790, 
he was appointed President of the High Court of Errors and 
Appeals, and held the office until the tribunal was abolished 
in 1806. He died in 1810, aged eighty-seven. His father, 
the Hon. Samuel Chew, was of the religion of the Friends, 
and a judge and physician. William Tilghman, who be 
came Chief Justice of Pennsylvania, read law in his office, 
as did Francis Hopkinson, a signer of the Declaration of In 
dependence. Judge Chew s daughter Sophia married Henry 
Philips, of the family of Philips of Bank Hall, county of 
Lancaster, England ; his daughter Henrietta died at Phil- 



CHEW. CHIPMAN. 311 

adelphia in 1848, aged eighty-one. The wife of James M. 
Mason, late Senator in Congress from Virginia, is a grand 
daughter. 

CHEW, WILLIAM. He was a lieutenant in a corps of Loy 
alists. He settled in New Brunswick at the close of the war, 
and received half-pay. He died at Fredericton in 1812, aged 
sixty-four. 

CHILD, JOSEPH. Of the New York Artillery. In 1776 
he was tried by a. court-martial for defrauding Christopher 
Stetson of a dollar ; for drinking damnation to all Wlii^s and 

& o 

Sons of Liberty ; and for profane cursing and swearing. He 
was found guilty, and sentenced to be drummed out of the 
army. 

CHIPMAN, WARD. Of Massachusetts. He was born in 
1754, and graduated at Harvard University in 1770. In 
1775 he was driven from his habitation to Boston, and was 
one of the eighteen country gentlemen who that year were 
Addressers of Gage. He left Boston at the evacuation in 
1776, and went to Halifax, and thence to England, where 
he was allowed a pension. Relinquishing his stipend in less 
than a year, he returned to his native country, and joined the 
King s troops at New York. During the remainder of the 
war he was employed in the military department and Court, 
of Admiralty. In 1782 he held the office of Deputy Muster- 
master-General of the Loyalist forces. In 1783 he was one 
of the fifty-five who petitioned for extensive grants of lands 
in Nova Scotia. [See Abyah Wdlard.~\ Removing to New- 
Brunswick, he attained the highest honors. He was a mem 
ber of the House of Assembly, Advocate-General, Solicitor- 
General, Justice of the Supreme Court, Member of the Coun 
cil, and President and Commander-in-Chief of the Colony. 
He died at Fredericton, the capital, in 1824. His remains 
were taken to St. John, where a tablet recites his public 
services. The wife of the Hon. William Gray, of Boston, 
was his sister. Elizabeth, his widow, died at St. John in 
1852, in her eighty-sixth year. Ward, his only child, grad 
uated at Harvard University in 1805, held many places of 



812 CHRISTIE. 

trust, was finally Chief Justice of New Brunswick, and died 
at St. John in 1851, in his sixty-fifth year. While the Prince 
of "Wales was in that city, August, 1860, he occupied the 
Chipman mansion. 

CHRISTIE, JAMES, JR. Merchant, of Baltimore. In July, 
1775, the Committee of that city published him " as an enemy 
to his country/ for sentiments contained in a letter written 
by him to Lieutenant-Colonel Gabriel Christie of the British 
Army, which letter had been intercepted and laid before 
them. Regarding " his crime of a dangerous and atrocious 
nature, the Committee determined to consult their delegates 
at the Continental Congress, and meantime to keep a guard 
at his house to prevent his escape ; he to pay the expense 
thereof, u each man five shillings for each twenty-four hours, 
and the officers seven shillings and sixpence." This Com 
mittee was large, and on this occasion thirty-four members 
were present ; the vote against Christie was unanimous. He 
had recently lost his wife, and was at this time sick and con 
fined to his bed. Near the close of July, however, the guard 
was dismissed by a vote of twenty-one to fourteen, on his 
parole not to quit the Province without leave of the Whig 
authorities, and to abide whatever sentence should be pro 
nounced against him, with six gentlemen as sureties, to be 
bound to submit, in case of his escape, " to the same punish 
ment as would have been inflicted on him if he had not de 
parted." 

In August, his case was taken up in the Maryland Con 
vention, when, after reading his memorial, it was resolved 
that " he ought to be considered as an enemy to America ; " 
and that he make a deposit of <500 sterling on account 
of his proportion of the expense incurred for the defence 
of the country ; " the overplus, if any, to be returned, 
after a reconciliation shall happily be effected with Great 
Britain." 

CHRISTIE, Cx. Of Maryland. He adhered to the Royal 
Army, and his estate was confiscated. But the Act did not 
apply to his debts ; since, after the Revolution, he recovered 



CHUBB. CLARK. 313 

of Colonel Richard Graves of that State, upwards of 1200 
sterling, for a debt due him before the war. 

CHUBB, JOHN. Of Philadelphia. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. In 
171 ") he was a member of the Loyal Artillery Company. He 
died in 1822, aged sixty-nine. His son, the late Henry Chubb, 
was proprietor of the "St. John Courier" many years. 

CHURCH, DOCTOR BENJAMIN. Of Massachusetts. Pro 
scribed and banished. He was equally distinguished as a 
scholar, physician, poet, and politician, and among the Whio;s 
he stood as prominent, and was as active and as popular, as 
either Warren, Hancock, or Samuel Adams. He graduated 
at Harvard University in 1754. About 1768 he built an 
elegant house at Raynham, which occasioned pecuniary em 
barrassments, and it has been conjectured that his difficulties 
from this source caused his defection to the Whig cause. 
However this may be, he was regarded as a traitor, having 
been suspected of communicating intelligence to Governor 
Gage, and of receiving a reward in money therefor. His 
crime was subsequently proved, Washington presiding, when 
he was convicted of holding a criminal correspondence with 
the enemy. After his trial by a court-martial, he w r as exam 
ined before the Provincial Congress, of which body he was a 
member, and though he made an ingenious and able defence, 
was expelled. Allowed to leave the country, finally, he em 
barked for the West Indies, and was never heard of after 
ward. Sarah, his widow, died in England in 1788. 

CHYPHER, JACOB. See [Jacob Sypher. ] 
CLARK, JAMES. Of Rhode Island. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees 
of that city. He died at St. John in 1820, aged ninety. 
His son James died at the same place in 1803, at the age of 
forty-one. 

CLARK, JOHN. Of Rhode Island. At the peace he set 
tled at St. John, New Brunswick. He arrived at that city 
on the 29th of June, 1788, at which time only two log 
huts had been erected on its site. He received, the same 

VOL, I. 27 



314 CLARK. 

year, the grant of land. The Government gave him, and 
every other grantee, five hundred feet of very ordinary 
boards towards covering their buildings. City lots sold in 
1783 from two to twenty dollars. He bought one for the, 
price of executing the deed of conveyance, and "a treat." 
Mr. Clark was clerk of Trinity Church nearly fifty years. 
He died at St. John, in 1853, in his ninety-fourth year, leav 
ing numerous descendants. 

CLARK, JOSEPH. A physician, of Stratford, Connecticut. 
In 1776 he fled to the British Army. His wife and children, 
whom he left at home, were sent to New York, where he 
joined them. He went to New Brunswick, accompanied by 
his family, consisting of nine persons, in 1783, and resumed 
the practice of medicine. He settled at Maugerville, on the 
river St. John, and was a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas for the county of Sunbury. In 1799 he visited his 
friends in the United States. He was a physician, in busi 
ness, for quite half a century. He died at Maugerville in 
1813, aged seventy-nine ; and his widow, Isabella Elizabeth, 
died the same year, at the age of seventy-one. 

CLARK, JOSEPH. Of Stratford, Connecticut. Son of Dr. 
Joseph Clark. He accompanied the family to New Bruns 
wick, and became a resident of the Colony. He died in New 
York, while on a visit to some friends, in 1828, at the age of 
sixty-five. 

CLARK, JOHN. Of New Jersey. Went to New Bruns 
wick in 1783. Died in Wickham, in that Province, in 
1848. 

CLARK, NEHEMIAH. During the Revolution he was a sur 
geon in the King s service. He went to St. John, New Bruns 
wick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
He received half-pay. He died at Douglas, in that Province, 
in 1825, aged eighty-six. 

CLARK, SAMUEL. Of New Jersey. In 1780 he was de 
tected in conducting an illicit trade with the Royal forces, and 
committed to prison. A Loyalist of this name w r as the 
grantee of a lot in the city of St. John, in 1783, and died 
in 1804. 



CLARKE. 315 

CLARKE, KEY. WILLIAM. Of Dcclbam, Massachusetts. 
Episcopal minister. He was son of Rev. Peter Clarke of 
Danvers, Massachusetts, and graduated at Harvard Univer 
sity in 1759. After ordination in England, he became Rec 
tor of St. Paul s Church. He lived in peace in Dedham 
until the spring of 1777, when he was sentenced to be con 
fined on board a ship, because he refused " to acknowledge 
the Independency of America," which, he adds, " was con 
trary to the sentiments I had of my duty to my king, my 
country, and my God." Released, and permitted to depart, 
he went to Rhode Island, thence to New York, thence to 
Ireland, thence to England. In 1786, he w r as at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, and soon after removed to Digby. He re 
turned to the United States, finally, and died in Quincy, 
Massachusetts, in 1815. His wife was Mrs. Dunbar, a widow. 
The Rev. Mr. Bailey wrote, at the time of the marriage, 
she is " a little, pretty, delicate, chattering woman, about 
twenty -eight, as unable to rough it as himself." 

CLARKE, JAMES. Of Rhode Island. Secretary of the As 
sociation of Loyal Refugees, formed at Newport, March, 1779. 
The object appears in a paper signed by himself, namely, to 
" retaliate upon and make reprisal against the inhabitants of 
the several Provinces in America, in actual rebellion against 
their Sovereign." The Association was formed under the 
sanction of the British Commander-in-Chief in Rhode Island, 
who gave commissions to the officers. 

To execute the purpose above indicated, they conceived 
u themselves warranted, by the laws of God and man, to 
wage war upon their inhuman persecutors," the Rebels, " and 
to use every means in their power, to obtain redress and com 
pensation for the indignities and losses they had suffered." 
The document concludes with an invitation to all who had 
preserved their loyalty, as well as those who had grown 
weary of Congressional tyranny and paper money, and who 
hated French frippery, French politics, French religion 
and alliances, to join with them in their endeavors to re 
cover for their country its ancient form of government. He 



316 CLARKE. 

wrote Governor Franklin twice the same year, giving an ac 
count of the proceedings and success of the Association. In 
1783, Mr. Clarke was a petitioner for lands in Nova Scotia. 
[See Abijah Willard.] He was at Halifax in 1797, and his 
wife, Mary, died there that year. 

CLARKE, RICHARD. Of Boston. Merchant. Graduated 
at Harvard University in 1729. He and his sons were con 
signees of a part of the tea destroyed in Boston by the cele 
brated " Tea-Party," December, 1773. A great number of 
rioters assembled in front of his house, attempted to force an 
entrance, broke the windows, and otherwise damaged it. His 
family removed. One of the consignees, however, fired upon 
the mob, soon after, when they dispersed. His name is found 
among the Addressers of Gage. The Whigs treated him 
with much severity, and his son Isaac, while at Plymouth for 
the collection of some debts, was assaulted, and fled at mid 
night. He arrived in London, December 24, 1775, after a 
passage of " only ? twenty-one days from Boston. The Loy 
alist Club, for a weekly dinner, was formed early in the next 
year, and he was one of the original members. He lived with 
his son-in-law, Copley, the painter, Leicester Square. He 
died in England in 1795. The late Lord Lyndhurst was a 
grandson. 

CLARKE, RICHARD SAMUEL. The tablet, which covers his 
remains, records that he was minister of New Milford, Con 
necticut, nineteen years ; of Gagetown, New Brunswick, 
twenty-five years ; and of St. Stephen, New Brunswick, 
thirteen years : in all, an Episcopal clergyman for fifty- 
seven years. He was the first Rector of the Church at St. 
Stephen, and the oldest missionary in the present British 
Colonies. He was much beloved by the people of his charge, 
and his memory is still cherished. He died at St. Stephen, 
October 6, 1824, aged eighty-seven. His wife Rebecca died 
at the same place, May 7, 1816, aged sixty-nine. His only 
surviving daughter, Mary Ann, who was born in Connecticut 
before his removal, and who was never married, died at Gage- 
town, New Brunswick, February, 1844, at the age of seventy- 
three, highly and deservedly lamented. 



CLARKE. 

CLARKE, WILLIAM. lie was born at North Kingston, 
Rhode Island. He entered the service of the Crown, and 
was a captain in Colonel Whiteman s Regiment of Loyal 
New Englanders. He settled in New Brunswick in 1783, 
and was an alderman of St. John. He died in that city in 
1804. 

CLARKE, REV. RICHARD. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Rector of St. Philip s Church. Went to England, and was 
Rector of Hartley, Kent. Died suddenly in England, in 
1802, in his eighty-third year. 

CLARKE, ISAAC WINSLOW. Of Boston. He became Com 
missary-General of Lower Canada, and died in that Colony 
in 1822, after he had embarked for England. His daughter 
Susan married Charles Richard Ogden, Esq., Solicitor-General 
of Lower Canada, in 1829. 

CLARKE, JONATHAN. Of Boston. Son of Richard Clarke, 
Went to England ; was a member of the Loyalist Club, Lon 
don, 1776 ; had lodgings in Brompton Row the next year. 
In 1778, proscribed and banished. After the Revolution he 
was in Canada. 

CLARKE, GEORGE. Secretary of the Colony of New York. 
Went to England and died there in 1777. He was of the 

c3 

family of Clarke of Hyde Hall, Cheshire, England. 

CLARKE, ALEXANDER. Died at Waterborough, New Bruns 
wick, in 1825, aged eighty-two. For several years he was 
Master Armorer in the Ordnance Department at St. John, 

CLARKE, WILLIAM. Of New Jersey. A noted horse- 
thief. It was computed that, between 1776 and June, 1782, 
he stole upwards of one hundred valuable horses from New 
Jersey, which he sold to the Royal Army. It was known 
that he came very frequently within the American lines, but 
no effort of scouts and sentries to seize him proved successful. 
He was finally written to as by accomplices, as is said, to the 
effect that two fine horses were at a certain place, which he 
could carry off . He came, as suggested, in June, 1782, and 
was shot down dead in the vicinity of Woodbridge, New Jer 
sey, by the party who devised the stratagem. 
27* 



318 CLARKE. - CLEMENTS. 

CLARKE, JOHN. Died at Windsor, Nova Scotia, in 1825, 
aged eighty-four. 

GLAUS, DANIEL. He married a daughter of Sir William 
Johnson, and served for a considerable time in the Indian De 
partment of Canada, under his brother-in-law, Colonel Guy 
Johnson. Brant, the celebrated Mohawk chief, entertained 
towards him sentiments of decided personal hostility. His 
wife died in Canada in 1801. William Claus, Deputy Super 
intendent-General of Indian Affairs, was his son ; and Brant, 
in the name of the Five Nations, made a speech of condolence 
on the death of Mrs. Claus, on the 24th of February of that 
year. William, deeply affected at the loss of his mother, was 
not able to reply, although he met the chiefs in council ; 
but he afterwards transmitted a written answer. 

CLAYTON, FRANCIS. Of Wilmington, North Carolina. At 
first a Whig, he was a member of the Committee of Safety in 
1774, and a Representative in the House of Assembly ; but, 
in the course of the war, he adhered to the Crown, and aban 
doned the State. He returned to Wilmington in a flag of 
truce, in 1782, and determined to hazard a trial for his polit 
ical offences. He was owner of Clayton Hall, a very fertile 
plantation. 

CLEGHOIIN, ROBERT. Of New York. At the peace, ac 
companied by his family of three persons, he went from New 
York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted 
him one town lot. 

CLEMENTSON, SAMUEL. Of Boston. Merchant. Died at 
Windsor, England, in 1782, aged forty-nine. 

CLEMENT, CAPTAIN JOSEPH. Of Boston. He held a com 
mission in the Royal service during the war, and at the peace 
settled in New Brunswick. His wife, Mary, died at St. John 
in 1812. 

CLEMENTS, PETER. He entered the service of the Crown, 
and at the close of the war was a captain in the King s Amer 
ican Regiment. In 1783 he went to St. John, New Bruns 
wick, and was a grantee of that city. He received half-pay. 
He removed to the county of York, and was a magistrate. 



CLINCH. CLOWES. 319 

He died at his residence on the river St. John, near Frederic- 
ton, in 183;->, at the age of ninety-four. His daughter Cla 
rissa died in 1814, aged thirty-two. His daughter Abigail 
Julia married Charles R. Hatheway, Esq., of St. Andrew, 
New Brunswick. 

CLINCH, PETER. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in the Royal 
Fensible Americans, and adjutant of the corps. He settled 
in New Brunswick, and received half-pay. He died in the 
county of Charlotte, in that Province. 

CLOPPER, JAMES. He was a lieutenant in a corps of Loy 
alists, and at the close of the contest settled in New Bruns 
wick, enjoyed half-pay, and was a magistrate of the county 
of York. He died at Fredericton, in 1823, aged sixty-seven. 

CLOPPER, GARRETT. In 1782 he was an ensign in the 
New York Volunteers, and quartermaster of the corps. He 
went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, and was the 
grantee of a city lot. He received half-pay, was sergeant-at- 
arms of the House of Assembly, and a magistrate of York 
County. He died in that Province. 

CLO.SSEY, SAMUEL. Of New York. Physician. He was 
a native of Ireland. Previous to his emigration to America 
he had attained eminence in his profession, not only by suc 
cessful practice but by the publication of a work entitled 
" Observations on some of the Diseases of the Human Body, 
chiefly taken from the Dissections of Morbid Bodies." While 
at New York, he was chosen to the Anatomical Chair, and to 
the Professorship of Natural Philosophy in King s (Columbia) 
College; and, upon the organization of a Medical School, was 
placed at the head of the Department of Anatomy. He re 
turned to his native country in consequence of the Revolu 
tion, and died there soon alter his arrival. 

CLOWES. There were several Loyalists of this name in 
New York. Gerardus Clowes was a captain, and Samuel 
and John were lieutenants in De Lancey s Third Battalion, 
and, with Timothy, went to St. John, New Brunswick, at 
the peace, and were grantees of that city. The three who 
were officers received half-pay. Samuel, John, and Timothy 



320 COCHRAN. 

lived for some time in New Brunswick, but their fate lias not 
been ascertained. Gerardus, who was a major of militia and 
a magistrate, and resided in the county of Sunbury, was killed 
in 1798 by a fall from his horse. In 1781 a person of the 
name of Samuel Clowes, who had been an Addresser of Gov 
ernor Robertson, was appointed Clerk and Surrogate of Queen s 
County, New York, and died at Hempstead in the year 1800, 
aged seventy-six. This Samuel, says my informant, " was in 
office a large part of his life." 

COCHRAN, CAPTAIN JOHN. Of Portsmouth, New Hamp 
shire. Son of James Cochran, and a native of Londonderry. 
Was proscribed and banished. The " Portsmouth Journal," 
from which paper I derive the following, states that the account 
is published on the authority of his daughter, who (November, 
1845), is still living in that town. Captain Cochran led a 
seafaring life in his younger days, and sailed out of Ports 
mouth a number of years, as a ship-master, with brilliant suc 
cess. A short period before the war of the Revolution broke 
out, he was appointed to the command of the fort in Ports 
mouth harbor. The day after the battle of Lexington, he and 
his family were made prisoners of war by a company of volun 
teers under the command of John Sullivan, afterwards the 
distinguished Major-General Sullivan of the Revolution, Pres 
ident of New Hampshire, &c. Captain Cochran and his fam 
ily were generously liberated on parole of honor. 

Not far from this time, Governor Wentworth took refuge 
in the fort, and Captain Cochran attended him to Boston. In 
his absence, the only occupants of the fort were Mrs. Cochran, 
a man and a maid-servant, and four children. At this time 
all vessels passing out of the harbor had to show their pass at 
the fort. An English man-of-war one day came down the 
river, bound out. Mrs. Cochran directed the man to hail the 
ship. No respect was paid to him. Mrs. Cochran then di 
rected him to discharge one of the cannon. The terrified 
man said: "Ma am, I have but one eye, and can t see the 
touch-hole." Taking the match, the heroic lady applied it 
herself; the frigate immediately hove to, and showing that all 



COCIIRAN. 321 

was right, was permitted to proceed. For this discharge of 
duty to his Majesty s Government, she received a handsome 
reward. 

It was thought by some of the enemies of Governor Went- 
worth that he was still secreted at the fort, after he had left 
for Boston. A party one day entered the house in the fort, 
(the same house recently occupied by Captain Dimmick), and 
asked permission of Mrs. Cochran to search the rooms for the 
Governor. After looking up stairs in vain, they asked for a 
light to examine the cellar. " O yes," said a little daughter 
of Mrs. Cochran, " I will light you." She held the candle 
until they were in a part of the cellar from which she well 
knew they could not retreat without striking their heads 
against low beams, when the roguish girl blew the light out. 
As she anticipated, they began to bruise themselves, and they 
swore pretty roundly. The miss from the stairs, in an elevated 
tone, cried out, " Have you got him?" This arch inquiry 
only served to divide their curses between the impediments 
to their progress and the u little Tory." 

Captain John Cochran, (who was a cousin, and not the 
father, as has been stated, of Lord Admiral Cochran) imme 
diately joined the British in Boston, and, as it was believed, 
being influenced by the double motive of gratitude towards a 
government that had generously noticed and promoted him to 
offices of honor, trust, and emolument, and for the sake of re 
taining a valuable stipend from the Crown, remained with the 
British Army during the war. At the peace, he returned to 
St. John, New Brunswick, lived in the style of a gentleman 
the remainder of his days, and died at the age of fifty-five. 

Among the papers of the Cochran family, we find the fol 
lowing letter, written from England, by Governor Wentworth, 
at the close of the war, to Captain John Cochran. It held 
out no very strong inducements for Loyalists to take refuge 
in England : 

"I-IAMMKHSMITII, May 6, 1783. 

" MY DEAR SIR, I received your kind letter by Captain 
Dawson, and render you many thanks ; be assured there is 



322 COCHRAN. 

scarce any object so near to me as your welfare, which I should 
rejoice to promote. As to my advice, at this distance from the 
scene of action, it can only be conjectural. However, as you 
ask it, I can only say, that you will find it expedient to re 
move to and settle in Nova Scotia. The Commander-in- 
Chief will most certainly cause your pay to be issued there ; 
nor do I conceive there is any probability of its being reduced, 
especially as Captain Fenton s is suppressed here, among other 
reasons, as it is said, because you were paid in America and 
resident there. As to your coming here, or any other Loyal 
ist, that can get clams and potatoes in America, they most cer 
tainly would regret making bad worse. It would be needless 
for me to enter into reasons ; the fact is so, and you will do 
well to avoid it. It is the advice all our friends will be wise 
to follow ; hard as it is, they that are fools enough to try, will 
find it harder here. I hope this will find you and your family 
in good health. We are all well. Charles is grown a stout 
boy; we are obliged for your kind inquiries about him. My 
destination is quite uncertain ; like an old flapped hat, thrown 
off the top of an house, I am tumbling over and over in the 
air, and God only knows where I shall finally alight and set 
tle to rest. It would give me great pleasure if it so happens 
as to afford me any means to add to the comfort of those I 
esteem and regard. Be assured, my dear Sir, in that descrip 
tion you would have my early attention. Pray present Mrs. 
W. s and my compliments to your family; old Mrs. W. also 
begs to joins us. Benning has been nearly four years a cap 
tain, and not being able to establish his rank as he expected, 
has sold out, and is now in the country ; so that we are all 
seeking something to do. 

"Adieu, my dear friend, and always believe me to be, with 
great regard, your faithful and obedient servant, 

" J. WEXTWORTH." 

COCHRAN, JAMES. Of New Hampshire. His father in his 
youth, and about the year 1730, lived in the vicinity of the 
present town of Belfast, Maine. His family subsequently re 
moved to Londonderry, New Hampshire. He went to St. 



COCK. -COFFIN. 323 

John, New Brunswick, where he closed his life in 1794, aged 
eighty-four years. 

COCK, CLARK. Of Long Island, New York. Professed 
himself a loyal subject in 1776. Subsequently, his house 
was robbed of a considerable amount in money, and of goods 
to the value of X400, in 1779. Others of the name were 
quite as unfortunate. Thus, a party of Rebels from Connec 
ticut plundered the dwelling of William Cock of goods to 
the amount of X140, in 1778 ; and Abraham Cock, master 
of the schooner Five Brothers, was captured early in 1779. 

CODDINGTON, AsuER. Of New Jersey. Went to St. John, 
New Brunswick, at the evacuation of New York. Was a 
grantee of the former city, and of a lot at Long Beach, near 
General Coffin s land. Removed to Maugerville, New Bruns 
wick, and died there, well in years, about 1828. A son was 
living on the island of Grand Menan in 1848. 

COUNER, JAMES. In 1782 he was an ensign in the Second 
American Regiment. He went to St. John, New. Brunswick, 
in 1783, and was a grantee of that city, and a magistrate of 
the county. He died at St. John in 1821, aged sixty-seven. 

COFFIELD, THOMAS. At the termination of the war he was 
a lieutenant in the North Carolina Regiment. As he was 
preparing to leave New York, the following advertisement 
appeared in Rivington s paper of September 10, 1783 : 

" Whereas Martha, wife of Thomas Coffield, lieutenant in 
the North Carolina Regiment, is concealed from him, (sup 
posed by her mother, Melissa Carman of Hernpstead,) to keep 
her from going with her loving husband to Nova Scotia, or 
St. Augustine, the public are cautioned, &c. 

The "loving" and bereaved lieutenant arrived at St. John, 
New Brunswick, before the close of 1783, and received the 
grant of a city lot. 

COFFIN, NATHANIEL. Of Boston. Last Receiver-General 
and Cashier of his Majesty s Customs at that port. An Ad 
dresser of Hutchinson, 1774, and of Gage, 1775. With his 
family of three persons he accompanied the Royal Army to 
Halifax in 1776, and in July of that year embarked for Eng- 



324 COFFIN. 

land in the ship Aston Hall. He died at New York in 1780. 
His wife was Elizabeth, daughter of Henry Barnes, merchant 
of Boston. Notices of several of his sons follow. I do not 
include Admiral Sir Isaac Coffin, Baronet, who died at Chel 
tenham, England, in 1840, at the age of eighty ; because he 
entered the British Navy, May, 1773, or before the Revolu 
tion. 

COFFIN, JOHN. Of Boston. He was a son of the preced 
ing. A warm and decided Loyalist, he volunteered to accom 
pany the Royal Army in the battle of Breed s or Bunker s 
Hill, and soon after obtained a commission. He rose to the 
rank of captain in the Orange Rangers in a short time, and 
effecting an exchange into the New York Volunteers, went 
with that corps to Georgia, in 1778. At the battle of Sa 
vannah, at that of Hobkerk s Hill, and in the action of Cross 
Creek, near Charleston, and on various other occasions, his 
conduct won the admiration of his superiors. At the battle 
of Eutaw Springs, which he opened on the part of the King s 
troops, he was a brevet major, and his gallantry and good 
judgment attracted the notice and remark of General Greene, 
who commanded the Whig forces. He retired to New Bruns 
wick at the close of the contest, with the rank of major, and 
received half-pay. He was appointed a Colonel in the British 
Army in 1707 ; a Major-General in 1803 ; Lieutenant-General 
in 1801); and General in 1810. 

In the war of 1812, he raised and commanded a regiment, 
which was disbanded in 1815. He served in several civil 
offices ; was a member of the House of Assemblv, chief mag 
istrate of King s County, and a member of the Council. Of 
the latter dignity he was deprived, in 1828, in consequence of 
his not having attended the sessions of the Council for several 
previous years. Had his place not been thus vacated, the 
government of the Colony would have devolved upon him as 
senior Councillor, during the absence of Sir Howard Douglas. 
Though sensitive, the personal controversies of General Coffin 
were not numerous. But he fought a duel with Colonel Camp 
bell in 1783, and was wounded in his groin ; and after he went 



COFFIN. 325 

to New Brunswick, he had a public controversy with a high 
functionary of that Province, which was long and bitter. 

His estate was large and valuable, as will be seen by his 
own description of it in 1811, when he offered it for sale : 
" The Manor of Alwington, in the Parish of Westfield, 
King s County, situated twelve miles from the City of St. 
John ; containing 6000 acres, well covered with Pine and 
Spruce Spars, great quantities of the finest Shi}) Timber and 
other Hard-Wood as yet unculled, possessing several conven 
ient places for Ship-Building; an excellent Salmon and Her 
ring Fishery ; a large Grist and Saw-Mill, that are doing 
extensive business ; four well settled Farms, each having ex 
tensive meadows, with high and low intervale sufficient to 
maintain a large stock, together with the Farming Utensils 
of each. The greater part of the enclosures are under Cedar 
fence, with a navigable River running through the centre of 
the estate. The well known local advantage of this property 
and its commanding prospects render any further description 
unnecessary. Terms of Payment will be made easy to the 
purchaser." 

In his dealings he was exact ; yet to the poor he dispensed 
liberally in charity, and for persons in his neighborhood de 
vised useful and profi table employment. His own habits were 
extremely active and industrious. He was fond of talking 
with citizens of the United States of the Revolution, and of 
the prominent Whigs of his native State. " Samuel Adams 
used to tell me," said he, " 4 Coffin, you must not leave us ; 
we shall have warm work, and want you. The battle of 
Breed s Hill was regarded by General Coffin as the event 
which controlled everything that followed. " You could not 
have succeeded without it," he frequently said to his Amer 
ican friends, " for something was indispensable in the then 
state of parties, to fix men somewhere, and to show the plant 
ers at the South, that Northern people were really in earnest, 
and could and would fight. That, that did the business for 
vou." While the British claimed and held Eastport, General 
Coffin seldom visited it. He would sail round Moose Island 

VOL. i. 28 



326 COFFIN. 

as he ever continued to call that town in his sloop Lib 
erty, examine the movements on shore through his spy-glass, 
and, after gratifying his curiosity, return to St. John. After 
the surrender to the United States, in 1818, he came to Moose 
Island frequently. Notwithstanding bis choice of sides in the 
Revolution, he never lost his interest in the " Old Thirteen," 
and he remembered that he was " Boston-born," from first to 
last. " I would give more for one pork-barrel made in Mas 
sachusetts," was one of his many sayings, " than for all that 
have been made in New Brunswick since its settlement. 
Why, sir, I have now some of the former which are thirty 
years old, but I can hardly make the Province barrels last 
through one season." In his person, General Coffin was tall 
and spare. Until well advanced in years, he was remarkably 
erect. His countenance indicated a quick and sensitive na 
ture. His manners were easy, social, and polite. His con 
versation was animated and interesting, frank, and without 
reserve. He died at his seat, King s County, in 1888, aged 
eighty-seven. Anne, his widow, and daughter of William 
Mathews, of South Carolina, died at Bath, England, in 1839, 
aged seventy-four. His children were seven, namely : Guy 
Carleton, who (1838) is a major in the Royal Artillery ; 
Nathaniel, who died young ; John Townsend, (1850) a post- 
captain ; and William Henry, an officer in the Royal Navy ; 
Caroline : Elizabeth, who married Captain Kirkland ; and 
Anne, who married Captain Pearson. 

COFFIN, NATHANIEL, JR. Of Boston. Son of Nathaniel, 
the Cashier. Was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and 
a Protester against the Whigs the same year. He was at 
New York in 1783, and one of the fifty-five petitioners for 
lands in Nova Scotia. [See Abijali Willard.~\ At a subse 
quent period he was appointed Collector of the Customs at 
the island of St. Kitt s, and filled that station for thirty-four 
years. He died in London in 1831, aged eighty-three. 

COFFIN, WILLIAM. Of Boston. Son of Nathaniel, the 
Cashier. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774 ; went to 
Halifax, 1776 ; proscribed and banished, 1778. The last- 



COFFIN. COIL. 327 

mentioned year, the Rev. Jacob Bailey, in recording a visit 
at Mr. Inman s, remarks : " We were joined at supper by 
Mrs. Coffin and her daughter Policy. Both the mother and 
dughter appeared very modest, sensible, and engaging. . . . 
T quickly perceived that Mrs. Coffin had her husband (Mr. 
William Coffin) and two or three sons in the British service," 
&c. After the peace, he was at St. John, New Brunswick, 
and a merchant. 

COFFIN, WILLIAM. Of Boston. Died in that town in 
177"). Sir Thomas Aston Coffin was a grandson. 

cT5 

COFFIN, WILLIAM, JR. Of Boston. Son of William. He 
was an Addresser of Gage in 1775, and accompanied the 
Royal Army to Halifax the next year. 

COFFIX, SIR THOMAS ASTOX, Baronet. Of Boston. Son 
of William, Jr. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1772. At one period of the Revolution he was Private Secre 
tary to Sir Guy Carleton. In 1804 he was Secretary and 
Comptroller of Accounts of Lower Canada. At another 
part of his life, he was Commissary-General in the British 
Army. He died in London in 1810, at the age of fifty-six. 

COFFIN, EBENEZER. Of Boston. Son of William, Jr. He 
settled in South Carolina, and was a merchant. He was liv 
ing in 1804, married, and a father. 

COFFIX, NATHANIEL. Of Boston. After the Revolution 
he settled in Upper Canada. In the war of 1812 he served 
against the United States. For a number of years he was 
Adjutant-General of the Militia of Upper Canada. He died 
at Toronto in 184(3, aged eighty. 

COFFIX, JOHN. Of Boston. Was Assistant Commissary- 
General in the British Army, and died at Quebec in 1887, 
aged seventy-eight. 

COGGESWELL, JAMES. Of Rhode Island. In 1782 he was 
an officer in the Superintendent Department established at 
New York. Went to St. John, New Brunswick ; was an 
officer of the Customs; died there in 1780. 

COIL, - . Of North Carolina. Notorious miscreant 
Taken and him 2;. 



328 COKE. COLDEN. 

COKE, WILLIAM. Of New Jersey. Stamp-master of the 
Colony. He applied for the office ; but, alarmed by the pop 
ular manifestations, refused to execute his duties, and even to 
take charge of the stamps. After his resignation, Governor 
Franklin asked General Gage if he could have the aid of 
military force, and was answered in the affirmative. 

COLDEN, CADWALLADER. Of New York. He was born 
in Scotland, and came to America in 1708, and was a success 
ful practitioner of medicine for some years. In 1718, Gov 
ernor Hunter having become his friend, he settled in the city 
of New York, and was the first Surveyor-General of the 
Colony. Besides this office, he filled that of Master in Chan 
cery ; and, on the arrival of Governor Burnet, in 1720, he 
was made a member of the King s Council. Succeeding to 
the Presidency of the Council, he administered the govern 
ment in 1760. Having previous to the last-mentioned time 
purchased a tract of land in the vicinity of Newburgh, on 
the Hudson, he retired there with his family about the year 
1755. In 1761 he was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of 
New York, and held the commission during the remainder of 
his life, and was repeatedly at the head of affairs in conse 
quence of the death or absence of several of the Governors. 
While administering the government, the stamped paper came 
out, and was placed under his care. A multitude of several 
thousand persons, under leaders, assembled, and determined 
that he should give up the paper to be destroyed. Unless he 
complied with their wishes, the massacre of himself and adhe 
rents was threatened; but he exhibited -great firmness, and 
prevented them from accomplishing their design. Yet the 
mob burned his effigy, and destroyed his carriages in his sight. 
Governor Try on relieved him from active political duty in 
1775, and he retired to Long Island, where he had a seat, 
and where he died the following year, at the age of eighty- 

O v D & J 

eight. He was hospitable and social, and gave his friends a 
cordial welcome. The political troubles of his country caused 
him pain and anguish. These troubles he long predicted. In 
science Mr. Golden was highly distinguished. Botany and 



GOLDEN. 329 

astronomy were favorite pursuits. As his death occurred 
previous to the passage of the Confiscation Act, his estate was 
inherited by his children. 

COLDEX, DAVID. Of New York. Son of the Lieutenant- 
Governor. The farm at Spring Hill, Flushing, Long Isl 
and, which was devised to him by his father, is now (1847) 
the property of the Hon. Benjamin W. Strong. Mr. Col- 
den went to England at the close of the war, and died there 
July 10, 1784. His estate, of two hundred and forty acres, 
was sold by the Commissioners of Confiscation, the year of 
his decease. He was fond of retirement, was much devoted 
to scientific pursuits, and maintained a correspondence with 
the 1 learned of his time, both in Europe and in America. 
Ann, his widow, daughter of John Willet, of Flushing, died 
in August, 1785. Four daughters and one son survived him. 
The son, Cadwallader D. Colden, of New York, (a lad in the 
Revolution,) was a lawyer of great eminence, and one of the 
earliest and most efficient promoters, in connection with De 
AYitt Clinton, of the Erie Canal, and other works of exten 
sive improvement. He died at Jersey City, February 7th, 
1884, universally lamented. 

COLDEN, ALEXANDER. Of New York. Son of Lieutenant- 
Go vernor Colden. He was Postmaster, and successor of his 
father in the office of Surveyor-General. He died in 1774, 
aged fifty-eight. His eldest daughter, Alice, married Colonel 
Archibald Hamilton ; the second, Major John Antill, of Skin 
ner s Brigade of New Jersey Volunteers ; his third, Captain 
Anthony Farrington, of London. 

COLDEX, RICHARD NICIIOLLS. Of New York. Son of 
Alexander Colden. He was an ensign in the Royal High 
landers, in 170(> ; but left the army prior to the Revolution, 
and was appointed Surveyor and Searcher of the Customs in 
the city of New York. He died in 1777. His sons were 
Alexander and Cadwallader. 

COLDEX, CADWALLADER. Of New York. When, in June, 
177<>, he was examined and committed to jail in Ulster County, 
the Committee reported that he said, " he should ever oppose 
28* 



330 COLE. - CONNEL. 

independency with all his might, and wished to the Lord that 
his name might be entered on record as opposed to that mat 
ter, and be handed down to latest posterity." I find, next, 
that on petition of Whigs, in 1784, he was permitted by law 
to return to the State. 

COLE, EDWARD. Of Rhode Island. He commanded a 
regiment under Wolfe, at the seige of Quebec, in 1759 ; and 
at Havanna, subsequently. Adhering to the Crown in the 
Revolution, he was insulted, and his furniture and pictures 
were much mutilated. He fled to the British lines, and was 
commissioned as Colonel. He settled in Nova Scotia. His 
pension was 150 per annum. He died well in years. His 
brother John was a Whig, and was appointed Advocate- 
General of the Court of Vice-Admiralty when the govern 
ment of Rhode Island passed to the popular party. 

COLLINS, DAVIS. An early settler of St. David, New 
Brunswick. Died at Tower Hill, August, 1837. His death 
was caused by the falling of a tree. 

COMBS, CAPTAIN . Probably of Maine. At Hali 
fax, Nova Scotia, December, 1779. The Rev. Jacob Bailey 
wrote to Thomas Brown : " You may regard him as a person 
of real worth and unshaken integrity, who has resisted all the 
efforts of his countrymen to seduce and subdue him, with 
amazing fortitude, and his honest attachment to the British 
Government is nearly without example." 

COMELY, ROBERT. Of Pennsylvania. Arrived at St. John. 
New Brunswick, in the spring of 1783, in the ship Union, 
He died at Lancaster, in that Province, in 1838, aged eighty- 
three. 

COMPTON, WILLIAM. Went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
and was a grantee of that city. He died at St. Martin s in 
that Province, in 1804. 

CONKLIN, - . Captain in DeLancey s First Battal 
ion. Killed in Georgia, in 1780, on an enterprise to disperse 
the Whigs in the vicinity of the Ogechee. 

CONNEL, JOHN. Of Chester County, Pennsylvania. 
Schoolmaster. Joined the Royal Army in Philadelphia, 



CONNER. CONOLLY. 331 

and accompanied it to Xe\v York. In 1779, lie was cap 
tured on board of the British privateer Intrepid, and put 
in prison. 

CONNER, CONSTANT. In 1782 lie was a lieutenant in the 
Royal Fencible Americans. He went to Nova Scotia after 
the war, where he fought a duel and killed his antagonist. 
He died at Halifax. 

CONOLLY, JOHN. He was born in Lancaster County, Penn 
sylvania, and was bred a physician. Before the Revolution 
lie lived at or near Pittsburg, and was in correspondence with 
Washington on matters of business. In 1770 Washington, on 
his tour to Ohio, invited Doctor Conolly to dine with him, and 
said he was " a very sensible, intelligent man." His difficul 
ties with the authorities of Pennsylvania, in 1774, occupy con 
siderable space in the records of the Council of that Colony. 
In the course of these difficulties, and while he was at the head 
of an armed party, he was seized and imprisoned. It appears 
that he claimed lands under Virginia, at the falls of the Ohio, 
which, it was contended by Pennsylvania, Lord Dunmore, the 
Governor of the former Colony, had no right to grant. But 
he and John Campbell advertised their intention of laying out 
a town there, and invited settlers. They set forth the beau 
ties and advantages of the location in glowing terms, and said, 
that " we may with certainty affirm, that it (the proposed 
town) will, in a short time, be equalled by few inland places 
on the American continent." 

As the controversy ripened to war, Conolly became active 
on the side of the Crown, and in 1775 was employed by Lord 
Dunmore, who authorized him to raise and command a regi 
ment of Loyalists and Indians, to be enlisted in the Western 
country and Canada, and to be called the Loyal Forresters. 
While on his way to execute this design, he was taken pris 
oner. His papers having been sent to Congress, it was deter 
mined to retain his person. He wrote to Washington several 
times, but the Commander-in-Chief declined to interfere, and 
he remained a captive till near the close of the contest. The 
Loyal Forresters were in service in 1782, and probably later. 



332 COPLEY. 

Always, as it would seem, moving in some doubtful enterprise, 
we hear of Colonel Conolly soon after the peace, and about the 
year 1788, at Detroit. At this time he and other disaffected 
persons held conferences with some of the prominent citizens 
of the West as to the seizure of New Orleans, and the control 
of the navigation of the Mississippi by force. The precise 
plan, and the degree of support which it received, are not, 
perhaps, known. But the attention of Washington was at 
tracted to the subject, and measures were taken to detect and 
counteract the plot. 

COPLEY, JOHN SINGLETON. Of Boston. An eminent 
painter. His father, " Richard Copley, of the county of 
Limerick, who emigrated to America, and became of Bos 
ton, in the United States, married Sarah, younger daughter 
of John Singleton." The subject of this notice was born in 
1738, and achieved distinction early. John Adams wrote: 
"Copley is the greatest master that was ever in America. 
His portraits far exceed West s." He himself said that he 
had as many commissions in Boston as he could execute. 
His price for a half-length was fourteen guineas. 

In 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson ; and, the 
same year, he deposited several pictures with his mother, 
arranged his affairs generally, and sailed for Italy by way of 
England, with the design of three years residence abroad. 
In 1776 he was in London, and a member of the Loyalist 
Club, for weekly conversation and a dinner. He subsequently 
resumed his profession, and increased his fame. " The Death 
of Chatham ; " u King Charles ordering the Arrest of the Five 
Members of Parliament;" and "The Death of Major Peir- 
son," are among his celebrated works. His last pictures, it is 
believed, are " The Resurrection," and the portrait of his son. 
He died in England, September, 1815, aged seventy-eight. 
His wife, who deceased in 1836, was a daughter of Richard 
Clarke, one of the Boston consignees of the tea. One son 
and three daughters survived him. 

His son, John Singleton Copley, rose to eminence as a jurist 
and a statesman. He was a native of Boston ; and the tradi- 



COOK. COOKE. 333 

tion is, that, born a few weeks after the Hon. Josiah Quincy, 
Senior, "the monthly nurse went directly from Mrs. Quincy 
to attend Mrs. Copley." Mr. Copley was admitted to the bar 
in 1804, was made Sergeant-at-law in 1813, and became a 
Judge in 1818. Later, he was Solicitor and Attorney-Gen 
eral, and Master of the Rolls. In 1827, on the retirement of 
Lord Eldon, he was appointed Lord Chancellor ; and the same 
year was elevated to the peerage as Baron Lyndlmrst. He 
was Lord Chief Baron of the Exchequer, subsequently ; and 
held the office of Lord Chancellor a second and third time. 

Lord Lyndlmrst died October, 1863, in his ninety-second 
year. By his first wife, Sarah Geray, daughter of Charles 
Brunsden, and widow of Lieutenant-Colonel Thomas, who 
fell at Waterloo, he was the father of Sarah Elizabeth, Susan 
Penelope, and Sophia Clarence. His second wife, Georgiana, 
daughter of Lewis Goldsmith, bore him a single child, Georgi 
ana Susan. His Lordship s sister, widow of the late Gardner 
Greene, of Boston, and several other relatives in Massachu 
setts, survive. 

COOK, ABIEL. Of Little Compton, Rhode Island. He 
was denounced as " an enemy to his country, and the liber 
ties of America," in 1775, for selling sheep to go on board of 
the Swan, British ship-of-war, at Newport. The Whigs took 
the sheep at Forkland Ferry, and voted to send them as a 
present to the army at Cambridge. Cook confessed the sale, 
and avowed his intention of repeating the act every oppor 
tunity. 

COOKE, REV. SAMUEL, D. D. Of Shrewsbury, New 
Jersey. Episcopal minister. He was educated at Cam 
bridge, England, and came to America as missionary of 
the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign 
Parts, as early, probably, as 1740. In 1765 he had the 
care of the churches in Shrewsbury, Freehold, and Middle- 
town. The Revolution divided and dispersed his flock, and 
he became Chaplain to the Guards. In 1785 he settled at 
Frederic-ton, the capital of New Brunswick, as the first Rec 
tor of the Church there. In 1791 he was Commissary to the 



334 COOMBE. COOPER. 

Bishop of Nova Scotia. He was drowned in crossing the 
river St. John, in a birch canoe, in 1795. His son, who 
attempted to save his life, perished with him. His wife was 
Miss Kearney, of Amboy, New Jersey. Lydia, his fifth 
daughter, died at Fredericton in 1846, aged seventy-six ; and 
Isabella, the last survivor of his family, and widow of Colonel 
Harris William Hales, died at the same city in 1848. 

COOMBE, REV. THOMAS, I). D. Of Philadelphia. He was 
a native of that city, and graduated at the College there in 
1766. He was chosen Assistant Rector of the Churches of 
Christ and St. Peter s in 1772. Five years later, he was 
confined for disaffection to the Whig cause, and finally or 
dered to be sent prisoner to Virginia. In 1778 he resigned 
his Rectorship and went to England. He lived some time 
in Ireland, as Chaplain to Lord Carlisle ; was in charge of a 
parish ; a Prebendary of Canterbury, and a Chaplain to the 
King. The degree of D. D. was conferred by Trinity College, 
Dublin. 

COOMBS, MICHAEL. Of Marblehead, Massachusetts. Mer 
chant. Went to England during the war, returned at the 
peace ; died at Marblehead in 1806, aged seventy-three. 

COOMBS, JOHN. Lieutenant in the Second Batallion of 
New Jersey Volunteers. Settled in New Brunswick in 1788, 
and died in that Province in 1827, at the age of seventy- 
four. 

COOPER, REV. ROBERT. Of Charleston, South Carolina. 
Episcopal minister. Rector of St. Michael s ; previously, 
however, Rector of Prince William s Parish, and Assistant 
Rector of St. Philip s. The Church of St. Michael s, with 
the bells, clock, and organ, cost about forty thousand dollars, 
which, if we consider the value of labor and materials, a cen 
tury ago, was a large sum ; it was opened for worship early 
in 1761. Mr. Cooper officiated until the Revolution. The 
Vestry, having official information that he declined to take 
an oath pi-escribed by law, met on the morning of Sunday, 
June 30th, 1776, and resolved to omit service on that day, 
and to appoint a meeting of parishioners on Tuesday, July 2d. 



COOPER. CORNELL. 335 

He refused to confer with his flock, on the ground that he 
considered himself already dismissed ; and the pulpit was ac 
cordingly declared vacant. He soon went to England, and 
after having been employed as a joint curate and lecturer, 
became a rector. The Government gave him a pension of 
100 per annum, as a Loyalist. He died in 1812, or the 
year following, at the age of more than eighty. 

COOPER, MYLES, D. D. He was educated at Oxford, Eng 
land, and coming to America in 1762, was elected President 
of King s College, New York, the year following. In 1771, 
he advocated the appointment of Bishops for the Colonies, in 
an Address to the Episcopalians of Virginia. His political 
opinions rendered his resignation of that office necessary as 
the Revolutionary storm darkened, and in 1775 he retired to 
England. He died at Edinburgh in 1785, aged about fifty, 
having previously lived there, and officiated as an Episcopal 
clergyman. He was a gentleman of literary distinction, and 
published several works. Four lines of an epitaph written 
by himself are : 

" Here lies a priest of English blood, 
Who, living, liked whate er was good : 
Good company, good wine, good name ; 
Yet never hunted after fame." 

The son of Mrs. Washington was a pupil of Doctor Cooper 
at King s College ; and Washington, after Mr. Custis left the 
institution, late in 1773, expressed the conviction, that he had 
been under the care of " a gentleman capable of instructing 
him in every branch of knowledge." Young Custis, it ap 
pears, abandoned his studies, and married against Washing 
ton s wish, though with the approbation of his mother and 
most of the family friends. 

CORNELL, SAMUEL. Of Newbern. A member of the 
Council of North Carolina. In 1775 he was present in 
council, and concurred in the opinion that Whig meetings 
were objects of the highest detestation, and gave his advice to 
Governor Martin to issue his proclamation to inhibit and for 
bid them. Before the Declaration of Independence he went 



336 CORBIN. CORSA. 

to Europe, but left his family at Newborn. During the war 
he returned to New York, and went to Newbern in a flag of 
truce, but was forbidden to land, unless he would take an oath 
of allegiance to the State under its Whig rulers. This he re 
fused to do. While on board of the vessel in the harbor, he 
conveyed his estate to his children by several deeds of gift, 
and duly proved and registered the conveyances. Having 
thus arranged his affairs, he removed his family, by permission 
of the Executive of the State, to New York. Subsequently 
this property was confiscated and sold. A Mr. Singleton be 
came the purchaser of a part of it, and the portion which Mr. 
Cornell had given to one of his daughters. This lady claimed 
to hold under her father s deed, and instituted a suit to eject 
Singleton ; but, on a hearing and trial, the Confiscation Act 
was held to be valid, and judgment was given against her. 
This case, of course, determined that all the deeds of gift 
were void. The conveyances were made, it will be recol 
lected, prior to the passage of the Confiscation Act of North 
Carolina. His daughter Hannah married Herman Le Roy, 
of New York, in 1786. 

CORBIN, JOHN TAYLOE. Of Virginia. Ordered to be 
confined to a certain part of the county of Caroline, by the 
Virginia Convention, May, 1776, and to give bond with se 
curity, in the sum of 10, 000, not to depart the territory 
assigned to him. 

CORHTE, REV. - . Of Delaware. Episcopal minister. 
Rector of St. David s Church. Came from England in 1770. 
Resigned, because of the opposition to his praying for the 
King. 

COIIRIE, JOHN. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Died at 
Dumfries, Scotland, in 1791. 

CORSA, COLONEL ISAAC. Of Long Island, New York. 
An officer in the French war, of distinguished merit. In 
1776 he was arrested by order of Washington, and sent pris 
oner to Middletown, Connecticut; but was released on parole. 
He died at Flushing, in 1805, by one account, in 1807, by 
another, in his eightieth year, " beloved as a man and a Chris- 



COSKEL. COULBOURNE. 337 

tian." " He was small in stature, and juvenile in appear 
ance." Maria Franklin, his only child, married John I. Sta 
ples, and (1852) is still living. 

COSKEL, THOMAS. A Whig soldier. In 1778 he was 
tried on a charge of attempting to desert to the Royal side ; 
and, confessing his guilt, was sentenced to receive one hun 
dred lashes. 

COSSTELL, CHARLES M. Of South Carolina. Was an 
Assistant Judge of the Supreme Court of the Colony. He 
went to England. 

GOTHAM, THOMAS. Of the State of New York. Went 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, and taught school there nearly 
fifty years. He died in 1830. 

GOTTEN, JAMES. Of North Carolina. Lieutenant-Colonel 
in the Militia. A "friend of Government," and in confiden 
tial communication with Governor Martin after he had taken 
refuge on board a ship-of-war. He was summoned before the 
Provincial Congress, subsequently, and made a solemn recan 
tation. In 1776 he was on the Royal side at Moore s Creek 
Bridge, but "fled," it is said, "at the first fire." In 1779 
he was attainted, and his estate was confiscated. 

COTTON, JOHN. Of Boston. John Cotton, the celebrated 
pastor of the First Church in that town, \vas his great-grand 
father. His father, Thomas Cotton, lived first in Brookline, 
Massachusetts, and subsequently in Pomfret, Connecticut. 
The subject of this notice graduated at Harvard University 
in 1747 ; and was, I suppose, the last Royal Deputy Secre 
tary of Massachusetts. He died at Boston in 1776. His 
wife was Mary, daughter of William Dudley. 

COUGLE, JAMES. Of Pennsylvania. Was a captain in the 
First Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. He went to New 
Brunswick at the close of the contest, and died at Sussex 
Vale in 1819, aged seventy-three. 

COULBOURNE, CHARLES. Of Norfolk, Virginia. Was a 
lieutenant in the Loyal American Regiment, and quarter 
master of the corps. At the peace he settled at Digby, Nova 
Scotia, and was a ship-master ; but returned finally to his 

VOL. i. 29 



COULSON. COWDEN. 

native State, and died there. His wife was the widow of 
James Bndd, who was shot by a party of " cow-boys " at 
Rye. 

COULSOX, THOMAS. Merchant and ship-owner, of Fal- 
mouth, now Portland, Maine. " Captain Coulson," wrote 
the good Parson Smith in his Journal, April 12, 1775, " is 
very troublesome." On the 10th of May following, Coulson s 
house, which was on King Street, was rifled by the Whigs, 
under Colonel Thompson. The difficulties with him caused 
the burning of that town by Mowatt. It appears that, con 
trary to the agreement of the Association as to importation of 
merchandise, a vessel arrived at Falmouth with the sails and 
rigging for a ship which he was fitting for sea. These arti 
cles, it was determined by the Whigs, should be returned to 
England, together with some goods brought in the same ves 
sel. Coulson resolved otherwise. A quarrel ensued, which 
continued for several weeks. The Canseau sloop-ofwar ar 
rived for the protection of himself and property, and mobs and 
tumults and conflagration were the final results. 

Coulson returned to England, and his wife, Dorcas, daugh 
ter of the elder Dr. Nathaniel Coffin, of Falmouth, soon fol 
lowed him. Both died in England ; Mrs. Coulson about the 
year 1800. 

COURTNEY, THOMAS, RICHARD, and JAMES. Of Boston. 
The first was an Addresser of Gage in 1775, went to Halifax 
in 1776, was proscribed and banished in 1778, and lost 2000 
in consequence of his loyalty. The three removed to Shel- 
burne, Nova Scotia, from New York, at the peace ; Thomas, 
with a family of four, and four servants. They built largely 
at their new home ; but Shelburne soon declined, and Rich 
ard went to Charleston, South Carolina, and James to Wil 
mington, North Carolina. 

COVERT, ABRAHAM. He died at Maugerville, New Bruns 
wick, in 1824, aged seventy-nine. His widow, Phebe, died 
at the same place in 1838, at the age of eighty-seven. 

COWDEN, THOMAS. Of Fitchburg, Mass. He was known 
as disaffected to the popular cause, but made a written confes- 



COWLING. COX. 339 

sion, and applied for a commission in the army. Washington 
and Greene communicated his application to the Assembly of 
Massachusetts, and the case was referred to a Committee of 
both Houses, who reported adversely ; yet said, that as he had 
given " some " evidence of reformation, he might safely and 
properly be released from confinement, and allowed to return 
to his family and estate. 

COWLING, JOHN. Of Virginia. At the peace, accompa 
nied by his family of three persons, and by one servant, he 
went from New York to Shelbur,ne, Nova Scotia, where the 
Crown granted him one town and one water lot. His losses 
in consequence of his loyalty were estimated at X5000, and 
in 1783 he was poor. He opened a school, and was assisted 
by his wife Phebe, who, after his death, kept a small shop. 

Cox, DANIEL. Of New Jersey. Was a member of his 
Majesty s Council of that Colony. In January, 1777, his ele 
gant house at Trenton Ferry was burned, not by Whigs, 
but by persons in the Royal Army, who, in their progress 
through New Jersey, committed almost every imaginable 
crime. Through his agency, principally, it is believed that 
the Board of Refugees, consisting of delegates from the Loy 
alists of the Colonies, was established at New York in 1779. 
Of this Board, he was a president ; and Christopher Sower, 
an highly influential Loyalist of Pennsylvania, in a letter of 
December 5th, 1779, wrote as follows: "The Deputies of 
the Refugees from the different Provinces meet once a week. 
Daniel Cox, Esquire, was appointed to the chair, to deprive 
him of the opportunity of speaking, as he has the gift of say 
ing little with many words." In the year last mentioned, he 
addressed a memorial to Lord George Germain, to which Gov 
ernor Franklin called his Lordship s attention. He went to 
England, and was followed by his wife and children, in 1785. 
Mrs. Cox was daughter of the distinguished Dr. John Red 
man. At her departure her parents were well-nigh incon 
solable. When, by the death of her sister, in 1806, she 
became the only surviving child, she came across the ocean 
to soothe her afflicted father, and to minister to the wants of 



340 COX. 

her dying mother. Mr. Cox s property in New Jersey and 
Pennsylvania was confiscated. Sarah, his widow, died at 
Brighton, England, in 1843, aged ninety-one. 

Cox, LEMUEL. Of Boston, Massachusetts. Near the close 
of the year 1775, he was in prison at Ipswich for his attach 
ment to the cause of the Crown. Mr. Felt, in his very inter 
esting work, the " Annals of Salem," supposes this Lemuel 
Cox to have been the chief architect of Essex Bridge in 1788, 
and who, subsequently, constructed bridges in England and 
Ireland. " In 1796," says Mr. Felt, " he had a grant of 1000 
acres of land in Maine from our Legislature, for being the 
first inventor of a machine to cut card-wire, the first projector 
of a powder-mill in Massachusetts, the first suggestor of em 
ploying prisoners on Castle Island, to make nails, and for 
various other discoveries in mechanical arts." 

Cox, FRANCIS. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Was a lieu 
tenant in the regiment commanded by Colonel Mansfield, and 
deserted from the cam}) at Cambridge, in June, 1775, and 
left the service. General Ward submitted to the Provincial- 
Congress the propriety of making him a public example, for, 
besides his own desertion, he incited his men to follow his 
example. 

Cox, JOHN. Of Falmouth, Maine. Was the son of John 
Cox, of that town, and married Sarah Proctor in 1739, who 
died in 1761. He married again at Falmouth ; and, molested 
for his political opinions, removed with the family by his second 
wife, to Cornwallis, Nova Scotia, about the year 1783. The 
Crown made him a grant of land, now, (1848,) as I under 
stand, occupied by his descendants, and known as Coxtown. 
He married a third time ; his children were twenty in 
number. 

Cox, JAMES. Of Virginia. Some time in the war, he was 
at Newtown, New York. At the peace, accompanied by his 
family of four persons, and by four servants, he went from 
New York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown 
granted him one town lot. His losses in consequence of his 
loyalty were estimated at 3000. He died at New York. 



COXE. - COY. 341 

COXK, TENCH. Of Pennsylvania. Son of William Coxe, 
of New Jersey. His loyalty is disputed, as I understand, on 
two grounds. First, because, after he was attainted of trea 
son, he surrendered himself, and was discharged ; second, 
because, after the organization of the Federal Government, 
he was employed by Washington and Hamilton. These facts 
prove nothing either way. The accusation against him was 
that, on the approach of the Royal Army, he went from Phil 
adelphia to join it, and marched into the city under its ban 
ners. Of this, he was legally acquitted; but, unless I am 
misinformed, his sympathies were on the side of the Crown. 
As relates to the other point, I cite a single incident to show 
the degree of confidence reposed in him. 

In February, 1795, it became necessary to provide for the 
temporary performance of the duties of Comptroller, and the 
President consulted Hamilton, who, in reply, objected to 
Coxe (then Commissioner of the Revenue) because his ap 
pointment " could not fail, for strong reasons, to be unpleasant 
to Mr. Wolcott," (Secretary of the Treasury) " and because 
there is real danger that Mr. Coxe would first perplex and 
embarrass, and afterwards misrepresent and calumniate." 

He published an " Address on American Manufactures ; " 
an " Inquiry on the Principles of a Commercial System for 
the United States ; " an " Examination of Lord Sheffield s 
Observations ; " a " View of the United States ; " " Thoughts 
on Naval Power, and the Encouragement of Commerce and 
Manufactures ; " " Memoir on the Cultivation, Trade, and 
Manufacture of Cotton ; " " Memoir on a Navigation Act ; " 
and "Statement of the Arts and Manufactures of the United 
States." He died at Philadelphia, in 1824, at the age of 
sixty-eight. Rebecca, his wife, died in the same city in 180b\ 

COYLK, FRANCIS. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, at the peace, and in the excitement of the time, 
paid a guinea a foot for a house-lot. A few years after, he 
could hardly have sold his property at one tenth of its cost. 
He died at Shelburne, leaving a family. 

COY, AMASA. Of Connecticut. He went to New Bruns- 
29* 



342 COZENS. CROFT. 

wick in 1783. He died at Fredericton in 1838, aged eighty- 
on e. 

COZENS, DANIEL. Captain in the New Jersey Volunteers. 
Killed in 1779, during the siege of Savannah. 

CRANE, JONATHAN. Settled in Nova Scotia, and was a 
maoistrate, a colonel in the militia, and a member of the 
Assembly. Coming out of the Government-House one day, 
John Howe asked him " What is going on ? " " Oh," re 
plied Crane, " t is all a game of whist ; the honors are di 
vided, and nothing is to be got except by tricks" His son 
William, who died rich, was a member of the Assembly, 
Speaker of that body, and a delegate of the Province to 
England. His widow, Rebecca, died in Horton, in that, 
Province, in 1841, aged eighty-eight. 

CHANNELL, BARTHOLOMEW. Of New York. He was a 
public notary in the city, in 1782. The year following he 
announced his intention of removing to Nova Scotia, and 
was one of the fifty-five petitioners for lands in that Colony. 
He arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, before the close of 
1783, and received the grant of a city lot. He commenced 
business as a merchant. In 1785 he was Clerk of the Com 
mon Council. 

CREIGHTON, JAMES, and ALEXANDER. The first, Secre 
tary of the Police Department of Long Island, New r York, 
in 1782 ; the other, of Georgia, and attainted of treason, in 
1778. A person named James Creighton died at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, in 1813, aged eighty-one. 

CROCKER, JOSIAH. Of Barnstable, Massachusetts. Son 
of Cornelius Crocker. He graduated at Harvard University 
in 17G5. He taught school in Barnstable a short time ; " but, 
on account of his feeble health and Tory proclivities/ took but 
little part in public affairs. He died of consumption in 1780, 
in his thirty-sixth year. His wife was Deborah, daughter of 
Hon. Daniel Davis. His five children were Robert, Uriel, 
Josiah, Deborah and Mehitable. 

CROFT, FREDERICK. Of North Carolina. In the battle at 
Cross Creek, 1776, he " shot Captain Dent in cold blood." 



CROMWELL. CRUGER. 343 

lie was made prisoner, confined in Halifax jail, and sent, 
finally, to Maryland. 

CROMWELL, JOSIAII. He died at Portland, New Bruns 
wick, in 1803. 

CROSS, WILLIAM. He went from New York to Nova 
Scotia, at the close of the war, and died at Annapolis Royal, 
in 1834, aged eighty-three. 

CROSSING, WILLIAM. Of Newport, Rhode Island. A 
noted marauder and robber. He was employed at first as 
a pilot of the Royal troops, but, in 1778, seems to have be- 
lon<> ed to Wiohtman s motley regiment. The account of him 

O ^ / O 

is, that he plundered women of their jewelry and fancy arti 
cles of dress ; that he robbed and burned houses ; and that 
he carried oft Whio-s in mere wantonness. He was taken 

O 

prisoner in the year above mentioned, and confined at Provi 
dence. 

CROW, CHARLES. Of Boston. In September, 1777, he 
was seized in that town, fastened to a cart and carried to 
Roxbury, where another party conveyed him to Dedham. 
The object was to " cart him " through every town to the 

J O */ 

Rhode Island line, and compel him to join the British. 

CROW, JONATHAN. Of Massachusetts. Was buried in 
Trinity Church-yard, New York, in October, 1780. 

CROWELL, JOSEPH. Was a captain in the First Battalion 
of New Jersey Volunteers. He settled in New Brunswick, 
received half-pay, and died at Carleton in that Colony. His 
son Thomas died at Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 1845, aged 
eighty. His only daughter married Luther Wetmore. 

CRUGER, JOHN HARRIS. Of New York. Lieutenant- 
Colonel Commandant of DeLancey s First Battalion. He 
succeeded his father, Henry Cruger, as member of the Coun 
cil of the Colony ; and at the beginning of the Revolution, 
held, beside, the office of Chamberlain of the City. He en 
tered the military service in 1777, and from 1779 to the 
peace, few Loyalist officers performed more responsible or 
arduous duty. We hear of him in the last-mentioned year, 
as made prisoner at a dinner-party in Georgia, on the King s 



344 CRUGER. 

birthday, but as soon exchanged ; as in command of the gar 
rison at Sunbuiy, but ordered to evacuate the post and repair 
to Savannah, with all possible haste. In July, 1780, he was 
at Ninety-Six, when, in the condition of affairs, he was di 
rected to send a part of his force to Camden. In August, 
Lord Cornwallis wrote to him to execute all in his district who 
had borne arms on the side of the Crown, and who afterwards 
fought with the Whigs ; and that he obeyed appears from his 
own letter to Major Ferguson, in which he said that he had 
fallen in with the Rebels, taken most of their plunder, killed 
a great number, had hung several others, and designed to hang 
many more. In September, he made a forced march to Au 
gusta, to relieve Colonel Browne, and arrived just in time to 
save him. In 1781, Lord Rawdon was sorely pressed in South 
Carolina, and sent repeated expresses to Cruger to abandon 
Ninety-Six, to join Browne, assume command of the whole 
force, and act at his discretion. But not one of the messen 
gers reached him, and he was left in ignorance of his Lord 
ship s situation. While completing the defences by throwing 
up a bank of earth, building block-houses, and the like, Gen 
eral Greene encamped in a wood within cannon shot of the vil 
lage, and summoned him to surrender. Cruger replied that 
he should maintain the post to the last. The Whig attempted 
to burn the barracks by shooting African arrows ; the Loyal 
ist defeated the plan by directing all the buildings to be un- 
rooffed, which exposed officers and men to the night air and 
to rains the remainder of the siege. Greene made an assault, 
which, after a terrible conflict, failed. The besieged suffered 
much for water; the negroes went out naked at night, that 
they might not be distinguished from the trees, and brought 
in a scanty supply. During these trying scenes, Cruger s 
courage, skill, and fertility of resource, drew commendation 
even from his foes. Without relief, he knew that he must sub 
mit at last ; when almost in despair, an American lady who had 
lately married one of his officers, (and who, it is related, was 
bribed by a considerable sum of money,) arrived with a letter 
assuring him that Rawdon was near with a reinforcement. 



CRUGER. 345 

Mrs. Cruger was with her husband during the perils of his 
command at Ninety-Six. When General Greene approached 
that post, he found her and the wife of Major Green in a 
farm-house, and not only allowed them to remain, but placed 
a guard to protect them. Indeed, among the last acts of the 
General, though defeated and worn with care, was a leave- 
taking of these ladies, and measures to ensure their continued 
safety. At his departure, he left the guard ; and Cruger, as 
generous as his antagonist, sent it with his passport, to rejoin 
the Whig Army on the retreat. Nay, more; Mrs. Cruger 
pointed out the route of the retiring " Rebels" to a return 
ing scouting party, that, absent some days, were unconscious 
of the condition of things, and so were on their way to the 
supposed Whig camp ; and they, too, reached their compan 
ions. 

The dreadful civil war, which desolated South Carolina, 
" began at Ninety-Six," and many who had incurred the 
hate of the Whigs were in garrison when besieged by 
Greene, and fought in fear of the halter. Rawdon decided 
to evacuate the post, and moving himself toward the Con- 
garee, ordered Cruger to protect the Loyalists and to escort 
such as wished to remove to a place of safety. Most, appre 
hending a general slaughter, determined to abandon their 
homes. " Melancholy was the spectacle that followed ; troop 
ing slowly and gloomily in the van and rear of the British 
Army, went the families of this unhappy faction. For days 
the roads from Ninety-Six were crowded with the wretched 
cavalcade ; men, women, children, and slaves, with cattle and 
wagons" all journeying to the seaboard. 

In the battle of Eutaw Springs, Colonel Cruger occupied 
the centre of the British line, and was distinguished. On 
leaving Charleston, July 1782, the inhabitants presented him 
an Address. In June, 1783, his furniture was sold at auction 
at his house, Hanover Square, New York; and soon after he 
embarked for England. His estate was confiscated, and he 
remained in exile. He died in London, in 1807, aged sixty- 
nine. Mrs. Cruger, who died at Chelsea, England, in 1822. 



346 CRUGER. CUNNINGHAM. 

at the age of seventy-eight, was a daughter of the senior 
Oliver DeLancey, and was at her father s house in 1777, 
when it was burned at night by a party of Whigs. It was in 
the counting-house of Colonel Cruger s " brother Nicholas, 
at St. Croix, that Alexander Hamilton commenced his mer 
cantile clerkship.* His brother, Henry Cruger, who died in 
New York in 1827, aged eighty-eight, was a member of Par 
liament for Bristol, and a colleague of Burke. His sister 
Mary married Jacob Walton ; his sister Elizabeth married 
Peter Van Schaack. 

CRUGER, JOHN. Of New York. In 1775 lie was Speaker 
of the House of Assembly, and during the recess that year, 
with thirteen other members of the Ministerial party, ad 
dressed a letter to General Gage on the alarming state of 
public affairs. This communication is dated May 5th, on 
which day two members of the Council of New York sailed 
for England. When, in 17G9, he was elected to the Assem 
bly, the success of his party was deemed a victory of the 
Episcopalians over the Presbyterians. 

CUMBERLAND, . Of North Carolina. Captain. 

Killed in 1780, in the battle of Ramsour s Mill. 

CUNARD, ROBERT. Of Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. 
He was attainted of treason and lost his estate by confiscation. 
He died at Portland, New Brunswick, in 1818, aged sixty- 
nine. His son Abraham settled in Halifax, became a mer 
chant, and died in that city. The Brothers Cunard, so widely 
known as the projectors of the Royal Mail Steamship Line, 
are sons of Abraham. 

CUNNABEL, EDWARD G. He died at Union Point, New 
Brunswick, in 1838, aged seventy-six. 

CUNNINGHAM, ROBERT. Of South Carolina. One of the 
most prominent Loyalists of the whole South. In 1769, he 
settled in the district of Ninety-Six, and was soon commis 
sioned a Judge. He incurred the displeasure of the Whigs 
in 1775, when he disapproved of their proceedings in sus 
taining the cause of Massachusetts, and in the adoption of 
the Non-Importation Act. In the course of that year he was 



CUNNINGHAM. 347 

seized and imprisoned at Charleston. His brother Patrick 
assembled a body of friends in order to effect his release. 
The Whigs despatched Major Williamson with a force to 
prevent the accomplishment of this object, but Cunningham s 
party being superior, he was compelled to retreat. A truce 
or treaty was finally arranged, and both Whigs and Loyalists 
dispersed. In July of 1776, Robert Cunningham was allowed 
his freedom without conditions, and removed to Charleston. 
Colonel Williamson wrote to William Henry Drayton, the 
same month he appeared in camp, and " declared himself our 
fast friend, and that he came to stand and fall with us." " I 
have no doubt," adds Williamson, " of his proving true to 
his declaration, but at present it would be improper to confer 
any public trust on him." In 1780 he was created a Brig 
adier-General, and placed in command of a garrison in South 
Carolina ; but in 1781 was at the head of a force in the field, 
and encountered Sumter. His estate was confiscated in 1782. 
After the peace, he petitioned to be allowed to continue in 
South Carolina. His request was refused, and he removed to 
Nassau, New Providence. The British Government made 
him a liberal allowance for his losses, and gave him an an 
nuity. He died in 1813, aged seventy-four years. 

CUNNINGHAM, PATRICK. Of South Carolina. Brother of 
General Robert. In 1769 he was appointed Deputy Surveyor- 
General of the Colony. He was connected with the earliest 
military movements at the South. In 1775, at the head of 
one hundred and fifty Loyalists, he intercepted a party of 
Whigs that were conveying ammunition ; and the same year 
assembled a force of fifteen hundred men to oppose Major 
Williamson, who was compelled to retire. After attempting 
to effect the release of his brother Robert in 1776, and the 
temporary accommodation of affairs that year, Patrick re 
moved to Charleston, where he was committed to prison by 
order of the Provincial Congress. 

In 1780 he received the commission of Colonel, and the 
command of a regiment. His estate was confiscated in 1782. 
At the conclusion of the contest, he joined Robert in a request 



348 CUNNINGHAM. 

to be allowed to remain in the State. The application was not 
successful, and he went to Florida. In 1785, a second peti 
tion to be restored to his rights in South Carolina was more 
favorably received ; and the Legislature, amercing his estate 
twelve per cent., and imposing some personal disabilities for a 
term of years, annulled the previous act of banishment and 
confiscation. He was elected a member of the Legislature, 
but his position was an unpleasant one, and, after serving for 
a short time, he retired. He died in 1794. 

CUNNINGHAM, DAVID. Brother of General Robert. Be 
fore the Revolution, he was Deputy Surveyor of the District 
of Ninety-Six. During the war, he accepted the place of 
Commissary of the Royal Army at Charleston. He was 
allowed to continue in the State at the peace, and became 
a planter in Ninety-Six. 

CUNNINGHAM, JOHN. Of South Carolina. Was also a 
brother of General Robert. He was a planter; but in the 
course of the war, removing with his brothers to Charleston, 
was a Commissary in the British Army. In 1782 his prop 
erty was confiscated. He was permitted to reside in the State 
at the conclusion of hostilities ; and, embarking in commercial 
pursuits, accumulated a large fortune. 

CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM. Of South Carolina. Was 
known as " Bloody Bill ; " and there is no little evidence 
to show that he well deserved the appellation. At the be 
ginning of the controversy he was inclined to be a Whig, and 
indeed accepted a military commission, and served in the cam 
paign of 1776. Changing sides, he became an officer and a 
major in the service of the Crown, and was engaged in many 
desperate exploits, and hand-to-hand fights. About the close 
of the year 1781, when the Royal Army was confined to the 
vicinity of Charleston, this monster adopted the infernal scheme 
of taking his last revenge, by carrying fire and sword into the 
settlements of the Whig militia. At the head of a band of 
Tories, he reached the back country without discovery, and 
began to plunder, to burn, and to murder. To show the na 
ture of the man and the kind of warfare which he waged, 



CUNNINGHAM. 349 

two cases will suffice. First, a party of twenty under Cap 
tain Turner, armed in self-defence, took post in a house, and 
fought until their ammunition was nearly expended, when 
they surrendered on condition of being treated as prisoners 
of war. But Cunningham put every one of them to instant 
death. Second, a number of Whigs, in the District of Ninety- 
Six, commanded by Colonel Joseph Hayes, took shelter in a 
building which was set on fire, and, on promise of protection, 
yielded, rather than be burned alive. Hayes, and Captain 
Daniel Williams were immediately hung on a pole, which 
broke, and both fell ; thereupon, Cunningham u cut them 
into pieces with his own sword." This done, he turned upon 
his other prisoners, and hacked, and maimed, and killed, un 
til his strength was exhausted. Not yet glutted with blood, 
he called upon his comrades to complete the dreadful work, 
and to slay whoever of the survivors they pleased. The end 
was the slaughter of twelve more, or of fourteen in all. 
Thus, " Bloody Bill," murdered thirty-five persons in these 
two instances. In 1782, his property was confiscated ; and, 
at the peace, he retreated to Florida. 

CUNNINGHAM, ARCHIBALD. Of Boston. Merchant. Mem 
ber of the North Church, and high in office among the Free 
Masons. Went to New York in 1776, and was proscribed 
and banished in 1778. 

At the peace, accompanied by his family of six persons, and 
bv one servant, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were esti 
mated at 1100. In Nova Scotia he was Clerk of the Peace, 
and Register of Probate. He was a man of reading and ob 
servation, and left valuable papers. lie died in 1820. 

CUNNINGHAM, ANDREW. Of the District of Ninety-Six, 
South Carolina. He held a commission under the Crown, 
and lost his estate under the Confiscation Act. But the Gen 
eral Assembly, by special Act, subsequently, gave Margaret, 
his widow, and her children, an estate on Rexburns Creek, 
which had not been sold by the Commissioners of Forfeited 
Estates, and which seems to have been the homestead. 

VOL. i. 30 



350 CUNNINGHAM. - CURWEN. 

CUNNINGHAM, WILLIAM. Of New York. Provost Mar 
shal. To receive as authentic the " Confession " which ap 
peared in the newspapers about the time of his death, we 
have the following facts, namely : that his father was a 
trumpeter in the Dragoons, and that he was born in the bar 
racks at Dublin ; that he arrived at New York in 1774, with 
some indented servants, kidnapped by him in Ireland ; that 
his first employment here was the breaking of horses and the 
teaching of young gentlemen and ladies to ride ; that his 
course in the Revolutionary controversy rendered him ob 
noxious to the Whigs of New York ; that he fled to Boston, 
where, continuing his opposition to the popular movement, he 
attracted the attention of General Gage, who, as the quarrel 
came to blows, appointed him Provost Marshal to the Royal 
Army, which gave him an opportunity to wreak his vengeance 
on the Americans. The details of his crimes are horrible. 
Of the prisoners under his care, two thousand were starved 
to death, and more than two hundred and fifty were privately 
hung without ceremony. To reject this paper, there is quite 
enough in the documents of the time to show that he was an 
incarnate devil. At the peace he went to England, and set 
tled in Wales. Persuaded to go to London, he became dissi 
pated ; and, to relieve his embarrassments, mortgaged his half- 
pay, and subsequently forged a draft. Convicted of forgery, 
he w r as executed in London in 1791. 

CUNNINGHAM, JAMES. Pilot to the fleet under the com 
mand of Lord Howe. He went to England, and died there 
in 1783. 

CURWEN, SAMUEL. Of Massachusetts. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1735. He was in the commission of 
the peace for thirty years, and at the breaking out of the 
Revolution, a Judge of Admiralty. He went to England in 
1775, remained there until 1784, when he returned to Salem, 
where he passed the remainder of his days, dying in 1802, at 
the age of eighty-six years. While in exile, he kept a jour 
nal, which has been published, and is an interesting book ; 
its editor, George A. Ward, Esq., of New York, has enriched 



CURWEN. 351 

it with several notices of his relative s fellow-Loyalists, and 
thus added greatly to is value. No work extant contains so 
much information of the unhappy exiles while abroad. 

A rapid synopsis of the journal follows : " Visited West 
minster Hall. Went to Vauxhall Gardens. Dined with a 
fellow-refugee. Saw the Lord Mayor in his court. Dined 
with Governor Hutchinson, in company with several Massa 
chusetts refugees. Walked to Hyde Park. A whole army 
of sufferers in the cause of loyalty are here, lamenting their 
own and their country s unhappy fate. ; The fires are not 
to be compared to our large American ones of oak and wal 
nut, nor near so comfortable ; would that I were away ! 
Saw many curiosities brought from Egypt and the Holy 
Land. Visited Hampton Court ; saw there chairs of state 
Avith rich canopies ; pictures of the reigning beauties of the 
times of Charles the Second ; pictures of monks, friars, nuns ; 
pictures of former kings and queens. Went to Windsor. 
Heard news from America. Went to Governor Hutchin- 
son s ; he was alone, reading a new pamphlet, entitled An 
Enquiry whether Great Britain or America is most in Fault. 
Dined with eleven New Englanders. Went to meeting of 
Disputation Club. Bought Dr. Price on Civil Liberty and 
the American War. Visited Governor Hutchinson, who was 
again alone. Went to Herald s office. Went to New Eng 
land Coffee-house. New r England refugees form a Club. 
Went to Chapel Royal, and saw the King and Queen ; 
Bishop of London preached. Heard Dr. Price preach. 
Dinner, tea, and evening with several refugees. Attended 
funeral of fellow-refugee ; many have died. At the New 
England Club dinner, twenty-five members present. News 
of Banishment and Confiscation Acts. Saw procession of 
peers for trial of Duchess of Kingston. Went to St. Paul s; 
Dr. Porteus preached ; several high church dignitaries pre 
sent. Saw Lord Mansfield in Court, his train borne by a 
gentleman. Went to Bunyan s tomb. Heard Dr. Peters, 
a Connecticut Loyalist, preach. News from America. Strive 
hard for some petty clerkship ; application was unsuccessful ; 



852 CURWEN. 

such offices openly bought and sold. Hopes and fears excited 
by accounts from native land. Visited ancient ruins, supposed 
to be either of Roman or Danish origin. Witnessed election 
of a member of Parliament. Discuss probability of war s 
closing. Sigh to return to America. Fear to be reduced to 
want ; lament distressed and forlorn condition. Visited noble 
men s estates and castles. Heard of death of Washington. 
Letter from a friend in America. Visited different colleges 
and public gardens. Fears about losing pension, and horror 
of utter poverty. Attended sessions of Parliament ; heard 
Fox, Burke, and other great orators. Heard that Washing 
ton and his army were captured. Heard Wesley preach to 
an immense throng in the open air. Visited a fishing-town, 
and reminded of fishing-towns in Massachusetts. Heard that 

O 

Washington is declared Dictator, like Cromwell. King im 
plored to drive Lord North from his service, and take Chat 
ham, and men of his sentiments, instead. Witnessed equip 
ment of fleets and armies to subdue America. Angry and 
mortified to hear Englishmen talk of Americans as a sort of 

?75 

serfs. Wearied of sights. Sick at heart, and tired of a so 
journ among a people, who, after all, are but foreigners. New 
refugees arrived to recount their losses and sufferings. Fear 
of alliance with France. Great excitement in England among 
the opposers of the war. Continued and frequent deaths 
among the refugee Lovalists. Pensions of several friends 
reduced. Fish dinner at the Coffee-house. O for a return 
to New England ! Anxious as to the result of the war. News 

5 

of surrender of Cormvallis, and admission on all hands, that 
England can do no more. All the Loyalists abroad deeply 
agitated as to their future fate. Failure of British Commis 
sioners to procure in the treaty of peace any positive condi 
tions for the Americans in exile. Long to be away, but dare 
not go. Some refugees venture directly to return to their 
homes ; others embark for Nova Scotia and Canada, there 
to suffer anew. Know of forty-five refugees from Massa 
chusetts who have died in England ; among them, Hutch- 
inson, the Governor, and Flncker, the Secretary." 



C URRY. C UTLER. ; 353 

* ^ 

Sucli were some 4 of the thino-s which Curwen saw and 

t~) 

heard, such the hopes and fears which agitated him during 
his exile, and the course of life of hundreds of others, we may 
very properly conclude, was not dissimilar. Would that all 
the opposers of the Revolution had passed their time as inno 
cently ! Some of those who remained in the country, did in 
fact do so ; since they were nominal Loyalists only, and lived 
quietly upon their estates, or pursued their ordinary employ 
ments at their usual homes, in the towns occupied by the Royal 
forces. 

CURRY, JOHN. He settled in New Brunswick after the 
war, and as early as ITUlJ was senior Justice of the Court of 
Common Pleas for the County of Charlotte. He died in that 
county. His son, Cadwallader Curry, was for some years a 
merchant at Eastport, Maine, and subsequently at Campo 
Hello, New Brunswick. 

CURRY, Ross. Of Philadelphia. A Whig at first, and a 
lieutenant in the army. Attainted of treason, and property 
confiscated. Was a lieutenant in the Pennsylvania Loyalists, 
and adjutant of the corps. He settled in New Brunswick, 
received half-pay, and devoted himself to the profession of 
the law. He died in that Province. 

CURTIS, CHARLES. Of Scituate, Massachusetts. Grad 
uated at Harvard University in 1765. He was one of the 
eighteen country gentlemen who were driven into Boston, 
and who were Addressers of Gage on his departure, in 
October, 1775. He was proscribed under the Act of 1778. 
His death occurred at New York previous to 1882. 

CUTLER. Two persons of the name of Thomas Cutler were 
proscribed and banished in 1778 ; one by the Act of New 
Hampshire, the other by that of Massachusetts. The Thomas 
of the latter belonged to Hatfield. There died at Gaysbor- 
ough, Nova Scotia, in 1838, Thomas Cutler, Esq., at the 
age of eighty-five, who was a Loyalist, and who was, un 
doubtedly, one of them. 

CUTLER, EBEXE/ER. Of Northborough, Massachusetts. 
In May, 1775, the Northborough Committee of Correspond- 
30* 



854 CUTLER. CUTTING. 

enee made charges against him, and sent him, with the evi 
dence of his misconduct, to General Ward at Cambridge. 
His case was submitted to Congress, when it appeared that 
he had spoken " many things disrespectful of the Continental 
and Provincial Congresses," that he had " acted against their 
resolves," had said that " he would assist Gage," had called 
such as signed the town-covenant or non-consumption agree 
ment, " damned fools," &c., &c. A resolve to commit him 
to prison was refused a passage, and a resolve that lie be 
allowed to join the British troops at Boston, was also lost. 
But subsequently he was allowed to go into that town " with 
out his effects." Cutler had formerly lived at Groton. In 
1776 he accompanied the British Army to Halifax. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. He settled in Nova Scotia, 
and was protonotary of the county of Annapolis. He was a 
zealous Episcopalian ; and, it is related that, seeing his cow 
drinking from a stream which passed under a Methodist meet 
ing-house, " he beat her severely for her apostacy from the 
true faith." He died at Annapolis Royal, in 1831. quite 
aged. Mary, his widow, died at the same place in 1889. 

CUTTING, LEONARD. An Episcopal clergyman, of New 
York. He graduated at Cambridge, England, in 1747, and 
shortly after was appointed a tutor and a professor in King s 
College, New York. In 1766 he was settled as minister of 
St. George s Church, Hempstead, New York. In 1776 he 
signed an acknowledgment of allegiance, and professed him 
self a loyal and well-affected subject. While at Hempstead, 
he preached occasionally at Huntington and Oyster Bay. He 
also taught a classical school of high repute, and educated sev 
eral young men who became eminent. In 1784 his pastoral 
relations at Hempstead were dissolved, and he accepted the 
Rectorship of the Episcopal Church at Snow Hill, Maryland. 
Subsequently, he was called to Christ Church, Newbern, 
North Carolina ; and, after officiating there about eight years, 
he returned to New York. He died in 1794, in his seventieth 
year. His wife survived until 1803. One of his sons was 
the father of Francis B. Cutting, an eminent lawyer of the 



CUTTER. CUYLER. 



fes 



city of New York. lie was small and of slender frame ; and 
was "beloved, equally by his pupils, bis parishioners, and his 
friends." 

CUTTER, SAMUEL. Of Eden ton, North Carolina. Physi 
cian. Born in Brookfield, Massachusetts, in 1741 ; graduated 
at Harvard University, 17b 5. After travelling in Europe, he 
settled at Edenton, and enjoyed the respect of several leading 
Whigs. At one period of the war, he was in practice at New- 
town, New York. His fortunes subsequently were various. 
In 178;"> he was at Hartford, Connecticut, where he formed 
business relations with an English gentleman, by which, he 
said, he hoped to live comfortably the remainder of his days. 
Though treated with every civility, his situation was disagree- 

t/ v O 

able, because he was among people whose genius and manners 
were totally different from those with whom he had mino-led 

o 

for twenty years, and because lie was entirely separated from 
old friends to whom he was most tenderly attached. In De 
cember of the same year he was at New London, where he 
wrote his employment called him up before the sun, kept 
him on foot the whole day, and often still later. I find him 
next in 17 ( J5, when he was in Vermont. His two sons were 
with him, but his wife was at Hartford. His circumstances 
were easy, but there was no society around him, and he lived 
almost in solitude. He had relinquished practice, but acted 
occasionally in consultations. He was a trader, tanner, miller, 
and distiller. lie had been a member of the Legislature ; 
and had he not been loyal in the Revolution, would have 
enjoyed popular favor. He died at Walpole, New Hampshire, 
in 18:21, in his eightieth year. 

CUTTER, ZACHEUS. Of Amherst, New Hampshire. Aban 
doned the country. Commissioners appointed to examine 
claims against his estate, June, 1781. For a time during the 
war, he was at Newtown, New York. Prior to the peace, 
he sailed for London for the purchase of Broods, intending to 

I tT 1 & 

establish himself in New York, and perished at sea on the 
return passage. Dr. Samuel Cutter was a kinsman. 

CUYLER, ABRAHAM C. Of Albany, New York. Mayor 



356 CUTLER. D ABNEY. 

of that city. Confined at Hartford, lie applied to tlie New 
York State Convention, (August, 1776,) for permission to 
visit his wife, who, he said, was sick and unable to take care 
of his children and large family ; and, in the mean time, to 
settle some of his private affairs. 

Released after some delay, he was authorized by the British 
Commander-in-Chief to raise a battalion of six hundred men 
for the Royal service, and in November. 1779, was recruiting 
loyal refugees at Bett s tavern, Jamaica, New York. He 
was attainted, and his property confiscated. In 1781 he went 
to England. He returned to Albany, and lived where the 
North Dutch Church now stands ; but his course in the Rev 
olution rendered his situation uncomfortable, and he removed 
to Canada, and died there in 1810, aged sixty-eight. " He 
was a man of dignified and gentlemanly deportment." His 
son, Cornelius, a major in the British Army, died at Montreal 
in 1807. 

CUYLER, HENRY. Colonel in the British Army. He en 
tered the service in 1782, as an ensign ; was commissioned a 
Major in 1797, a Lieutenant-Colonel in 1800, and Colonel in 
1810. He died in England in 1841, aged seventy-two. 

CUYLER, SIR CORNELIUS, Baronet. Of Albany, New- 
York. General in the British Army. He was born at 
Albany, and entered the service young. Besides the honors 
above mentioned, he was Governor of Kinsale, and Colonel 
of the 69th Foot. He died at St. John s Lodge, Herts, Eng 
land, in 1819, and was succeeded by his son Charles, the 
present (1857) Baronet. Lady Cuyler, who died in 1815, 
was Anne, daughter of Major Richard Grant. Georo~e, a 

O J j > " 

son, Colonel of the llth Foot, and K. C. B., died at Ports 
mouth, England, in 1818, immediately after his return from 
Gibraltar. 

DAHNEY, NATHANIEL. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Physi 
cian. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, but one of the 
" Recanters." He went to England in 1777, and died before 
the peace. In 1781, his estate was advertised for sale by the 
Whig authorities. 



DALGLTSTT. - DANA. 357 

DALGLISH, ANDREW. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad 
dresser of Gage in 1774. lie went to England. Was at 
Glasgow, November, 1781. 

DANA, SAMUEL. Of Massachusetts. He was born in that 
part of Cambridge which is now Brighton, in 1739, and grad 
uated at Harvard University in 1755. Six years later, the 
town of Groton voted unanimously to invite him to become 
their minister, with a settlement of X200, a salary of 80, 
and fire-wood, not to exceed thirty cords per annum. He 
was ordained June, 1701. In the crisis of 1775, he believed 
that resistance would lead to greater evils than were then 
endured, and used his influence on the side of non-resistance. 
In March, " he preached a sermon which gave great offence 
to the people, who were generally inclined to unwavering re 
sistance. He was not allowed to enter the meeting-house on 
the next Sabbath, and his dismission by the town soon fol 
lowed." " It is a matter of tradition, that the in 
habitants were so enraged, that they shot bullets into Mr. 
Dana s house, to the great danger of his life and the lives of 
his family." That he was an excellent man, cannot be 
doubted. In May, he made a written confession, which, at 
the moment, was satisfactory. He had warm Whig friends. 
In the hope that all trouble might terminate, the Whig Com 
mittee of Groton, (of whom Colonel Prescott, who shortly 
after commanded the American force at Breed s Hill, was 
one,) published a card, to the effect that Mr. Dana had fully 
atoned for his offences. The good will of his parishioners 
was, however, alienated, and separation was the consequence. 
After his dismission at Groton, he continued in that town for 
some years, but finally removed to Amherst, New Hampshire, 
when he read law, and was appointed Judge of Probate for 
the County of Hillsborough. lie died at Amherst in 1798, 
and was buried with Masonic honors. His son Luther was 
an enterprising ship-master, and father of Samuel L. Dana, 
physician and chemist, of Lowell, Massachusetts. His second 
son, Hon. Samuel Dana, who died in 1835, was bred to the 
law, was distinguished in his profession, and became President 



358 DANFORTIT. 

of the Senate of Massachusetts, and Chief Justice of the Cir 
cuit Court of Common Pleas ; the Hon. James Dana, late 
Mayor of Charlestown, is his youngest son. 

DANFORTH, SAMUEL. Of Massachusetts. Son of Rev. John 
Danforth of Dorchester, and was educated at Harvard Uni 
versity. For several years lie was President of the Council, a 
Judge, and in 1774, a Mandamus Councillor. After the last 
appointment, the Middlesex County Convention " Resolved, 
That whereas the Hon. Samuel Danforth, and Joseph Lee, 
Esquires, two of the Judges of the Inferior Court of Common 
Pleas for th j County, have accepted commissions under the 
new Act, by being sworn members of his Majesty s Council, 
appointed by said Act, we therefore look upon them as utterly 
incapable of holding any office whatever/ He died in 1777, 
aged eighty-one. He was distinguished for his love of natural 
philosophy and chemistry. 

DANFORTH, SAMUEL. Physician. Of Boston. Son of the 
preceding. He was born in Massachusetts in 1740, and grad 
uated at Harvard University in 1758. He pursued his medi 
cal studies with Doctor Rand, and commenced practice at 
Newport; but finally settled in Boston. The Revolutionary 
troubles disturbed his professional pursuits, and distressed his 

family. His wife and three children took refuo-e with her 

/ & 

father ; his brother went to England and never returned ; 
while he himself continued in Boston during the siege. At 
the evacuation, he was treated harshly. But, as Whigs could 
not do without physicians better than others, he was soon in 
full practice, and the confidence of his patients was nearly 
unlimited, and their attachment almost without bounds. 
From 1795 to 1798 he was President of the Medical So 
ciety. He excelled in medicine, but not in surgery. He 
continued in full practice until he was nearly fourscore years. 
After about four years confinement to his house, lie died at 
Boston in 1827, aged eighty-seven. The family from which 
he was descended occupy a distinguished place in the annals 
of New England. 

o 

DANFORTH, THOMAS. Counsellor-at-law, Charlestown, 



DANIEL. DAVIS. 359 

Massachusetts. Brother of the second Samuel. Tie was a 
graduate of Harvard University ; an Addresser of Hutchin- 
son ; and was proscribed and banished. He was the only 
lawyer at Charlestown, and the only inhabitant of that town 
who sought protection from the parent country at the begin 
ning of serious opposition. He went to Halifax in 177(>. He 
died in London in 1825. 

DANIEL, JOSEPH. In December, 1783, warrant issued on 
petition of the Selectmen of Stamford, Connecticut, ordering 
him to depart that town forthwith, and never return. 

DANIEL, TIMOTHY. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, 
and died at Hampton in that Province, in 1847, aged one 
hundred years. 

DARIXGTON, JOHN. He emigrated to New Brunswick at 
the peace, and died there. Joanna, his widow, died in Port 
land, in that Province, in 1840, at the age of ninety-five. 

DAVENPOKT, CAPTAIN - . He was a AVhig, and held 
a military commission under Congress, but " was found wholly 
destitute of honor and principle." His connections were re 
spectable, and he possessed the air and manners of a man of 
the world. He remained at New York after the retreat of 
Washington from Long Island, and until the city was occu 
pied by the British troops ; and thus became a voluntary cap 
tive, if not a deserter. 

DAVENPORT, JOSEPH. Of Virginia. Went to England, 
and died there in 1783. 

DAVIDSON, HAMILTON. He died in York County, New 
Brunswick, in 1841, aged ninety-two. 

DAVIS, BENJAMIN. Merchant of Boston. Was an Ad 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He 
left that town with his family, determined, he declared, to 
settle in some part of his Majesty s dominions. He went 
first to Halifax, Nova Scotia ; and in his passage from that 
city to New York, in the ship Peggy, was captured and car 
ried to* Marblehead, and thence to Boston, and imprisoned. 
In a letter to James Bowdoin, dated in jail, October 10, 
1776, he said he was denied pen, ink and paper, was required 



360 DAVIS. DAWKINS. 

to keep in an apartment by himself, and was allowed to con 
verse with others only in the presence of the jailer. When 
lie left Boston he had goods in his store of the value of c1000 
sterling, which he lost : and when taken at sea he lost <1500 
sterling more. In addition, a large amount was due him 
which was never recovered. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He was in New York, July, 1783, and a petitioner 
for lands in Nova Scotia. In his religious faith Mr. Davis 
was a Sandemanian. 

DAVIS, JOHN. Of Charleston, South Carolina. Was an 
Addresser of Sir Henry Clinton in 1780, and also a Petitioner 
to be armed on the side of the Crown. He was banished in 
1782, and his property was confiscated. He probably went 
to England. John Davis, an attainted Loyalist, was in Lon 
don in 1794, and represented to the British Government that 
he had been unable to recover several lar^e debts due to him 

O 

at the time of his banishment. It may be remarked here, that 
though the sums of money, due to Loyalists proscribed, were 
now included in the Confiscation Acts, the courts of some of 
the States were slow to coerce the debtors. 

DAVIS, SOLOMON. Of Setauket, New York. Shipmaster 
in the London trade. His house was assailed, in 1779, by a 
band of marauders, who fired several balls through it. He 
was armed, and told them that he was used to the flying of 
balls around him. Neighbors were alarmed, and the gang 
went off without entering. In 1783, while returning home 
from the city of New York, he was met by two men, who 
shot him dead on the spot. 

DAWKINS, GEORGE. Of South Carolina. In 1782 he was 
a captain of cavalry in the South Carolina Royalists. His 
estate was confiscated. Wounded, 1781, in the battle of Hob- 
kirk s Hill. 

DAWKINS, HENRY. Of New York. Taken on Long Isl 
and and sent to prison. In his despair, he stated to the Com 
mittee of Safety, that he \vas " weary of such a miserable life 
as his misconduct hath thrown him into," and prayed that hon 
orable body to appoint the manner of terminating his sorrows 
by death. 



DAWSON. DEANE. 361 

DAWSON, DAVID. Of Chester County, Pennsylvania. At 
tainted of treason and property confiscated. Subsequently 
joined the Royal Army in Philadelphia, and went with it to 
New York, and was employed in passing counterfeit Conti 
nental money. He was detected in 1780, and executed. 

DAWSOX, JAMES. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the 
State galleys, and joined the British at Philadelphia. Cap 
tured at sea. In 1779, in jail and to be tried for treason. 

DEALEY, JAMES. Of Charleston, South Carolina. He 
and Locklan Martin were tarred and feathered, and driven 
in a cart through the streets of that city in June, 1775; and 
Dealey was, besides, compelled to leave the country, and go 
to England. The Secret Committee of Charleston, at that 
time, was composed of distinguished men, one of whom was 
subsequently in nomination for the highest honors, and there 
is evidence that they countenanced, if they did not actually 
direct, the procedure. 

DEAN, JACOB. Of New York. Was a loyal Declarator 
in 1775. He became an inhabitant of New Brunswick, and 
died at St. John in 1818, aged eighty. 

DEANE, SILAS. Of Connecticut. Graduated at Yale Col 
lege in 1758. He played a distinguished part among the 
Whigs in the early part of the contest, but his political sun 
went down in gloom, sorrow, and destitution. He may have 
been wronged. A member of the first Continental Congress 
in 1774, and the first diplomatic agent to France, a brilliant 
career was before him. But while abroad, his engagements 
and contracts embarrassed Congress, and he was recalled. 
Required to account for his pecuniary transactions, he did 
not dispel suspicion of having misapplied the public funds in 
trusted to his care. The delegates of Connecticut in Congress 
appear to have distrusted his integrity from the first. In turn, 
he accused Arthur and William Lee, who were abroad in 
public trusts, as well as their brothers in Congress, of con 
ducting a secret correspondence with England. In 1784 he 
attempted to retrieve his fame, by an address to the country, 
but failed. He now went to England.. Mr. Jay, who was in 

VOL. i. 31 



362 DEBLOIS. 

Europe, had been his friend, and wished to aid him, and would 
have done so, had he been able to remove the accusations 
that had blighted his hopes and injured his character. But 
Mr. Jay had heard that he was on terms of familiarity with 
Arnold, and " every American who gives his hand to that 
man," he wrote to Deane, " in my opinion pollutes it." I 
have said that he may have been wronged. He may have 
been careless in his accounts, but not dishonest ; he may have 
been incapable, not corrupt. In 1842 his long-disputed claims 
were adjusted by Congress, and a large sum was found to be 
due to his heirs, under the principles recognized by the Gov 
ernment, and applicable to all claimants ; hence the doubt, 
whether he received entire justice at the hands of his asso 
ciates. A man driven to despair is to be judged mercifully. 
He died on board the Boston Packet, in the Downs, in 1789, 
in his fifty-third year, after four hours illness. His wife was 
" the rich widow Webb." 

DEBLOIS, GILBERT. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser 
of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. He went to 
Halifax in 1776. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. 
In 1779 he was in London, and addressed the King. He died 
in England in 1791, aged sixty-three. 

DEBLOIS, GEORGE. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad 
dresser of Gage in 1774. He went to England. In 1784, 
George Deblois, Jr., was a merchant at Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
The widow of a George Deblois, died at the same city, De 
cember, 1827, aged seventy-four. 

DEBLOIS, ISAAC. He was in the service of the King, and 
a lieutenant. In 1784 a lot in the city of St. John, New 
Brunswick, was granted him by the Crown. 

DEBLOIS, LEWIS. Merchant, of Boston. He was an Ad 
dresser of Gage in 1775, and in 1776 was at Halifax. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished. He was in London 
in 1779. He died very suddenly in England, (after being 
out all day,) in 1779, aged seventy-one. 

DEBLOIS, LEWIS. Of Massachusetts. After the peace, a 
merchant in St. John, New Brunswick, and in 1795 a mem- 



DEBOW. BE LANCET. 363 

ber of the company of Loyal Artillery. He died in that city 
in 1802. His daughter, Elizabeth Cranston, is the wife of 
James White, Esq., late (1847) sheriff of the county of St. 
John. 

DEBOW, JAMES. Served in the Queen s Rangers ; settled 
in New Brunswick in 1783, and died there. His widow, 
Huldah, died in that Province in 1847, aged ninety-four. 

DE LANCEY, OLIVER. Of New York. In command of 
a Loyalist brigade. He was the eldest son of Stephen De 
Lancey and of his wife, Ann Van Cortlandt, and was born 
in the city of New York in 1717. He served with credit in 
two campaigns of the French war, at the head of a regiment. 
In 1759 he was elected to the House of Assembly, and the 
next year appointed a member of the Council. His father, 
who was a French refugee, was a gentleman of wealth, and 
of the first rank. His career for some years may be consid 
ered in connection with that of his brother James, who was 
Chief Justice and Lieutenant-Governor of that Colony. James 
was a man of talents, of learning, of great vivacity, and of 
popular manners ; but, if the writers of the time are to be fol 
lowed, he was also an unprincipled demagogue, who opposed 
the governors whom he could not rule, and who, for unworthy 
purposes of his own, kept the public mind in continual agita 
tion. He was at the head of affairs and administered the 
government after the removal of Clinton and the death of Os- 
born, and a second time as the successor of Hardy. He died 
in 1760. The party opposed to his advancement, in denounc 
ing his ambitious projects, did not spare Oliver, the subject of 
this notice. On some occasions, Oliver seems to have promo 
ted his brother s designs, at the expense of propriety and deco 
rum. But yet Oliver De Lancey, at the period of the French 
war, occupied a commanding position, and perhaps he did not 
overrate his personal influence when he said, that if in the 
expedition against Crown Point, he " should accept the com 
mand of the New York Regiment, he could in ten days raise 
the whole " quota of troops allotted to that Colony. This 
standing he maintained after his brother s death, and until the 



364 DE LANCEY. 

Revolution. At the beginning of the controversy he may 
not have been a zealous adherent of the Crown. Some of 
the Whigs insisted, indeed, that he heartily approved of the 
course of the Ministry, and a letter appeared in a newspaper 
in England, in 1775, which, if genuine, authorized the opin 
ion. But this letter he publicly averred to be an infamous 
and a malicious forgery. Nor did he stop there, for he sub 
mitted, as he declared upon his honor, the whole of his corre 
spondence with his friends in England, from the earlist mo 
ment of the dispute, to Mr. Jay, who, finding nothing objec 
tionable, so stated in a card which was published. But what 
ever was his course before the question of separation from the 
mother country was discussed, he opposed the dismemberment 
of the empire, and put his life and property at stake to pre 
vent it. In 1776 he was appointed a brigadier-general in 
the Royal service. Skinner, of New Jersey ; Brown, a former 
governor of the Bahamas ; Arnold, the apostate ; and Cun 
ningham, of South Carolina, were of the same grade, but 
their commissions were of later dates. General De Lancey 
was, therefore, the senior Loyalist officer in commission dur 
ing the contest. His command consisted of three battalions, 
known as De Lancey s Battalions. In his orders for enlist 
ments, he promised to any w 7 ell-recommended characters, who 
should engage a company of seventy men, the disposal of the 
commissions of captain, lieutenant, and ensign. The common 
soldiers, he said, w^ould be " in British pay." * Yet his success 
in filling his battalions was not flattering. Of the fifteen hun 
dred men required, only five hundred and ninety-seven were 
embodied in the spring of 1777, and but seven hundred and 
seven a year later. 

It is stated, that, while he was raising his brigade on Long 
Island, Colonel Henry R. Livingston made a " little excur 
sion " there, and carried off more than three thousand sheep 
and about four hundred horned cattle, and that ,500 was 

* Copies of several of his orders, which disclosed his plans for raising 
recruits and obtaining provisions, were sent to Washington, and trans 
mitted by him to Congress, October, 1776. 



1)E LANCET. 365 

offered for the " Rebel " officer s head. In November of the 
last-mentioned year, a small party of the Whig " advanced 
water-guard " passed the British ships in the night, burned his 
mansion at Bloomingdale, and rudely treated the inmates, who 
were ladies and servants of the family. Mrs. De Lancey, who 
was very deaf, hid herself in a dog-kennel, and came near be 
ing burned there. Her daughter Charlotte, (of whom pres 
ently,) and Elizabeth, daughter of Richard Floyd, (who mar 
ried John Peter De Lancey, and was the mother of the wife 
of Cooper, the great American novelist,) wandered about in 
the woods, for hours, barefooted, and in their night clothes. 
The Council of Safety promptly disapproved of the act ; not 
so much, however, because of its barbarity, but because of the 
apprehension that the British would retaliate. 

In 1T80, General Robertson, who had succeeded Tryon as 
Royal Governor of New York, wrote Lord George Germain : 
" Brigadier-General De Lancey is extremely desirous I should 
mention his name to your Lordship by this very occasion. I 
can t clo this without saying that he is a man of consequence 
in this country, and has suffered much by the Rebellion, the 
authors of which he is earnest to punish." 

The Whig Government of New York, which was organized 
in 1777, attainted him of treason and confiscated his estate. 
He went to England at the peace, but did not long survive. 
He died at Beverley in 1785, at the age of sixty-eight. In 
the " Life of Van Schaack," his decease is mentioned thus by 
a fellow-Loyalist : " Our old friend has at last taken his de 
parture from Beverley, which he said should hold his bones ; 
he went off without pain or struggle, his body wasted to a 
skeleton, his mind the same. The family, most of them, col 
lected in town [London.] There will scarcely be a village in 
England without some American dust in it, I believe, by the 
time we are all at rest." 

"The Gentleman s Magazine" announces simply the place 

of his death, his name, military rank, and " late of New York, 

who lost a large estate by his loyalty." His mother and the 

mother of Cortlandt Skinner were sisters. He married Phelia 

31 * 



366 DE LANCEY. 

Franks, of Philadelphia, who died in Smith Street, Chelsea, 
England, in 1811, in her eighty-ninth year. One of his 
daughters, Susan, was the wife of the celebrated Lieutenant- 
General Sir William Draper, Knight of the Bath ; another, 
Charlotte, married Field-Marshal Sir David Dundas, Bart, 
who at one time was Commander-in-Chief of the British 
Army ; a third married Lieutenant-Colonel John Harris 
Cruder. 

O 

DE LANCEY, OLIVER, JR. Of New York. Son of Briga 
dier-General Oliver De Lancey. General in the British Army. 
He was educated in Europe. At the beginning of the Revo 
lution he was a captain. In 1776 he became a major; was a 
lieutenant-colonel as early as 1779, and succeeded Andrd as 
adjutant-general of the army in America. His treatment of 
General Nathaniel Woodhull, an estimable Whig of New 
York, who became his prisoner in 1776, should never be 
forgotten. There seems no room to doubt, that when that 
unfortunate gentleman surrendered his sword to De Lancey, 
he stipulated for, and was promised, protection ; but that his 
Loyalist countryman basely struck him, and permitted his men 
to cut and hack him at pleasure. And it is no less certain 
that the General, maimed and wounded, was denied proper 
care, attention, and accommodation, and that he perished in 
consequence of the barbarities of his captors. 

I find De Lancey called Barrack-Master-General and Major- 
General in 1794 ; and, some years later, Lieutenarit-General, 
and General. He went to England and died unmarried, nearly 
at the head of the British Army List. He was the father of 
a natural son and daughter who bore his name, and who were 
openly acknowledged. The latter was living in 1844. Pos 
sibly, the former was the Colonel Oliver De Lancey, who died 
at St. Sebastian in 1837, at the age of thirty-four, in conse 
quence of wounds received in battle. It seems this officer had 
left the British Army, in which he was a captain in the 60th 
Rifles, and had espoused the cause of the Queen of Spain in 
the war with the Carlists. 

The accuracy of the text as relates to General De Lancey s 



DE LANCET. 367 

conduct to General Woodhull, as it stood in the first edition 
of this work, and as it stands above, was questioned by Mr. 
Cooper, the novelist, over his own signature, in an article 
published in the " Home Journal," New York, February 12, 
1848. A discussion ensued between us in that paper, in which 
Henry C. Van Schaack, Henry Onderdonk, Jr., and the 
writer, " Vindex," participated. A review of it is not neces 
sary here, since the question between us was one of evidence, 
and to be determined by the opinion formed of the credibil 
ity of writers ; except the following passage in Mr. Cooper s 
communication of May 6th, which, as it contains the denial 
of the party accused, I insert with great cheerfulness. Mrs. 
Cooper was a daughter of John Peter De Lancey, and her 
husband, after stating this fact, remarked that he well remem 
bered a conversation with her father, who said : " They en 
deavored to put the death of General Woodhull on my cousin, 
General De Lancey. Colonel Troup made an affidavit, which 
Gouveneur Morris published. Troup and Morris [both were 
then alive] are respectable men, certainly but Oliver always 
indignantly denied it!" The italics are Mr. Cooper s. 

Robert Troup, in after life, was the personal friend and 
political associate of Jay and Hamilton, and of stainless honor. 
At the time of Woodhull s death, he was a lieutenant in Col 
onel Lasher s Battalion of New York Militia ; and, a fellow- 
prisoner with the General, seems to have listened to his latest 
statement of his treatment. The curious reader who wishes 
to examine the case for himself, will find full details in " Oncler- 
donk s Revolutionary Incidents of Queen s County." In 1775, 
the Committee of Safety of New York described General De 
Lancey as " a lusty, fat, ruddy young fellow, between twenty 
and thirty years of age." He died at Edinburgh in 1820. 

DE LANCEY, JAMES. Of the city of New York. Son of 
Lieutenant-Governor James De Lancey. He was educated 
at Eton, and at Cambridge, England. He obtained a com 
mission in the British Army, and in the campaign against 
Ticonderoga, during the French war, was an Aid of General 
Abercrombie. Soon after the decease of his father, he sold 



368 DE LANCET. 

his commission. He inherited the principal family estates; 
and, at the Revolutionary era was one of the richest men in 
the country. From 1769 to 1775, he was a member of the 
House of Assembly, and his election was regarded as a tri 
umph of the Episcopalians over the Presbyterians. In the 
last-named year, he went to England, and some time after 
was followed by his wife and children. Attainted of treason, 
and his property confiscated, he never returned. At the 
formation of the Loyalist Commission for the prosecution of 
claims, he was appointed Agent for New York, and became 
Vice-President of the Board. His own losses were large and 
difficult of adjustment, and occupied the attention of the Com 
missioners for some days. Excepting Sir William Pepperell, 
Colonel De Lancey appears to have been the most active mem 
ber of the agency ; and two papers on the subject of the Loy 
alists claims which bear his signature contain much informa 
tion. These papers produced no effect, except as is stated in 
the preliminary remarks to this work ; no discrimination was 
finally made between Loyalists of different degrees of loyalty, 
merit, and grades of service. In this respect all were treated 
alike ; but the Commissioners were not required to revise their 
proceedings, as was asked for in the Address to Parliament ; 
nor was Mr. Pitt induced to change his purpose of making 
certain rates of reduction on the sums reported to be due to 
claimants by the Commissioners, as was solicited in the com 
munication to him. 

Indeed, the claimants appear to have acquiesced in the deci 
sion of the Minister ; and the Board of Agents, after Mr. Pitt s 
plan was confirmed by an Act of Parliament, presented an Ad- 
ress to the King. De Lancey affixed his signature to this Ad 
dress, and with his associates had an audience of his Majesty, 
and " had the honor to kiss his Majesty s hand." 

The time and place of his decease have not been ascertained. 
His wife was Margaret, daughter of Chief Justice Allen, of 
Pennsylvania. Five children grew up, namely : Charles, who 
entered the Navy, and died unmarried ; James, who in 1851 
was Lieutenant-Colonel of the First Dragoon Guards, and the 



DE LANCEY 369 

only male survivor of the family ; Anne and Susan, who were 
unmarried and living in 1848 ; and Margaret, who, the wife 
of Sir Juckes Granville Clifton, Baronet, died childless. 

DE LANCEY, JAMES. Of West Chester County, New York. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of a battalion of his uncle, the 
senior Oliver De Lancey. He was the son of Peter De Lancey 
and Elizabeth Colden. For a considerable time he was sher 
iff of West Chester, in which, owing to his intimate acquaint 
ance with the county, he was stationed during several years 
of the Revolution. " His corps made free with the cattle of 
that part of the country, and got the soubriquet of Cow- 
Boys, in revenge for their knowledge of beef." In 1777 
according to Governor Tryon, he raised and commanded a 
troop of light-horse, the " elite " of the Colony. The same 
year, one of Putnam s scouting parties surrounded the house 
in which he lodged, to take him prisoner. In the alarm, he 
jumped out of bed and hid himself under it. Discovered in 
the search, he was dragged out. and carried to camp. While 
in jail at Hartford, he received the following letter from Mr. 
Jay, who was an old friend : 

44 SIR, Notwithstanding the opposition of our sentiments 
and conduct relative to the present contest, the friendship 
which subsisted between us is not forgotten ; nor will the 
good offices formerly done by yourself and family cease to 
excite my gratitude. How far your situation may be com 
fortable and easy, I know not ; it is my wish, and it shall be 
my endeavor, that it be as much so as may be consistent with 
the interest of the great cause to which I have devoted every 
thing I hold dear in this world. I have taken the liberty of 
requesting Mr. Samuel Broome immediately to advance you 
one hundred dollars on my account. Your not having heard 
from me sooner was unavoidable. A line by the first oppor 
tunity will oblige me. Be explicit, and avail yourself without 
hesitation of the friendship which was entertained as well as 
professed for you by 

" Your obedient and humble servant, 

" JOHN JAY." 

" Poughkeepsie, January 2d, 1778." 



370 DE LANCEY. 

In July, 1781, Colonel De Lancey was at Morrisania, and 
a plan was formed to capture or destroy his unpopular, nay, 
odious, corps. Washington ordered the Duke de Lauzun to 
proceed in advance, and directed General Lincoln to cooperate 5 
while he himself put the army in motion, " in order," as he 
records in his Diary, " to cover the detached troops and im 
prove the advantages which might be gained by them." Ow 
ing to circumstances which I have not room to state, the 
expedition failed. At the peace, the commander of the " Cow- 
Boys " retired to Nova Scotia. 

Mr. Macdonald, in a paper read before the New York His 
torical Society, in 1861, gave an interesting account of Colonel 
De Lancey s final departure from West Chester. I make brief 
extracts : " The Outlaw of the Bronx," he said, " with a heavy 
heart mounted his horse, and riding to the dwellings of his 
neighbors, bade them each farewell." Again : " His paternal 
fields and every object presented to his view were associated 
with the joyful recollections of early life. The consciousness 
that he beheld them all for the last time, and the uncertainties 
to be encountered in the strange country to which banishment 
was consigning him, conspired to awaken emotions, such as 
the sternest bosom is sometimes compelled to entertain. It 
was in vain that he struggled to suppress feelings which shook 
his iron heart. Nature soon obtained the mastery, and he 
burst into tears. After weeping with uncontrollable bitterness 
for a few moments, he shook his ancient friend by the hand, 
ejaculated with difficulty the words of benediction God 
bless you, Theophilus ! and spurring forward, turned his 
back forever upon his native valley." 

Colonel De Lancey was appointed a member of the Council 
of Nova Scotia in 1794. He died at Annapolis in that Prov 
ince in the year 1800. Martha, his widow, died at the same 
place in 1827, aged seventy-three. 

DE LANCEY, JAMES. Of New York. He was an officer 
in Oliver De Lancey s Second Battalion. James De Lancey, 
Esq., Collector of his Majesty s Customs, died at Crooked 
Island, New Providence, in 1808, and was perhaps the same. 



DE LANCEY. 371 

DE LANCEY, JOHN. Of New York. Son of Peter De 
Lancey, of West Chester County. Succeeded his father in 
the House of Assembly. In 1T75, elected a member of the 
Provincial Congress. In 1776, an Addresser of Lord and 
Sir William Howe. 

DE LANCEY, JOHN PETER. Of New York. He was born 
in that city in 1753. He was educated in England by his 
brother James. He entered the British Army, and was a 
captain. He participated in the battles of Brandy wine and 
Monmouth, and was in service at the South. In 1789 he 
resigned his commission, and returned with his wife to his 
native State. The remainder of his life was passed in West 
Chester County, and he died there in 1828. Elizabeth, his 
wife, died in 1820. 

DE LANCEY, STEPHEN. Of New York. Lieutenant-Col 
onel Commandant of the First Battalion of New Jersey Vol 
unteers. The fragmentary accounts of this gentleman are 
conflicting. He was son of Peter, or of the senior Oliver, and 
in 17(55 was appointed clerk of the city and county of Albany. 
The King s birthday, in 1776, " was ushered in with firing of 
guns, and other rejoicings, not agreeable to the inhabitants, 
and in the evening a party assembled to do honor to the day, 
with Abraham C. Cuyler, the Mayor, at their head, and were 
found carousing, and singing God save the King. The cit 
izens became exasperated, rushed in, and seized Stephen De 
Lancey and others, and carried them off to jail, whence they 
were shortly after removed to Hartford, Connecticut." Some 
time after his release by Governor Trumbull on parole, I find 
him in command, as above mentioned. At the close of the 
war, he went to Nova Scotia, and in 1786 was appointed 
member of the Council. 

Omitting several discrepancies in facts and dates, which I 
cannot reconcile, I insert next the following notice which 
appeared in an English periodical in 1799 : " Died, at 
Portsmouth, in America, on board the brig Nancies, Captain 
Tibbets, from Tobago, Stephen De Lancey, Esq., who, for 
several years was Chief Justice of the Bahama Islands, and 



372 DE LANCEY. DE PEYSTER. 

continued to hold that office in 1797, since when (we believe) 
he was appointed Governor of Tobago. His remains were 
attended by a numerous procession of friends and strangers, 
and deposited in the tomb of the late Governor Wentworth." 
He may have married twice. In one place his wife is called 
Esther Rynderts ; in another, a daughter of the Rev. Henry 
Barclay, Rector of Trinity Church, New York. In 1817, it 
is recorded : " Died at Colchester, England, Mrs. Cornelia 
De Lancey, relict of S. De Lancey, Esq., formerly Governor 
of Tobago, and mother of Colonel Sir W. F. De Lancey, 
H. C. B., who fell at the battle of Waterloo." Sir William 
was Quartermaster- General of Wellington s army; and Susan 
De Lancey, his daughter, married Sir Hudson Lowe, who 
was Napoleon s keeper I must use that offensive word at 
St. Helena. 

DE LANCEY, WARREX. Of New York. At the engage 
ment on Chatterton s Hill, West Chester County, in 1776, 
.De Lancey was a youth of fifteen years. " While the British 
were advancing up the hill, a shot struck one of the standard- 
bearers dead." Warren " instantly seized the colors, and, 
rushing forward, was one of the first to gain the summit, 
where he planted them in the ground." For this act of bra 
very, he afterwards received a cornet s commission from Sir 
William Howe, in the 17th Dragoons, commanded by Oliver 
De Lancey the younger. He left the army before the peace, 
and died in the State of New York, "near me," says the late 
J. Fenimore Cooper, (in a letter dated March 11, 1848) 
u a year or two since," leaving issue. 

DE PEYSTER, ABRAHAM. Of New York. The De Peys- 
ters are of noble descent. Johannes de Peijster, (Peister, or 
Pester) the ancestor of this family in this country, was driven 
from his native land in the time of Charles the 9th, during that 
monarch s persecutions of his Protestant subjects. He settled 
in New Y ork, and became an eminent merchant. " Portions 
of the costly articles of furniture, the elegant and massive 
family silver plate, and pictures, perfect gems of art .... 
which he brought out from Holland, are still in the posses 
sion of his descendants." 



DE PEYSTER. 373 

The subject of this notice was born in 1753. Two of his 
uncles, and one of his great-uncles, were members of the 
Council ; another uncle was Chief-Justice of the Colony ; 
and a brother-in-law was in command of a regiment of Royal 
Artillery. It is easy, therefore, to account for the loyalty of 
one so young and thus connected. He entered the King s 
service, and was a captain in the New York Volunteers. He 
was second in command at the battle of King s Mountain, in 
1780, and, after the fall of Ferguson, hoisted a flag as a signal 
of surrender. The firing immediately ceased, and the Royal 
troops laying down their arms, the most of which were 
loaded, submitted to the conquerors at discretion. It seems 
not to be generally understood, that nearly the whole of Fer 
guson s force was composed of Loyalists ; but such is the fact. 
He went into action with eleven hundred and twenty-five 
men, of whom only one hundred and sixty-two were Regulars. 
Of the Loyalists, no less than two hundred and six were 
killed, one hundred and twenty-eight wounded, and six hun 
dred and twenty-nine taken prisoners. The loss of Regulars 
was eighteen slain and one hundred and three wounded and 

& 

captured. Captain De Peyster was paid off the morning of 
the battle. Among the coin which he received was a doub 
loon, which he put in a pocket of his vest. While on the 
field, a bullet struck the gold and stopped, and his life was 
thus saved. Sims, in his " Life of Marion," relates that 
Major Postell, " who was stationed to guard the lower part, 
of the Pedee, succeeded in capturing Captain De Peyster, 
with twenty-nine grenadiers." " De Peyster," he continues, 
" had taken post in the dwelling-house of Postell s father. 
The latter had with him but twenty-eight militia, but he 
knew the ground, and gaining possession of the kitchen, 
fired it, and was preparing to burn the house also, when " the 
Loyalist captain submitted. A gentleman of De Peyster s 
lineage informs me that Sims is inaccurate ; that, in the 
court of inquiry which followed the surrender, it was proved 
that the Whig force was about one hundred, and entirely 
surrounded his kinsman s band of " twenty-nine." Captain 
VOL. i. 32 



374 I)E PEYSTER. 

De Peystcr went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the peace, 
and was one of the grantees of that city. He received half- 
pay. He was treasurer of that Province, and a colonel in 
the militia. He died previous to 1799, as, in that year, leave 
was given to sell a part of his estate in the hands of his 
administrator. His wife (whom he married in 1783) was 
Catharine, second daughter of John Livingston. The De 
Peysters of the Revolutionary era were allied by blood or 
marriage to several of the oldest and richest families in New 
York, and were themselves persons of great respectability. 

DE PEYSTER, FREDERICK. Of New York. Brother of 
the preceding. While a minor, he was in command of a 
company raised for the protection of his uncle, Hon. William 
Axtell, a member of the Council, who lived in Flushing, 
Long Island. Subsequently, he was a captain in the New 
Y r ork Volunteers. In swimming a river on horseback, a rifle 
bullet passed through both his legs, and killed his horse. At 
the storming of Fort Montgomery in 1777, a detachment of 
his regiment, which was a part of the Royal force, was the 
first to enter the works. In 1784 Captain De Peyster was 
at St. John, New Brunswick, and received the grant of a city 
lot. In 1792 he was a magistrate in the county of Y r ork. 
He returned to the United States. His first wife was daugh 
ter of Commissary-General Hake ; his second wife, daughter 
of Gerard G. Beekman, and granddaughter of Lieutenant- 
Govern or Van Cortlandt. 

DE PEYSTER, JAMES. Of New York. Brother of the 
preceding. He was captain-lieutenant in the King s Ameri 
can Regiment under Fanning, and entered the service when 
he was only nineteen years of age. His superior officers 
gave him high " testimonials of courage, ability, and con 
duct," after he closed his military life as a Loyalist. In 
1786, he was commissioned as first lieutenant in the Royal 
Artillery, commanded by his brother-in-law, Colonel James. 
De Peyster is said to have been one of the handsomest men 
in the British Army. 

I am indebted to one of his kinsmen in the State of New 



DE PEYSTER. 375 

York who has contributed several curious and interesting 

o 

works to the literature of the country for an account of his 
fate. I extract as freely as my limits will allow. The date 
is 1793 ; the scene, the siege of Valenciennes : "This siege 
was remarkable, in that a greater portion than usual of the 
operations were subterranean. Mines and counter-mines 
innumerable were formed and sprung by both besiegers and 
besieged. On the 25th July, the English sprung two large 
ones under the glacis and horn-work, whose immediate result 
was to enable them to establish themselves in the covered 
way. Among the foremost, as usual, our hero was buried by 
one of these explosions, and reported among the k missing. 
After a search of more than an hour, he was discovered in 
a state of partial stupefaction. Thus he may have been said 
to have been restored to his regiment after having been 
buried alive. 

" Three days afterwards, Valenciennes surrendered. A 
large share in this success was accorded to the British Ar 
tillery. The British now advanced and occupied a camp in 
the neighborhood of Menin, a fortified town of West Flanders, 
on the Lys." " Again," says my informant, " on the 18th 
August, three battalions of the English Guards, and detach 
ments of the Royal Artillery, advanced to attack the French 
position. The enemy occupied a redoubt of uncommon size 
and strength upon a height adjoining to the high-road, in 
front of the village of Lincelles. The road itself was de 
fended by other works strongly palisadoed ; woods and ditches 
covered their flanks. The battalions were instantly formed, 
and advanced under a heavy fire, with an order and intre 
pidity for which no praise can be too high. 

" To overcome such difficulties demanded great sacrifices 
and greater exertions, yet the fall of two gallant officers, 
and the brave men who have suffered on this occasion, must 
be a matter of reorct. In the fore front of this glorious 

3 O 

attack, and among the first who fell, was the subject of this 
article." 

Still again : " Many years after, my grandfather, Frederick 



376 DE ROSSET. - DESCHAMP. 

De Pcyster, was dining with his second cousin, Frederick C. 
White, General in the British Army, when the conversation 
turned upon the latter s military service in Holland, and par 
ticularly the combat of Menin, or, more properly speaking, of 
Lincelles. 4 While advancing at the head of my corps, said 
the General, on the 18th of August, 1798, I noticed a 
remarkably fine-looking dead officer, with his cocked hat 
slouched over his face, whom his men had raised up and 
fixed in an erect position, by taking advantage of the support 
afforded by the crotch of a tree. Not being able to recognize 
him, for his chin had sunk down upon his chest, and his 
chapeau had been drawn down almost so as to cover his eyes, 
to keep it from falling off, I turned aside, and, lifting his 
head, removed the hat, discovering thereby, to my grief and 
horror, that it was your beloved brother and my gallant 
cousin, James, who had been shot directly through the fore 
head. Finally : " Under contract of marriage to a lady of 
fortune, won by his physical and mental advantages, he post 
poned his union until the close of the campaign, and passed 
from the transient endearments of love to the lasting embrace 

& 

of death His portrait in New York attracts universal 

attention, and bears ample testimony to his advantages of 
person." 

DE ROSSET, LEWIS H. A member of the Council of North 
Carolina. He was present April 2, 1775, and gave his assent 
to the issuing of a proclamation to forbid the meeting of a 
Whig Convention at Newbern on the following day. This 
Convention was for the purpose of electing delegates to the 
Continental Congress. He was in communication with Gov 
ernor Martin after the Royal authority had ceased, and his 
Excellency had abandoned the palace. In the war against 
the " Regulators," he was called Lieutenant-General. A 
Whig, who knew him well, said he was u a cultivated and 
elegant gentleman." He was expelled from North Caro 
lina. 

DESCHAMP, - . Committed suicide at Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, about the year 1805. 



DEVEAUX. 377 

DEVEAVX, ANDREW, Ju. Of South Carolina. Lieu 
tenant-Colonel in the Loyal Militia. In April, 1783, he 
commanded a successful expedition against the Bahamas. 
His own account of the affair follows : " I have the honor 
to inform you," he wrote, " that, on the night of the 14th 
instant, we arrived at the Salt Key with our fleet, four miles 
distant from the Eastern Fort, which consisted of thirteen 
pieces of cannon. I landed about a mile from it, a little after 
daylight, with my formidable body of about one hundred and 
sixty men, and proceeded against it with all possible expedition, 
determined to storm immediately ; but there being a plain for 
some distance round their fortifications, gave the enemy an 
opportunity of discovering us, when they, in great confusion, 
abandoned the fort, and drew up in a field near a wood. As 
soon as I came up with them, they fired upon us. My young 
troops charged them, made two prisoners, and drove their main 
body, in great irregularity, into town. We sustained no loss on 
our side. Captains Wheeler and Dow detached about seventy 
men in boats, to board three formidable gallies that lay abreast 
of the Eastern Fort, which was effected about the time of my 
skirmish with the enemy. On my going to take possession 
of the fort, I smelt a match on fire, which circumstance, 
together with their abandoning their works so readily, gave 
me reason to suspect their intentions. I immediately had the 
two prisoners confined in the fort, and halted my troops at some 
distance from it ; but, self-preservation being so natural a re 
flection, they soon discovered the match that was on fire, which, 
in half an hour, woidd have been communicated to the maga 
zine and two mines that were laid for the purpose. About two 
hours after 1 had taken possession of the fort, his Excellency 
Governor Claraco sent out a flag, giving some trifling infor 
mation of a peace. 1 supposed his information entirely for the 
purpose of putting oft time and amusing me ; I, therefore, 
shortly after the return of his flag, demanded the surrender 
of the garrison at discretion, in fifteen minutes. In answer to 
which his Excellency waved the surrender, and requested a 
conference with me personally, when he made offers which I 
32* 



378 DEVEAUX. DE VEBER. 

thought prudent to accept, and to establish a truce between 
us for some clays ; but fortunately his Excellency was discov 
ered to be carrying on his works, and not adhering so strictly 
to the terms of the truce as he ought ; this gave me an oppor 
tunity of commencing hostilities once more with him. I im 
mediately landed eight pieces of heavy cannon from the cap 
tured vessels, viz., one brig and two sloops, with twenty-four 
and twelve-pounders, with which I stole a inarch in the night 
of the 17th instant, and sunk my cannon in the solid rock on 
Society-hill, which is about four hundred yards from the grand 
fortress, consisting of twenty-one pieces of cannon, and two 
small flanking batteries of three guns each. On an adjacent 
hill I erected a work with one twelve and four four-pounders, 
which was not three hundred yards distance from them, com 
manded by Captain M Kenzie ; a third work of two nine- 
pounders was not complete. The enemy kept up a heavy 
fire, and throwing of shells during the night, which had no 
bad effect. On the morning of the 18th, having two batteries 
ready to open on them, and a third, which, though not com 
plete, could have annoyed them greatly, besides two gallies, 
with twenty four-pounders, T gave his Excellency once more 
an opportunity of saving the lives of his men from the horrid 
consequences attending a work being carried by storm ; upon 
which his Excellency surrendered the garrison." New Prov 
idence received quite an accession to its population from Loy 
alists who fled from the Southern States. 

DE VEBER, GABRIEL. Of New York. He entered the 
military service of the Crown, and in 1782 was lieutenant- 
colonel of the Prince of Wales s American Volunteers. He 
settled in New Brunswick at the close of the war, and was a 
grantee of the city of St. John. He received half-pay. In 
1792 he was sheriff of the county of Sun bury, and colonel in 
the militia. He died in that county. Margaret, his wife, third 
daughter of Doctor Nathaniel Hubbard, of Stamford, Connect 
icut, died in King s County in 1813. 

DE VEBER, GABRIEL, JR. Of New York. Son of Ga 
briel. In 1782 he was a lieutenant in De Lancey s Third 



DEVOE. DIBBLEE. 379 

Battalion. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, at the 
peace, was a grantee of that city, and received half-pay. He 
died in that Province. 

DEVOE, FREDERICK. Of West Chester County, New York. 
Went to St. John, New Brunswick, and was a grantee of that 
city. His farm of three hundred acres, at New Rochelle, was 
confiscated, and given to Thomas Paine, by the Legislature of 
New York. 

DEVOE, JAMES. Of the State of New York. A grantee 
of St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783. He died at Hampton, 
in that Province, in 1833, aged seventy-nine. 

DIBBLEE, JOSEPH. Of Danbury, Connecticut. Known to 
be a Tory and to shelter Tories ; he suffered, at the hands of 
the Whigs, for his principles and his deeds. He and his father 
entertained Tryon at Danbury, when that ruthless officer was 
on the expedition of devastation to Connecticut. Dibblee \vas 
once taken out of bed at night, by men in disguise, carried to 
a stream, and ducked until lie expected to perish. At the 
peace he continued in his native town. " Time softened the 
asperities of feeling " against him ; and, when visited by Los- 
sing a few years ago, he was in his hundredth year, and had 
" lived amono; his old neighbors and their descendants, a 

(""! & 

worthy and respected citizen." He was never married. 

DIBBLEE, FREDERICK. He was born at Stamford, Connec 
ticut, and graduated at King s College, New York. He was 
a missionary of the Society for Propagating the Gospel in 
Foreign Parts, with a salary of 50. In December, 1783, 
a warrant was issued upon petition of the Selectmen of Stam 
ford, ordering him and his family to depart that town forthwith, 
and never return. He settled in New Brunswick, and became 
Rector of the Episcopal Church at Woodstock. He died at 
that place in 18"2<>, aged seventy-three. Nancy, his widow, 
died at the same place in 1838, at the age of eighty-three. 

DIBBLEE, FYLER. Attorney-at-law, Stamford, Connecti 
cut. In 1775 he was captain of the first military company of 
that town, and a person of consideration. He early incurred 
the displeasure of the Whigs, and the Assembly of Connecti- 



380 DIBBLEE. DICKE. 

cut appointed commissioners to inquire into his conduct. In 
1778, lie and sixteen other Loyalists were taken prisoners on 
Lono- Island, New York, by a party of Whigs, who landed 
there from boats. His property in Connecticut was confis 
cated. In 1788 he was a deputy agent for the transportation 
of Loyalists from New York to Nova Scotia, and, in April of 
that year, sailed from Hunting-ton Bay in the ship Union, far 
St. John, New Brunswick, and arrived in May. He was ac 
companied by his wife, five children, and two servants. In 
1784 he received the grant of two city lots. Some years after 
he committed suicide. Various reasons have been assigned for 
the melancholy termination of his life. 

DIBBLEE, RALPH. Died at Kingston, New Brunswick, in 
1799. 

DIBBLEE, WALTER. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He ar 
rived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, in 1783. 
The Crown granted him a city lot in 1784. He died at Sus 
sex Yale, in that Province, in 1817, aged fifty-three. 

DICK, JOHN. Of New York. At the peace, accompanied 
by his family, he went from New York to Shelburne, Nova 
Scotia, where the Crown granted him one town lot. He died 
at St. George, New Brunswick, in 1839, aged ninety-five years. 

DICKE, WALDO. Of Warren, Maine. His mother was 
daughter of a Scotch laird, and unacquainted with any kind 
of domestic labor. He was the first child born to the emi 
grants on the "Waldo Patent," after their arrival, and was 
named for the proprietor, who u promised to give him a lot of 
land as soon as he should get large enough to wear breeches ; 

& r"> ZD 

but, the General dying, the promise was never fulfilled." 

During the Revolution, he was too active on the side of the 
Crown to be forgiven by the people of Warren ; and at the 
peace went to St. Andrew, New Brunswick, where he was 
employed as a ship-master. About the year 1794, he was 
confined in irons at New London for some offence committed 
on ship-board, and succeeded in releasing himself from prison; 
but, attempting to escape by swimming, was drowned. War 
ren was the first town incorporated in Maine, after the Whigs 



DICKSON. DO ANE. 381 

of Massachusetts assumed the government ; and was named 
in honor of the distinguished victim of June 17th, 1775. 

DICKSON, ROBERT. Settled in Nova Scotia. Was a mem 
ber of the House of Assembly, and magistrate of the District 
of Colchester. He died in 1885. 

DICKSON, W. Of New York. He commanded a company 
in the New York Volunteers. In 1780 he was drowned at 
Long Island, while bathing. His body was found and interred. 

DINGEE, SOLOMON. He died at Gagetown, New Bruns 
wick, in 1836, aged eighty. 

DINGEY, CHARLES. Of Pennsylvania. Imprisoned in 
1778, on the charge of acknowledging himself to be still a 

O t"5 ? 

subject of George the Third ; of refusing to take the oath 
prescribed by the Whig Government ; of declining to give his 
parole to do the popular cause no injury ; and of attempting 
to go into Philadelphia while in possession of the Royal Army. 
Released, on furnishing three sureties, in <1000 each, to ap 
pear at Lancaster within ten days, to answer. 

DINGWELL, ARTHUR. He went to St. John, New Bruns 
wick, at the peace, and was one of the grantees of that city. 
In 1795 he was a member of the Loyal Artillery of St. John. 
In 1801, advertised that he was about to leave the Province. 

DITMARS, JOHN J. Of Long Island, New York. Went 
to Nova Scotia, and died there in 1829, aged ninety-seven. 

Dixox, CHARLES. He became an inhabitant of New Bruns 
wick at the peace, or perhaps a little earlier, and continued a 
resident of the Province until his death, in 1817, at the age of 
eighty-nine. 

O / 

DIXON, JOSEPH. He died at Hampton, King s County, 
New Brunswick, in 1842, aged ninety-two. 

DOANE. Of Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Five broth 
ers, namely : Moses, Joseph, Israel, Abraham, Mahlon. They 
were men of fine figure and address, elegant horsemen, great 
runners and leapers, and excellent at stratagems and escapes. 
Their father was respectable, and possessed a good estate. 
The sons themselves, prior to the war, were men of reputa 
tion, and proposed to remain neutral. But, harrassed person- 



382 DOANE. 

ally, their property sold by the Whigs because they would 
not submit to the exactions of the time, the above-mentioned 
determined to wage a predatory warfare upon their persecu 
tors, and to live in the open air, as they best could do. This 
plan they executed, to the terror of the country around ; act 
ing as spies to the Royal Army, and robbing and plundering 
continually ; yet they spared the weak, the poor, and the 
peaceful. They aimed at public property and at public men. 
Generally, their expeditions were on horseback. Sometimes 
the five went together ; at others, separately, with accomplices. 
Whoever of them was apprehended, broke jail; whoever of 
them was assailed, escaped. In a word, such was their course, 
that a reward of c300 was offered for the head of each. 

Ultimately, three were slain ; Moses, after a desperate fight, 
was shot by his captor ; Abraham and Mahlon were hung at 
Philadelphia. 

Joseph, before the Revolution, taught school. During the 
war, while on a marauding expedition, he was shot through 
the cheeks, fell from his horse, and was taken prisoner. He 
was committed to jail, but while waiting his trial, escaped to 
New Jersey. A reward of $800 was offered for his appre 
hension, without success. He resumed his former employment 
in New Jersey, and lived there under an assumed name, nearly 
a year ; but finally fled to Canada. Several years after the 
peace, he returned to Pennsylvania, " a poor, degraded, bro 
ken-down old man," to claim a legacy of about =40, which 
he was allowed to recover, and to depart. In his youth he 
was distinguished for great physical activity. 

The only separate mention of Israel is, that in February, 
1788, he was in jail ; that he appealed to the Council of Penn 
sylvania to be released, on account of his own sufferings and 
the destitute condition of his family, and that his petition 
was dismissed. 

Beside these five brothers, there were three others : Joseph, 
their father, who was in Bedford County jail, September, 
1783 ; Aaron, who was under sentence of death at Philadel 
phia, October, 1784, but was pardoned by the Council, March, 



DOBI5TE. - DOHERTY. 383 

178;") ; and a second Aaron, who was in prison in 1785, and 
was reprieved under the gallows, at Newark, New Jersey, in 
July, 1788. 

DOBISIE, GEORGE. He died at the beginning of the Revo 
lution, and the greater part of his property was lost to his 
family. His son, William Hugh Dobbie, captain in the Brit 
ish Navy, died in England in 1830, aged fifty-eight. 

DODD, ROBERT. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the 
State galleys. Joined the British in Philadelphia. Captured 
at sea. In jail in 1779, and to be tried for treason. 

DODD, . Was in the military service of the Crown, 

and engaged in the battles of White Plains and Monmouth, 
and in the siege of Yorktown. At the peace, he went to 
New Brunswick, and died there. His widow, Elizabeth, died 
at St. Stephen in that Province, in 1849, aged one hundred 
and eleven years. She was born on board of a British ship- 
of-the-line, in the Bay of Biscay. She accompanied her hus 
band in the Revolution, and endured all the deprivations and 
hardships of life in the camp. 

DOGGIT, JOHN. Of Middleborough, Massachusetts. He 
went to New Brunswick, and died on the Island of Grand 
Menan, Bay of Fundy, in 1830, aged seventy. 

DOHARTY, EDMUND. Of Pownalborough, Maine. At 
Halifax, Nova Scotia, November, 1779, and employed by 
the Government. Implicated in concealing deserters from 
two ships-of-war, was dismissed. "How he will support his 
family," said the Rev. Jacob Bailey, " I know not, as his 
reputation is greatly blasted by his foolish conduct." He 
went subsequently to the British post at the mouth of the 
Penobscot ; and one who knew him there, wrote in 1782, 
" Doharty has gone out on a cruise." 

DOHERTY, MICHAEL. Sergeant in the Delaware Regiment. 

O CT> 

Taken prisoner and confined. A British recruiting sergeant, 
" up to all manner of cajolery," such is Michael s story, 
"by dint of perpetual blarney, gained my good will, slipped 
the King s money into my hand, which I pocketed, and en 
tered a volunteer in the 17th Regiment." Michael s corps 



384 DOMETTE. - DONGAN. 

was at Stony Point when stormed by " Mad Anthony," and 
our waor fell wounded into Whig hands, greatly to his amaze 
ment, for " he thought himself snugly out of harm s way." 
His wound cured, and " whitewashed of his sins," his old 
comrades received him with kindness. In the battle of Cam- 
Jen " bad luck to the day ! " - the Delaware Blues were 
" cut up root and branch," and poor Michael made prisoner. 
He put his wits at work, and concluded that a prison-ship 
was no better than a jail ; and so listed under Tarleton. 
44 Oh, botheration, what a mistake ! " The battle of the 
Cowpens soon followed. " Howard and Old Kirkwood gave 
us the bayonet so handsomely, that we were taken one and 
all ; " and a dragoon " added a scratch or two to the account 
already scored on my unfortunate carcass. As to all the mis 
eries that I have since endured, afflicted with a scarcity of 
everything but appetite and musquitoes, I say nothing about 
them." No wonder his tale ends in these words: "I feel 
some qualms at the thought of battle, since, take whatever 
side I will, I am always sure to find it the wrong one." 

DOMETTE, JOSEPH. Of Boston. Imprisoned there. He 
went to England, and for a time received a pension of 80 
per annum from the Government. He became an Episcopal 
minister, and, probably, settled in Ireland or Wales. He 
passed " through many scenes of disappointment." 

DONALDSON, SAMUEL. Of Virginia. He was at New 
York in Julv, 1783, and was one of the fifty-five who peti 
tioned for grants of lands in Nova Scotia. [See Abijah Wil- 



In a Loyalist tract, published at London in 1784, I find it 
said that he was a Rebel committee man, then a spy at New 
York, and that, at the peace, he returned to his estate in Vir 
ginia, and took the oath of allegiance to the Whig Govern 
ment. 

DONGAN, ROBERT. Lieutenant-Colonel Commandant of 
the Garrison Battalion. He was continued in service at the 
peace, and, 1794, was commissioned a Major-General. 

DONGAN, EDWARD VAUGHAN. Lieutenant-Colonel Com- 



DOUD. DOWDNEY. 

maiulant of the Tliird Battalion of New Jersey Volunteers. 
lie was the youngest son of Walter Dongan, of Staten Island, 
and was l>red to the law. He was killed in his twenty-ninth 
year, August, 1777, in a skirmish on Staten Island. He left 
a widow ; but his only child died the very day of his own 
death. 

DOUD, - . Of Xorth Carolina. Captain in the Loyal 
Militia. Killed in 1781, in the attack of McNiel on Hills- 
borough, when Governor Burke, his Council, and other per 
sons of distinction, were taken prisoners, and carried to Wil 
mington. 

DOUGHERTY, EDWARD. In 1770 he embarked at Boston 
for Halifax. A Loyalist of this name died in extreme poverty 
on the river St. John, New Brunswick, where lie had lived 
many years, about the year 1808. 

DOUGHTY, - . A captain in De Lancey s Brigade ; 
perished in 1783, on his passage to Nova Scotia, in the wreck 
of the transport ship Martha. [See James Henley. ~\ 

DOUGHTY, REV. JOHN. An Episcopal minister. He grad 
uated at King s College, New York, in 1770. He was or 
dained in England for the Church at Peekskill, but was soon 
transferred to Schenectady. 

In 177 f> political troubles put an end to divine service, and 
he suffered much at the hands of the popular party. In 1777 
he obtained leave to depart to Canada, (after having been 
twice a prisoner) where he became chaplain of the u King s 
Royal Regiment," of New York. 

In 1781 he went to England; but returned to Canada in 
1784, and officiated as missionary at Sorel. He resigned his 
connection with the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel 
in Foreign Parts, in 1803. 

DOVE, ABRAHAM. Of New York. Went to Shelburne, 
Nova Scotia, kept a hotel, and died there in 1803. 

DOVE, JAMES. Went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia ; was a 
merchant and magistrate, and died there in 1824, leaving 
three sons. 

DOWDNEY, NATHANIEL. Of New Jersey. Convicted of 

VOL. i. 33 



386 DOXSTADER. DRAPER. 

" cursing all Congresses and Committees," and of enmity to 
his country ; and, January, 1776, ordered by the Committee 
of Safety to be disarmed, and to be kept in close prison until 
he should manifest contrition for his offences, pay the cost of 
proceedings against him, and give security for his future good 
behavior. 

DOXSTADER, JOHN. A Tory leader. On an incursion to 
Currietown, he and his Indian associates took nine prisoners, 
who, in an affair at a place called Ourlagh, New York, the 
day succeeding their capture, were bound to standing trees, 
tomahawked, and scalped. The bodies of these unfortunate 
men were hastily buried by friends. But one of them, Jacob 
Diefendorff, was alive, and was afterwards found on the out 
side of his own grave ; he recovered and lived to relate the 
story. In 1780, on one of his incursions in New York, Dox- 
stader carried away a horse belonging to a Whig ; but com 
ing to the same region, from Canada, after the war, he was 
arrested by the owner, and compelled to pay the value of the 
animal. 

DRAKE, JEREMIAH. Residence unknown. Settled in New 
Brunswick in 1783, and died at St. John in 1846, aged eighty. 

DRAKE, FRANCIS. Died at Queensbury, New Brunswick, 
in 1836, aged eighty-one. He was in the service of the Crown 
for some years. 

DRAKE, JOHN. Innkeeper, of Newcastle, Delaware. Was 
required in 1778 to surrender himself, or to submit to the for 
feiture of his property. 

DRAKE, URIAH. Of New York. Went to St. John, New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a grantee of that city. 
He died at Carleton, in that Province, in 1832, at the age of 
seventy. 

DRAPER, RICHARD. Printer and proprietor of the " Mas 
sachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter/ He was the 
apprentice, silent partner, and successor of his father, John 
Draper. He was early appointed printer to the Governor 
and Council, which employment he retained during life. His 
paper was devoted to the Government, and, in the controversy 



DRAPER. DRURY. 387 

between Great Britain and the Colonies, gave strong support 
to the Royal cause, and had some able contributors. He was 
a man of feeble health, and was remarkable for the delicacy 
of his mind and gentleness of his manners. No stain rested 
upon his character. He was attentive to his affairs, and was 
esteemed the best compiler of news of his day. He died June 
Oth, 1774, aged forty-seven years, without children. 

DRAPER, MARGARET. Wife of Richard Draper, of Bos 
ton. With the aid of John Howe, continued the publication 
of the "Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News Letter" 
from the time of her husband s death, in 1774, until the evac 
uation of Boston, in 1770 ; and her paper was the only one 
that was published during the siege of that town. She 
accompanied the British Army to Halifax, and proceeding 
to England, lived there for the remainder of her days. She 
died about the year 1800. The British Government allowed 
her a pension. Trnmbull, in his " McFingal," calls her 
" Mother Draper. 1 

DREDDEN, \V. Of New York. An officer in a band of 
marauders. 

DREW, JOSEPH. A grantee of the city of St. John, New 
Brunswick ; he died there in 1808. 

DRUMMOND, ROBERT. Major in the Second Battalion of 
New Jersey Volunteers. Of this battalion, upwards of two 
hundred, who were his neighbors, enlisted under his influence 
and persuasion. A very large proportion of them fell victims 
to the climate of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, or 
perished in battle. Major Drummond himself went to Eng 
land at the peace, and died at Chelsea, in 1789. 

DRUMMOND, GEORGE. Of Pennsylvania. Physician. In 
1777, confined to a small and inconvenient house, and de 
prived, he said, of his practice, of his means of support, and 
of his health, he appealed to the Council for such enlargement 
as they should think reasonable. 

DRUMMOND, REV. WILLIAM. Of Connecticut. Died at 
Jamaica, Long Island, in 1778. 

DRURY, WAKE. Of Burlington, New Jersey. One of 



888 DRY. DUCHE. 

the " King s Justices of the Peace." It was charged that 
" he behaved scandlessly." He owned that he said the Whigs 
had no rio-ht to draft men ; that the drafted men were fools 

O 

if they went ; and that, if they would come to him, he would 
protect them for not going. The County Committee sent him, 
under guard of ten persons, to the Provincial Congress. In 
conducting him to the city wharf, the order of procession was. 
as the record has it, " Ensign Smith ; Fifer Haight ; Four 
Guards; Justice Wake; Four Guards." His Majesty s for 
midable magistrate was soon back, however, to Burlington 
from Trenton, on his way to Salem, to be put in jail until 
further orders. Of the order and number of " guards," 
when he departed, history is silent. 

DRY, WILLIAM. Of North Carolina. He was Collector 
of Customs, and a member of the Council. When Mr. 
Quincy, of Massachusetts, was on his Southern tour in 1778, 
he was his guest, and recorded in his journal, that " Colonel 
Dry s mansion is justly called the house of universal hospital 
ity." At this time, it is probable, from circumstances related 
by Mr. Quincy, that Mr. Dry was inclined to the popular side. 
But, by the records of the Council, it appears that, April 12, 
1775, he u took again the oath appointed to be taken by Privy 
Counsellors." The Board at this meeting dismissed from a 
commission of the peace Colonel John Harvey, one of the 
most zealous Whigs in North Carolina, and with the consent 
of all the members present. Yet I find that, after the adop 
tion of the Constitution in 1776, Colonel Drv was elected a 
member of the new, or Whig Council. But a man who 
changed so often was not a Whio-. 

O iT? 

DUCHE, JACOB, D. D. An Episcopal minister of Phil 
adelphia. He was born in that city, and graduated at the 
college there in 1757. He entered the ministry, and after 
the first Continental Congress assembled, in 1774, officiated 
as chaplain on the 7th of September, and was thanked by a 
vote of that body, " for the excellent prayer which he com 
posed and delivered " on the occasion. At this time he was 
Assistant Rector of two churches ; but on the death of Rev. 



DUCHE. 

Doctor Richard Peters, an Episcopal minister of Philadel 
phia, in 1775, was appointed his successor. In 1770 lie was 
elected chaplain to Congress, with a salary. The following 
is the form of prayer which he made use of after Independ 
ence was declared : 

" O Lord, our heavenly Father, high and mighty, King of 
kings, and Lord of lords, who dost from thy throne behold all 
the dwellers on earth, and reignest with power supreme and 
uncontrolled over all kingdoms, empires, and governments, 
look down in mercy, we beseech thee, on these our American 
States, who have fled to thee from the rod of the oppressor, 
and thrown themselves on thy gracious protection, desiring to 
be henceforth dependent only on thee ; to thee have they ap 
pealed for the righteousness of their cause ; to thee do they 
now look up for that countenance and support, which thou 
alone canst give : take them, therefore, heavenly Father, 
under thy nurturing care ; give them wisdom in council, and 
valor in the field ; defeat the malicious designs of our cruel 
adversaries ; convince them of the unrighteousness of their 
cause, and if they still persist in their sanguinary purposes, 
oh ! let the voice of thine own unerring justice, sounding in 
their hearts, constrain them to drop the weapons of war from 
their unnerved hands in the day of battle. Be thou present, 
O God of wisdom, and direct the councils of this honorable 
assembly ; enable them to settle things on the best and surest 
foundation, that the scene of blood may be speedily closed, 
that order, harmony and peace may be effectually restored, 
and truth and justice, religion and piety, prevail and flourish 
amongst thy people ; preserve the health of their bodies and 
the vigor of their minds ; shower down on them, and the 
millions they represent, such temporal blessings as thou seest 
expedient for them in this world, and crown them with ever 
lasting glory in the world to come. All this we ask in the 
name, and through the merits of Jesus Christ, thy Son and 
our Saviour. Amen." 

He officiated as chaplain about three months, when he aban 
doned the Whigs, and resigned. In October, 1777, he wrote 



390 DUCHE. 

an extraordinary letter to Washington, which was delivered 
by Mrs. Ferguson, and which the Commander-in-Chief trans 
mitted to Congress. The objects of this communication were, 
to cast a general odium on the Whig cause, to induce Wash 
ington to apostatize and resign his command of the army, or, 
at the head of it, to force Congress immediately to desist from 
hostilities, and to rescind the Declaration of Independence. 
If this is not done, said Duche, "you have an infallible re 
source still left ; negotiate for America at the head of your 
army." In the course of this letter he represents Congress 
in a most despicable view, as consisting of weak, obscure 
persons, not fit associates for Washington ; and he speaks of 
the members from New England, especially, with great indel 
icacy. The army, in his estimation, both officers and men, 
were possessed neither of courage nor principle, and were 
taken from the lowest of the people. 

Various motives were assigned for his apostasy ; some be 
lieved that it was occasioned by the gloomy aspect of affairs ; 
others supposed that it arose from a change in his sentiments 
respecting the justice of the Whig cause. But whatever was 
the reason, the aspersions contained in his letter admit of no 
excuse. After quitting Philadelphia, Doctor Duche went to 
England, and became chaplain to an asylum for orphans. He 
was a man of brilliant talents, an impressive orator, had a fine 
poetical taste, and figured as a preacher even in London. He 
was banished, and his estate was confiscated. His house was 
bought by Thomas McKean, a signer of the Declaration of 
Independence. 

In April, 1783, he solicited AVashington s influence to effect 
a repeal of the Act that kept him in banishment from his na 
tive country, " from the arms of a dear aged father, and the 
embraces of a numerous circle of valuable and long-loved 
friends." Washington replied that his feelings as an indi 
vidual were favorable, but that his case must continue to rest 
with the authorities of Pennsylvania. In 1790 the laws of 
that State having allowed the refugee Loyalists to return, 
Dr. Duchd came back to Philadelphia in shattered health. 



DUCKINFIELD. 391 

He died in 1798, aged about sixty years. One account states 
that his decease occurred in 1794; another, in 1790. His 
wife, a sister of Francis Ilopkinson, was killed at Philadel 
phia in 1797, by the falling of a sand-bag on her head, while 
opening a window. His daughter Sophia married John Henry, 
a person whose real or supposed connection with our politics, 
about the time of the war of 1812, caused considerable sensa 
tion. Dr. Duche published several sermons before his defec 
tion, and two volumes in London, in 1780. 

DFCKIXFIELD, SIR NATHANIEL, Baronet. Of North Car 
olina. He was a member of the Council of North Carolina, 
and owned large tracts of land in that Colony. He " was 
gay, good-humored, and popular." .... In 1772 he went 
to England, when his friends prevailed on him to purchase a 
commission in the British Army. When the war broke out 
he could not be induced to serve against America, and when 
his regiment was sent out, he contrived to remain behind. 
In 1779 his estate was confiscated. James Iredell, who, after 
the organization of the Federal Government was a Judge of 
the Supreme Court, and the Baronet, w r ere on very intimate 
terms. They became rivals in love ; " but the contest was 
so generously conducted, and the deportment of each so 
marked by magnanimity, that, so far from their friendship 
beino- shaken, their mutual esteem was increased." 

O 

The Baronet s " proposal met with a courteous but prompt^ 

refusal His disappointment so affected him, that he 

deserted the Province, to which he never returned ; subse 
quently, when his estate was forfeited, most ably and elo 
quently did Mr. Iredell plead his cause. They regularly cor 
responded until the close of 1791." Mr. Iredell records in 
his journal, Saturday, December 19th, 1772 : " I have this 
morning had the happiness to receive a most pleasing friendly 
letter from Sir N. D., wherein he discovers a most noble soul, 
generously extolling in terms of the highest admiration a con 
duct severely killing his hopes, and congratulating me on a 
happiness raised on the ruin of his. Excellent young man ! 
may your lot be a happy one ; though indeed it will be very 



392 DUCKINFIELD. 

difficult to fix your affections on one so likely to insure it," 
&c. On the 20th of January, 1773, the Baronet wrote his 
rival : " I don t know any couple so deserving of each other 
as yourselves, and as it was not my good fortune to be the 
happy possessor of Miss Hannah Johnston s affections, I re 
joice exceedingly that such felicity was destined for you. 
Happy may you long continue to be together. I, perhaps, 
may never be an eye-witness of it. My intentions of settling 
in America are now at an end, and I am in hopes some time 
or other to acquaint you with the fulfilling of your wish that 

I may select some lady here for my own If I should 

again visit Carolina, I pledge you my assurance that the in 
crease of happiness to yourself shall not in the least abate 

the ardor of my friendship for you and your partner 

At present I think to amuse myself a little while in the army, 
and have a promise from Major-General Burgoyne of the next 
vacancy which shall happen in his Light Dragoons, if I shall 
not satisfy myself sooner," &c. Again, in a letter five days 
later, he said: "I wish you would acquaint me whether my 
addressing Miss Johnston was publicly known in North Car 
olina, and what she thought of my persisting to write to her." 
March 10th, of the same year, he wrote : " I have now the 
same reason to induce me to stay in England that I had to 
remain in Carolina, and which will, perhaps, be crowned with 
success. I am determined to marry as soon as I can meet 
with a lady whose person and fortune will be suitable, and 
who shall think me suitable for her," &c. 

On the 14th of May : " I am now entirely free from the last 
tincture of that unhappy situation of being in love, but how 
long the warmth of my constitution will permit me to be thus 
cool, I will not venture to promise. I am, however, destined 
to a cold part of the island, to join the Queen s (or 7th) Reg 
iment of Dragoons, now quartered at Edinburgh, in which I 
have purchased a cornetcy." On the 9th of August, 1773 : 
" My passions are violent, and I cannot govern them. Since 
my last to you, in which I told you of one disappointment which 
I had met with, I have had another with a young lady who, tis 



DUCKTNFIELI). 398 

supposed, will be a fortune of near XI 00, 000, and though I 
was much distressed at first, I got the better of it in a short 
time. I saw Captain Messenger at Liverpool ; he told me of 
my c penchant for Miss Hannah, and I think said my mother 
mentioned it to him. I did not expect that it could be kept a 
secret." Again, in the same letter: "I am quite out of con 
ceit with matrimony at present, but can t promise how long it 
will continue. There are some very pretty girls in this neigh 
borhood." In 1783 he wrote that he had been in command 
of a troop of dragoons three years ; that he was then aide-de 
camp to General Warde, with " nothing to do," and in a few 
days was to marry the General s niece, whose constitution 
would not allow her to cross the sea. A year later, he said 
he had made an exchange with an officer in a regiment of foot, 
and should retire on half-pay. " I am most perfectly happy," 
he continued, " and much fonder of my wife than when I mar 
ried. She is not at all handsome, but what you may call <i 
devilish good one." Again, in 1784, he mentioned that he was 
the father of a boy who was a charming fellow, and attempted 
to talk and to scold ; that Lady Duckinfield was soon to pre 
sent him with another child ; and closed with the remark : 
" You will not be surprised at my being desirous that the 
plantation should be sold, and the money secured for my use 
after my mother s death, as I have entirely given up all 
thoughts of settlino- in Carolina ; and should I have a lanie 

o & ? o 

family it will be necessary, in order to keep the younger ones 
from being carpenters and mantua-makers." In June, 1785, 
he announced the birth of a second son before the first was a 
year old ; and he discoursed about a numerous progeny, and 
of his parent s decease, in terms that caused Mr. Iredell to say 
in communicating with a friend : " I am quite vexed (between 
ourselves) at the levity and indifference of Sir N. Duckin- 
field s letter, wrote in answer to mine giving a very particular, 
and to me very affecting, account of his mother s death. He 
bears it with all the cursed stoicism of a philosopher ; and is 
still afraid that his wife will ruin him with a great number of 
children. He will deserve a Xantippe for his next wife, and 



394 DUDLEY. 

a double set of children into the bargain. It is so intolerable 
to see a young man so insensible and so avaricious." The 
noticeable points of a letter dated in February, 1789, are the 
birth of a daughter, the allowance by the British Government 
of 3000 for his losses as a Loyalist, and the expression of 
joy that the Confiscation Act did not include " the negroes 
which he had lent to his mother." 

The Baronet died in 1824. His wife was Katharine Warde, 
who deceased in 1823. His son Samuel, captain in the Dra 
goons, was drowned in 1810. His son John Lloyd succeeded 
him, but dying without issue in 1836, the title devolved on 
his third son, Henry Robert, the present Baronet. His fourth 
son, Charles Egerton, is (1855) in the military service of the 
East India Company. His daughter Katharine married R. P. 
Smith, M. D. His family is one of the most ancient in the 
county of Chester, and is said to be descended from the Nor 
man house of De Massey. 

DUDLEY, CHARLES. Last Royal Collector and Surveyor 
of the Customs at Newport, Rhode Island. He was son of 
Thomas and Mary (Leavitt) Dudley, of a highly respectable 
family of Staffordshire, England, and was born in that county 
in 1737. When Robinson was transferred to the Board of 
Commissioners of the Customs, Boston, and in 1768, he was 
appointed his successor at Newport. In November, 1775, he 
fled to the Rose ship-of-war. The Whig Committee seized his 
personal property soon after, sold a part, and stored the rest 
in Providence. The Committee voted, subsequently, "that 
one of his best beds, with the furniture, be presented to Gen 
eral Lee," who was in command in Rhode Island, and very 
busy with the Loyalists. In 1776 Mr. Dudley embarked at 
Boston for Halifax, with the British Army, and went to Eng 
land the same year. He died at London in 1790. 

His only child who lived to mature years, Charles E. Dud 
ley, of Albany, New York, was a Senator in Congress from 
1828 to 1833, and died in 1841. The Dudley Observatory is 
named in honor of this gentleman ; and his widow, Blandina 
(Bleecker) Dudley, contributed, at various times, the sum of 



DUFIFELD. - DULANY. 395 

875,000 to erect and endow it. She died at Albany, March, 
181)3. In her will, in addition to her former gifts, she be- 
queathed the sum of $30,000 for the maintenance in the 
Dudley Observatory, which she established, of a scientific 
chair, to be known as the " Blandina Professorship." This 
puts the institution in an excellent financial position, giving 
it a permanent endowment of $80,000, which is safely in 
vested, and yields an annual income of $5600. 

DUFFIELD, JOHN. Of New Jersey. In 1774 the Whigs 
destroyed some tea owned by him, by Stacy Hepburn, and a 
Captain Allen, the value of which they attempted to recover 
by suit at law. Joseph Reed, of Philadelphia, was their coun 
sel, but they failed. 

DUFFUS, CHARLES. He died at St. John, New Brunswick, 
in 1818, at the age of seventy. 

DULANY, DANIEL. Of Maryland. Early in the contro 
versy, he and Charles Carroll engaged in a warm newspaper 
discussion, which attracted much interest. Dulany wrote 
over the signature of Antilore^ and his Whig antagonist 
adopted that of the First Citizen. Dulany was an eminent 
lawyer, and was considered one of the most distinguished men 
of lu s time. Before the Revolution he held the offices of Sec 
retary and Attorney-General of Maryland, and was a member 
of the Council. Few memorials remain of him, but he is ever 
mentioned in terms of the highest respect. Mr. Quincy, of 
Massachusetts, while on his journey to the South in 1773, 
spoke of spending " three hours with the celebrated Daniel 
Dulany." 

Though a Loyalist at last, he stood up manfully against the 
Stamp Act. These words, uttered in- 1765, are glorious: 
" A garment of linsey-wolsey," said he, " when made the dis 
tinction of patriotism, is more honorable than the plumes and 
the diadem of an emperor, without it. Let the manufacture 
of America be the symbol of dignity and the badge of virtue, 
and it will soon break the fetters of distress." 

He survived the Revolution several years. " Pie was one 
of the most refined gentlemen and flourishing counsellors of 



396 DULANY. 

his day, and dignified his profession by the liberality and grace 
with which he exercised it. Like Edward Rutledge, of South 
Carolina, he took no fee from the widow and orphan. We 
can barely remember his benevolent mien and silver locks, 
as, when superannuated, he walked the streets of Baltimore ; 
his chief pleasure, after all his high aspirations, grave labors, 
and bright successes of life, being the distribution of ginger 
bread, with which he was -constantly supplied, for the crowd 
of children who watched and followed their venerable pro 
vider." 

DULANY, LLOYD. Of Annapolis, Maryland. On the 27th 
of May, 1774, the Whigs of that city passed the following 
Resolution : " That it is the opinion of this meeting that the 
gentlemen of the law of this Province bring no suit for the 

o 

recovery of any debt due from any inhabitant of this Province 
to any inhabitant of Great Britain, until the said Act [Boston 
Port Bill] be repealed." Three days after, Mr. Dulany s name 
appeared at the head of the following Protest : " Dissentient. 
1. Because we are impressed with a full conviction, that this 
resolution is founded in treachery and rashness, inasmuch as it 
is big with bankruptcy and ruin to those inhabitants of Great 
Britain, who, relying with unlimited security on our good 
faith and integrity, have made us masters of their fortunes ; 
condemning them unheard, for not having interposed their 
influence with Parliament in favor of the town of Boston, 
without duly weighing the force with w r hich that influence 
would probably have operated, or whether in their conduct 
they were actuated by wisdom and policy, or by corruption 
and avarice. 

" 2. Because, whilst the inhabitants of Great Britain are 
partially despoiled of every legal remedy to recover what is 
justly due to them, no provision is made to prevent us from 
being harrassed by the prosecution of internal suits, but our 
fortunes and persons are left at the mercy of domestic credi 
tors, without a possibility of extricating ourselves, unless by a 
general convulsion ; an event, in the contemplation of sober 
reason, replete with horror. 



DUL ANY. DUNB AR. 397 

" 3. Because our credit, as a commercial people, will expire 
under the wound ; for what confidence can possibly be reposed 
in those who shall have exhibited the most avowed and most 
striking proof that they are not to be bound by obligations as 
sacred as human invention can suggest." 

Dulany was killed in a duel with the Reverend Bennet Al 
len, Hyde Park, London, in 1782. The seconds were a Mr. 
De Lancey and a Mr. Robert Morris, both, I conclude, Loyal 
ists. The cause of the fatal meeting was an article in a Lon 
don newspaper, in 1779, touching the character of Dulany, 
(among other Americans) with whom Allen was not pleased. 
Walter Dulany, son of Walter Dulany of Maryland, married 
the widow of Lloyd Dulany, in 1785. 

DULANY, DANIEL. Of Maryland. Son of Walter. At 
first, he enrolled himself in the militia, and seemed inclined 
to the popular cause ; but refusing to sign the Test, he in 
curred the displeasure of the Whigs, and fled. Attainted, and 
estate confiscated. 

DUMARESQUE, PHILIP. Merchant, of Boston. An Ad 
dresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 1775. In 
1776, with his family of seven persons, he went to Halifax. 
Two years later he was proscribed and banished. He was 
appointed Collector of the Customs at New Providence, Nas 
sau, and died there. His wife was Rebecca, daughter of Dr. 
Sylvester Gardiner. His children were Philip, a captain in 
the Royal Navy ; James, who married Sarah Far well, of Vas- 
salborough, Maine ; Francis, a physician in Jamaica ; and a 
daughter, Rebecca. Persons of his lineage are now living in 
Boston and vicinity. Perhaps the Lieutenant Dumaresque 
of the British Navy, attached to the Hawke sloop-of-war, 
drowned in 1812, was also of his family. The Hawke lay 
off Calspot Castle, where she was employed to attend the 
Duke of Clarence. Lieutenant D. went up to Southampton 
to dine with Admiral Ferguson ; on his return, his boat upset. 

DUNBAK, DANIEL. Of Halifax, Massachusetts. Was an 
officer in the militia, and in 1774 a mob demanded of him the 
surrender of the colors of his company. He refused, when the 
VOL. i. 34 



398 DUNBAR. 

multitude broke into his house, took him out, forced him to 
get upon a rail, where he was held and tossed up and down 
until he was exhausted. He was then dragged and beaten, 
and gave up the standard to save his life. In 1776 he went 
to Halifax, Nova Scotia, with the Royal Army. In 1778 he 
was proscribed and banished. 

DUNBAR, JESSE. Of Halifax, Massachusetts. Bought some 
fat cattle of a Mandamus Councillor in 1774, and drove them 
to Plymouth for sale. The Whigs soon learned with whom 
Dunbar had presumed to deal, and after he had slaughtered, 
skinned, and hung up one of the beasts, commenced punishing 
him for the offence. His tormentors, it appears, put the dead 
ox in a cart, and fixing Dunbar in his belly, carted him four 
miles, and required him to pay one dollar for the ride. He 
then was delivered over to a Kingston mob, who carted him 
four other miles, and exacted another dollar. A Duxbury 
mob then took him, and after beating him in the face with 
the creature s tripe, and endeavoring to cover his person with 
it, carried him to Councillor Thomas s house, and compelled 
him to pay a further sum of money. Flinging his beef into 
the road, they now left him to recover and return as he could. 

DUNBAR, MOSES. Of Bristol, Connecticut. He was born 
in Plymouth, Connecticut. He was convicted of holding a 
captain s commission under Sir William Howe, and of enlist 
ing men for the Royal Army, by the Superior Court, January, 
1777, and soon after, while under sentence of death, cleared 
himself of his irons, knocked down the sentries, and escaped 
from jail, but was apprehended. The " Connecticut Courant " 
announced that, " On Wednesday, March 19, Moses Dunbar 
will be executed. A sermon will be preached at the jail to the 
prisoner, by the Rev. Abraham Jarvis of Middleton ; and a 
sermon in the North Meeting-house to the spectators, by the 
Rev. Nathan Perkins." There was still another homily by 
Rev. Nathan Stone, which was printed, and which closes thus : 
" Bloody and deceitful men shall not live out half their days." 
Dunbar was hung on the day designated, (March 19, 1777,) 
in the presence of a " prodigious concourse of people." 



DUNHAM. DUNMORE. 399 

His son Moses came to an untimely end. His widow, whose 
maiden name was Esther Adams, retired to the British Army, 
and remained with it some time ; but returned to Bristol, mar 
ried Chauncey Jerome, a Loyalist, and with her husband, went 
to Nova Scotia. At the peace, they settled at their old home 
in Connecticut, and were the parents of several children. She 
died in 1825, aged sixty-six. Dunbar s house was standing in 
1859. 

DUNHAM. Captain Asher Dunham and Daniel Dunham 
were among the Loyalists who went to St. John, New Bruns 
wick, in 1788, and both received grants of city lots. John 
Dunham, who emigrated the same year, and who was a cap 
tain in the militia of that Province, died at Carleton in 1829, 
aged eighty-one. 

DUNMOKE, EARL OF. Last Royal Governor of Virginia. 
He succeeded to the peerage in 1756 ; was appointed Gov 
ernor of New York in 1770 ; assumed the Executive Chair 
of Virginia in 1772, and administered the government until 

& o 

the popular party compelled him to seek safety on board of a 
ship-of-war. He soon collected a number of vessels, and was 
joined by many Loyalists who had become obnoxious, and 
who, from necessity or fear, abandoned their homes. Wash 
ington said, December, 1775, " I do not think that forcing his 
Lordship on shipboard is sufficient. Nothing less than depriv 
ing him of life or liberty will secure peace to Virginia, as mo 
tives of resentment actuate his conduct to a degree equal to 
the total destruction of that colony." 

Lord Dunmore, with his fleet of fugitives, continued on the 
coasts and rivers of Virginia for a part of the year 1776 ; and 
as every place was now strictly guarded, these unhappy peo 
ple, who had put themselves under his protection, underwent 
great distresses. The heat of the weather, the badness and 
scarcity of water and provisions, with the closeness and filth 
of the small vessels in which they were crowded, by degrees 
produced that malignant distemper which is known by the 
name of the jail or pestilential fever. This dreadful disor 
der particularly affected the Negroes, most of whom it swept 



400 DUNMORE. 

away. After various adventures, in which they were driven 
from place to place, and from island to island, by the Virgin 
ians, several of the vessels were driven on shore in a gale of 
wind, and the wretched fugitives became captives to their own 
countrymen. At length, every place being shut against the 
remainder, and neither water nor provisions to be obtained, 
even at the expense of blood, it was found necessary, towards 
the beginning of August, 1776, to burn the smaller vessels, 
and to send the remainder, amounting to between forty and 
fifty sail, with the exiles, to seek shelter in Florida, Bermudas, 
and the West Indies. In this manner ended the hopes enter 
tained by the employment of the Negroes to suppress the 
rebellion in the Southern colonies. This measure tended 
infinitely to inflame the discontents in those colonies, without 
adding anything to the strength of the Royal arms. 

He is represented as both needy and greedy. " To get 
money was the rule of action which included his whole admin 
istrative conduct." In 1779 his name appears in the Con 
fiscation Act of New York. He was appointed Governor of 
the Bermudas in 1786. He died in England in 1809. His 
daughter Augusta married the Duke of Sussex, sixth son of 
King George Third. Lady Dunmore, who died at South- 
wood House, near Ramsgate, in 1818, was Elizabeth, daugh 
ter of the Earl of Galloway ; to her daughter Virginia (thus 
named at the request of the Council and Assembly of Vir 
ginia) she bequeathed her villa at Twickenham and all her 
personal property. In 1848 a London paper announced the 
death of Sir Augustus Frederic d Este, son of his late Royal 
Highness the Duke of Sussex, by Lady Augusta Murray, 
daughter of the Earl of Dunmore, to whom his Royal High 
ness was married at Rome, in 1793. Upon the death of the 
Duke, in 1843, Sir Augustus Frederic preferred his claim to 
succeed to the titles and honors of his father, and the claim 
was heard by the House of Lords in that year, when, after 
proof was given of the marriage of his father and mother, and 
of the birth of Sir Augustus Frederic in 1794, a question was 
submitted to the Judges upon the effect of the Royal Marriage 



DUNN. EASTERBROOKS. 401 

Act, 12 George III. The Judges pronounced their opinion 
to be that that statute had incapacitated the descendants of 
George II. from contracting a legal marriage without the con 
sent of the Crown, either within the British dominions or 
elsewhere, whereupon the House of Lords resolved that Sir 
Augustus Frederic had not established his claim. The Hon. 
Charles Augustus Murray, who visited the United States in 
1830, and again in 1851, is a lineal descendant of Lord Dun- 
more. 

DUNN, JOHN. Of North Carolina. Major in the militia. 
In 1775, notoriously inimical to the Whigs, he was seized and 
sent to South Carolina. Frances, his wife, petitioned the 
Provincial Congress of North Carolina in his behalf, without 
success. He was, however, released ; but apprehended again 
in 1776, he was allowed the liberty of living in Salisbury on 
parole, on condition that he should appear once every day at 
the house of Maxwell Chambers, and give security in <1000 
for his good behavior. 

DUNN, JOHN. Of New York. He left the United States 
at the termination of hostilities, and was one of the found 
ers of St. Andrew, New Brunswick, and through life contrib 
uted to its improvement and prosperity. For many years he 
held the honorable and lucrative post of Comptroller of his 
Majesty s Customs at that port. He died at St. Andrew, 
April 14, 1829, aged seventy-six. His wife, Elizabeth, sur 
vived until January, 1835, and at her decease was seventy- 
three. He was a man proverbially kind, liberal, and hos 
pitable. 

DUYCKINGS, . Of New Jersey. Colonel in the 

militia. In 1777 Colonel Weedon wrote the Council of Penn 
sylvania that he was an "infamous character;" that he had 
been in the service of the Whigs ; but, when the British 
entered New Jersey, he took the oath of allegiance to the 
Crown. Weedon sent him prisoner to the Council, by order 
of Washington. 

EASTERBROOKS, JAMES. He was an early settler of New 
Brunswick, and was a magistrate and member of the House 
34* 



402 EDDY. EDSON. 

of Assembly for many years. He died at Sackville, in that 
Province, in 1842, at the age of eighty-five. 

EDDY, CHARLES, and THOMAS. Of Philadelphia, Iron 
mongers. Attainted of treason and their estates confis 
cated. Charles was ordered to Virginia ; went to England, 
and was in London, July, 1779. 

EDEN, SIR ROBERT, Baronet, and last Royal Governor of 
Maryland. His wife was Caroline, sister and co-heir of the 
last Lord Baltimore. 

He was appointed Governor in 1768, and continued in 
office until 1776, when the Royal authority ceased. But as 
he was accomplished, kind, and courteous, the Whigs allowed 
him to remain in Maryland without restraint. When, how 
ever, some despatches addressed to him by Lord George Ger 
main were intercepted, his arrest was ordered by General 
Lee. The Whig Council of Safety declined compliance ; and 
and Sir Robert was permitted to embark for England, in the 
sloop-of-war Fowey. He was created a Baronet, September, 
1776. He returned to Maryland in 1784, " to look after his 
lady s estate;" and died near Annapolis in 1785. His son, 
Sir William Eden, (subsequently Lord Auckland) who de 
ceased in 1814, was one of the Lords of Trade and Planta 
tions in 1776, one of the Commissioners to America in 1778, 
and, later, Ambassador to Spain and to Holland. 

EDGETT, JOEL. Of New York. He went to New Bruns 
wick at the peace, and resided there until his death, February, 
1841, at the house of his son John, at Hillsborough, aged 
eighty years. 

EDMISTON, REV. WILLIAM. Of Maryland. Episcopal 
minister. In 1775 the Committee of Baltimore ordered him 
to appear and answer to the charges against him ; he obeyed, 
and made a written explanation which was voted satisfactory. 
In November, 1776, he was at Albany, New York, and asked 
General Gates to allow him to go to General Howe on pri 
vate business, and promised to return at any specified time. 
He was in England previous to July, 1779. 

EDSON, JOSIAH. Of Bridgewater, Massachusetts. He 



EDWARDS. 403 

was a noted politician of the time, and was known by the two 
most odious appellations which prevailed ; namely, as a Re- 
scindcr and a Mandamus Councillor. Hutchinson speaks 
of him in 1771, when he was a member of the House of 
Representatives, as one of the several gentlemen of that body, 
who, in common times, would have had great weight, but 
who, then, discouraged by the great superiority of the num 
bers against them, were inactive. In 1774 Mr. Edson was 
driven from his house by a mob, and was compelled to reside 
in Boston, under protection of the British troops ; and at the 
evacuation, in 177(5, he accompanied the army to Halifax. 
He went from Halifax to New York, and died in that city, 
or on Long Island, not long after his arrival. He was a 
graduate of Harvard University, a colonel in the militia, a 
deacon of the church, and a respectable, virtuous man. He is 
alluded to in " McFingal," as "that old simplicity of Edson." 

EDWARDS, MORGAN. A Baptist clergyman. He was born 
in Wales in 1722, and came to America in 1761. He was 
at first pastor of a church in Philadelphia, and, subsequently, 
labored in various places, either as lecturer or preacher. Op 
posed to the Revolution, he gave up the ministry during the 
war. He was an eccentric man, and among his acts was 
the preaching of his ow r n funeral sermon. He lived a quarter 
of a century after the solemn farce, dying in 1795, aged 
seventy-two. He published many sermons, and left nume 
rous manuscripts. 

EDWARDS, STEPHEN. Of New Jersey. An amiable 
young man, who joined the adherents to the Crown at New 
York, near the close of the war. Sent, by Colonel Taylor of 
a Loyalist corps, to Monmouth County to ascertain the Whig 
force there, he \vas arrested at midnight, in his father s house, 
in bed with his wife, disguised in a female s night-cap, by a 
party under Jonathan Forman, a Whig captain of horse, 
taken to Freehold, tried as a spy by a court-martial, and two 
days afterward, executed. His father and mother arrived in 
town the morning of his death, to inquire into his situation; 
and returned home with his corpse. The Forman and 
Edwards families had been on terms of intimate friendship. 



404 ELLIOT. 

ELLIOT, ANDREW. Of New York. He was Collector 
of the Customs for the port of New York, from about the 
year 17(34 until the Revolution, and performed his official 
duties in a manner highly satisfactory. His first difficulty 
with the people of a serious nature occurred in 1774, when 
he seized some fire-arms, and was threatened with a visit from 
the " Mohawks and River Indians," or, in other words, with 
a coat of tar and feathers. After the Royal Army took pos 
session of New York, he continued to perform his duties of 
Collector, and during the war held various important offices. 
In 1782 he was not only at the head of the Customs, but was 
Lieutenant-Governor, Receiver-General of Quit-rents, Super 
intendent-General of Police, and Chief of the Superintendent 
Department, established by Sir William Howe in 1777. And 
when, in 1780, Sir Henry Clinton made his last effort to save 
Andre, Mr. Elliot was one of the three eminent persons who 
were sent to confer with Washington. Mr. Elliot s estate in 
New York was confiscated ; and the Executive Council of 
Pennsylvania, to reach property possessed by him in that 
State, ordered by proclamation, that on his failing to appear 
within a specified time, to take his trial on the charge of 
treason, he should stand attainted. 

His family sailed for England in the Nonesuch, of 64 guns, 
June, 1783 ; and his furniture was sold at auction in Septem 
ber of that year, at his house in Bowery Lane. His daughter 
Elizabeth married the tenth Lord Cathcart, in 1779 ; and Sir 
George Cathcart, who fell at the battle of Inkerman, in the 
Crimean war, 1854, was the fourth son of this marriage. 
The present Earl (1857) is the second son. Mr. Elliot s 
daughter Eleanor married the Right Hon. Robert Digby, 
Admiral of the Fleet, and died in England in 1830 ; her first 
husband was a Jauncey, of New York. 

ELLIOT, CAPTAIN . Noted for his revengeful dis 
position and infamous deeds. In the documents of the time, 
McKee, Elliot, and Simon Girty, are mentioned together, and 
as forming a sort of triumvirate. The three were imprisoned 
by the Whigs at Pittsburgh, but made their escape, and in 



ELLWOOD. - ERVING. 405 

1778 traversed the country to enlist the savages against the 
Rebels. The effects of their councils were long felt and de 
plored. After the Revolution, and during the Indian troubles 
of Washington s administration, Elliot s hostile feelings towards 
the country which he had abandoned, were sufficiently mani 
fest to deserve universal and lasting detestation. He was 
dismissed from the British Colonial service about the year 
1801, without trial, but whether for misconduct, is unknown 
to the writer. 

ELLWOOD, JOHN. Of the county of Bucks, Pennsylvania. 
In 1778 he was tried for acting as pilot to the Royal fleet and 
army, in the invasion of the State by Sir William Howe, and 
sentenced " to be hanged by the neck till he be dead." He 
was not executed. In 1783 Humphreys wrote Galloway, 
that Mr. Ellwood " was out of his head at the time of his 
trial, and, indeed, ever since the army left Philadelphia." 
The records of the Council showed that he was pardoned 
July 15, 1789. 

EMES, JOHN. Of Pennsylvania. Deserted from the State 
galleys. Joined the British at Philadelphia. Captured at 
sea in 1779, tried by a court-martial, and, September 20th, in 
prison. 

EMERSON, THOMAS. A physician. He died at Frederic- 
ton, New Brunswick, in 1843, aged eighty-one. 

ENSOR, GEORGE. Of Southwark, Pennsylvania. At 
tainted of treason and property confiscated. At the peace, 
accompanied by his family of five persons, he went from New 
York to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted 
him one town lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty 
were estimated at <600. He died at Shelburne in 1805, 
leaving several children. 

ERVING, JOHN. Of Boston. He was one of the most 
eminent merchants in America, and a member of the Council 
of Massachusetts for twenty years. The Hon. Robert C. 
Winthrop, his great-grandson, in a public address in 1845, 
thus refers to him : " A few dollars earned on a Commence 
ment Day, by ferrying passengers over Charles River when 



406 ERVING. 

there was no bridge shipped to Lisbon in the shape of fish, 
and from thence to London in the shape of fruit, and from 
thence brought home to be reinvested in fish, and to be reen- 
tered upon the same triangular circuit of trade laid the 
foundations of the largest fortune of the day, a hundred years 
ago." Mr. Erving died in Boston in 1786, aged ninety- 
three. 

ERVING, JOHN, JR. Of Boston. He graduated at Har 
vard University in 1747. In 1760 he signed the Boston Me 
morial, and was thus one of the fifty-eight who were the first 
men in America to array themselves against the officers of the 
Crown. But in 1774 he was an Addresser of Hutchinson, 
and the same year was appointed a mandamus councillor. In 
1776 he fied to Halifax, and went thence to England. In 
1778 he was proscribed and banished ; and in 1779 his prop 
erty was confiscated under the Conspiracy Act. He died at 
Bath, England, in 1816, aged eighty-nine years. His \vife, 
Maria Catharina, (youngest daughter of Governor Shirley) 
with whom he lived quite sixty years, died a few months be 
fore him. His son, Dr. Shirley Erving, died at Boston in 
1813, aged fifty-five. 

ERVING, GEORGE. A merchant, of Boston. He was one 
of the fifty-eight memorialists who were the first men in 
America to array themselves against the officers of the Crown. 

J <75 

He was an Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774 ; was proscribed 
under the Act of 1778 ; and his estate was confiscated under 
the Conspiracy Act of 1779. He went to Halifax at the 
evacuation, with his family of five persons, and thence to 
England. He died in London in 1806, at the age of seventy. 
His wife was a daughter of the Hon. Isaac Royall, of Med- 
ford. His son, George W. Ervine, was American Consul at 
London, Special Minister to Denmark, and Minister Plenipo 
tentiary to Spain. A distinguished gentleman in Boston 

/ 1 & ? 

kindly furnishes me with the following passage in a letter 
received by him from the son just mentioned : " Many a time 
and oft" has my father "expressed to me his heart-bitter re 
grets, and that his only consolation was that his errors had 



EVANS. EVERITT. 407 

not deprived me of my rights as an American. I have com 
mitted a great fault, but you are not responsible. I brought 
you away a child (of five years), but remember that when 
you are twenty-one, you are freed from my authority as 
father, and will then return to your native country and so 
he sent me, and there commences my history He re 
mained to the day of his death an empassioned American." 

EVANS, ABEL. In 1778, in a letter to Galloway, he said : 
" The number of horses, employed to transport flour from 
Maryland and Pennsylvania to Boston, were immense. These 
were principally taken from the farmers southward of New 
York, as those in the Continental Army were mostly rendered 
unfit for service through hard usage and bad feeding. Carry 
ing so much provision so far, and over very bad roads, has 
destroyed many more of the horses belonging to the farmers. 
From these circumstances judge how badly the Continental 
Army must be prepared for another campaign." Evans was 
then in New York " obliged to go into such business as he 
could get to do." 

EVERSFIELD, REV. JOHN. Of Maryland. Episcopal min 
ister. He was born in England, and belonged to a noble 
family. He came to America in 1727, and the following 
year was placed over the parish of St. Paul s, Prince George s 
County. He possessed a good library, and was a man of great 
learning. In 1776 he was arrested, and his case examined by 
the Maryland Convention ; with the result that, in consider 
ation of his age and infirmities, and his want of ability to 
exert any dangerous influence, he be discharged, on payment 
of the expenses of his confinement. He died in 1780, aged 
about eighty. His wife was Eleanor Claggett, an aunt of 
the bishop of that surname, by whom he received a large 
landed estate. Several children survived him ; one of whom, 
John, was an Episcopal clergyman, and settled in England. 

EVERITT, GEORGE. Was a quartermaster in the King s 
service. Went to New Brunswick in 1783, and died at 
Fredericton in 1829, aged seventy. 

EVERITT, BENJAMIN, DANIEL, JAMES, and NICHOLAS. Of 



408 FAGAN. FAIRFAX. 

Queen s County, New York. Acknowledged allegiance, Oc 
tober, 1776. James signed a Declaration of loyalty pre 
viously ; settled in Nova Scotia subsequently, and died in 
Dig-by in 1799. 

FAGAN, JAKE. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. One 
of the " Pine Robbers." These miscreants plundered when 
ever they could, and changed sides as often as interest dictated. 
Jake, after a career of crime, was shot in 1778, by a party of 
Whigs who lay in ambush. After his body was buried, it 
was disinterred, enveloped in a tarred cloth, and suspended 
in chains with iron bands around it, until the birds of prey 
picked the flesh from its bones, and the skeleton fell to the 
ground in pieces. There is a tradition, also, that his skull 
was afterwards placed against the tree on which his body was 
hung, with a pipe in its mouth. 

FAIRCHILD, JAMES M. He went to New Brunswick in 
1783, and died at St. John in 1807. 

FAIRFAX, LORD THOMAS. He was the son of Thomas, 
the fifth Lord Fairfax, and of Catharine, daughter of Lord 
Culpepper, and was born in England in 1691. He was edu 
cated at Oxford, and was a good scholar. Succeeding to the 
title and to the family estate in Virginia, he came over to that 
Colony about the year 1739. After residing there a year, 
he returned to England ; but desirous of improving and induc 
ing rapid settlements on his land, and pleased with America, 
he determined to make Virginia the place of his permanent 
abode. Another account is that he sought seclusion in con 
sequence of disappointment in love. Whatever the cause, 
he closed his affairs in England, and came a second time to 
his estate in 1745. He lived several years with William 
Fairfax, at Belvoir, but at length fixed his residence a few 
miles from Winchester, on the western side of the Blue Ridge, 
where he laid out a farm, and put it under high cultivation. 
His mansion house was called Green way Court, and he lived 
in a style of liberal hospitality. He was fond of hunting and 
indulged in the diversion nearly to excess. I find it said that 
Christ Church, Alexandria, and the Church at Falls Church 



FAIRFAX. 409 

Corners, and the Hotel in Alexandria, which was the head 
quarters of General Washington, were built of bricks brought 
from England by Lord Fairfax. He was kind to the poor, 
and allowed them a large part of the surplus produce of the 
land under his immediate management, and afforded them 
the use of other parts of his estate on terms almost nominal. 
Indulgent to all who held lands under him and to all around 
him, faithful in the discharge of his private duties and in the 
performance of several honorable public trusts, he lived re 
spected and beloved by men of all parties. Though a frank 
and open Loyalist, he was never insulted or molested by the 
Whigs. When he heard of the surrender of Cornwallis, it 
is related that he said to the servant, " Come, Joe, carry me 
to bed, for it is high time for me to die" Nor did he long 
survive this event. He died at Green way Court in 1782, in 
the ninety-second year of his age, much lamented. His liter 
ary attainments were highly respectable, and it is said that 
in his youth he was a contributor to the " Spectator." His 
remains were deposited under the communion-table of the 
Episcopal Church at Winchester, but were removed in 1833, 
to provide a place for the erection of a pile of buildings on 
the site of the church. He was a dark, swarthy man, more 
than six feet in height, of a large frame, and of extraordinary 
strength. 

Lord Fairfax was the friend and patron of Washington s 
early life, and though he died before the mother country ac 
knowledged the independence of the thirteen Colonies, he 
saw, in the most intense anguish, that the widow s son, who 
surveyed his lands, was destined under Providence to be the 
great instrument to dismember the British empire. 

His barony and his immense domain in Virginia, between 
the rivers Potomac and Rappahannock, consisting, as appears 
by parliamentary papers, of five million two hundred and 
eighty-two thousand acres, descended to Ins only surviving 
brother, Robert Fairfax, who was the seventh Lord Fairfax, 
and who died at Leeds Castle, England, in 1791. But as this 
domain was in possession of Lord Thomas during the Revolu- 

VOL. i. 35 



410 FAIRFAX. 

tionary controversy, it was confiscated. Lord Robert, how 
ever, (claiming in behalf of himself; of Frances Martin, his 
widowed sister ; of Denny Fairfax, a clergyman ; of Philip 
and Thomas Martin, his nephews ; and three Misses Martin, 
his nieces), applied to tlie British Government for compen 
sation, under the provision made to Loyalist sufferers, and 
stated the value of the estate at <9S,000. The commissioners 
made a special report upon this claim, but do not appear 
to have come to a final decision with regard to it ; and after 
their labors were closed, it was among the few cases which 
were referred to Parliament for settlement. It was consid 
ered by a committee of that body, who, as the commissioners 
had done, reduced it to <60,000. Lord Robert s life interest 
therein, they find, by the established rules of computation, at 
<13,758. The value of the life interest Mr. Pitt recom 
mended to be paid, but at this time (1792) advised no com 
pensation to those who possessed the reversionary interest. But 
it is believed that, at a subsequent period, an allowance was 
made to nearly or quite the sum originally claimed. 

His estate was one of the largest and most valuable in 
America at the Revolution. It was granted May 8, 1681, by 
Charles the Second to Thomas Lord Culpepper, the grand 
father of Lord Thomas and Lord Robert Fairfax, on a "rent 
of X6 IBs. 4tZ., payable as therein mentioned." At Lord Cul- 
pepper s death it became the property of his daughter, the 
Right Honorable Catharine, Lady Fairfax, who, by her will 
of April 21, 1719, devised the whole in trust thus : " Upon 
trust in the first place by mortgage, a sale of sufficient part 
of the estates thereby devised, to raise a sufficient sum for 
discharging all her debts, legacies, and funeral expenses ; 
and after such mortgage sale and disposition," as follows, 
namely : 

" To the use of her eldest son, Thomas Lord Fairfax, and 
his assigns for life. Remainder to the first and other sons of 
said Thomas Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder to her second 
son, Henry Culpepper Fairfax, and his assigns, for life. Re 
mainder to the first and other sons of said Henry Culpepper 



FAIRFAX. 411 

Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder to her third son, Robert 
Fairfax, and his assigns, for life. Remainder to trustees to 
preserve contingent remainders. Remainder to the first and 
other sons of said Robert Fairfax, in tail male. Remainder 
to the daughters of the said testatrix, as tenants in common, 
in tail. Remainder to the right heirs of the said testatrix, in 
fee." 

Such was the tenure of the Fairfax estate in Virginia. The 
magnitude of the property, and the circumstances of the case, 
caused an unusual degree of investigation in Parliament, and 
Lord Robert s memorial for relief was the subject of a separate 
and elaborate report. His individual loss, if computed at the 
value of his life interest, w r as less than that of several of the 
Loyalists whose property was confiscated ; though we have 
seen that the Government gave him, without hesitation, nearly 
seventy thousand dollars, after reducing his valuation more 
than a quarter part. A considerable portion of this estate had 
been granted prior to the Revolution, upon the quit-rent 
system, and thus a part of its value had been transferred to 
others. Still the reversionary interest on the decease of Lord 
Robert, which the committee of Parliament fixed at a sum 
equal to a quarter of a million of dollars, was by no means 
extravagant, even if the worth of lands at that period be alone 
considered. 

Perhaps the reader has journeyed through the present 
counties of Lancaster, Northumberland, Richmond, West 
moreland, Stafford, King George, Prince William, Fairfax, 
Loudoun, Fauquier, Culpepper, Clarke, Madison, Page, 
Shenandoah, Hardy, Hampshire, Morgan, Berkely, Jefferson 
and Frederick twenty-one in all and embracing nearly 
one quarter of Virginia ; perhaps the eye that glances at 
this page has surveyed everything between the Potomac and 
the Rappahannock ; did the thought occur that this whole 
territory once belonged to a single family ; that though the 
Fairfax of the Revolutionary era was the friend of Washing 
ton, every acre was confiscated simply because of loyalty to 
the British Crown? Such a grant, after the lapse of genera- 



412 FAIRFAX. 

tions, and in the progress of civilization, we deem entirely 
wrong ; but, made in accordance with the spirit of the age, it 
was valid. The many battles on the Fairfax domain, in the 
present unhallowed Rebellion, will render the country between 
the Potomac and the Rappahannock memorable in all coming 
time. 

FAIRFAX, GEORGE WILLIAM. Of Virginia. He was the 
great-grandson of Thomas, the fourth Lord Fairfax. His 
father was the Hon. Colonel William Fairfax, who was Lieu 
tenant of the county of Fairfax, Collector of the Customs of 
South Potomac, member and President of the Council in 
Virginia. - He was educated in England, but was the early 
companion of Washington, and his associate as surveyor of 
lands. On the death of his father in 1757, he succeeded to 
his estate. He married a daughter of Colonel Carey, of 
Hampton, became a member of the Council, and lived at 
Belvoir. Some property in Yorkshire descended to him in 
1773, and he went to England ; and in consequence of the 
political difficulties which followed, did not return to America. 
He fixed his residence at Bath, where he died in 1787, aged 
sixty-three. Daring the war he evinced much kindness to 
American prisoners who were carried to England. A part 
of his Virginia estate was confiscated, by which his income 
was much reduced. Washington esteemed him highly, and 
they were ever friends. The illustrious Commander-in-Chief 
was named an executor of his will, but declined fulfilling the 
trust in consequence of his public engagements. Mr. Fairfax 
left no children. He bequeathed his American property to 
Ferdinando, the second son of his only surviving brother. 

FAIRFAX, LORD BRYAX. Of Virginia. He was the third 

<T> 

son of the Hon. Colonel William Fairfax. His wife was a 
daughter of Wilson Carey, of Virginia, and his residence was 
at Towlston Hall in Fairfax County, though for some years, 
during the latter part of his life, he was an Episcopal clergy 
man at Alexandria. An affectionate intercourse existed be 
tween him and Washington throughout life ; both were of too 
elevated a cast to allow political differences of opinion to alien- 



FAIRFAX. 418 

ate and separate them. In 1774 Washington expressed an 
earnest wish that he should stand as a candidate for the House 
of Burgesses, but lie declined. He was opposed to strong 
measures, and in favor of redress by remonstrances and peti 
tions. " There are scarce any at Alexandria," he wrote, " of 
my opinion ; and though the few I have elsewhere conversed 
with on the subject are so, yet from them I could learn that 
many thought otherwise ; so that 1 believe I should at this 
time give general dissatisfaction, and therefore it would be 
more proper to decline, even upon this account, as well as 
because it would necessarily lead me into great expenses, 
which my circumstances will not allow." Washington, in 
reply, remarked that he would heartily join in his political 
sentiments " so far as relates to a humble and dutiful petition 
to the throne, provided there was the most distant hope of 
success. But," said he, " have we not tried this already? 
Have we not addressed the Lords, and remonstrated to the 
Commons ? And to what end ? Did they deign to look at 
our petitions ? " &c. 

Prior to July 18, 1774, Mr. Fairfax attended several meet 
ings of the Whigs of Fairfax County, but at that time with 
drew from them. The immediate cause of withdrawal seems 
to have been his disapprobation of some of the resolutions pre 
pared by a committee, and submitted to a general meeting of 
the inhabitants of the county. Washington was chairman of 
both the committee and the meeting, and Fairfax addressed 
to him a communication, expressing his views and objections, 
which he desired might be publicly read. Yet the two friends 
did not relinquish their correspondence upon the great ques 
tions which agitated the country; and the letters of Washing 
ton to this gentleman contain the fullest and most satisfactory 
exposition of his sentiments that Mr. Sparks has preserved. 
On the death of Robert Fairfax (in 1701), who was the sev 
enth Lord Fairfax, Bryan Fairfax succeeded to the title, and 
was the eighth Baron of the name. Benevolence and kind 
ness were marked traits in his character, and he was univer 
sally respected and beloved. Washington bequeathed to him 
35* 



414 FAIRFAX. - FALES. 

an elegant Bible in three volumes folio. Lord Bryan died- at 
Mount Eagle, near Cameron, in 1802, aged seventy-five, after 
a lon<r illness, which he bore with resignation. 

Two of his sons were Ferdinando and Thomas. The lat 
ter, as we shall see, inherited the empty title of Lord Fairfax. 
His grandson Henry, a graduate at West Point, raised a com 
pany in the late war with Mexico, much against the wishes 
of his relatives and friends, and died a victim to the climate, 
soon after arriving at the scene of strife. Lord Thomas Fair 
fax, after his succession to the barony, chose to live much in 
retirement, to superintend " his paternal estates on the Poto 
mac, and to exercise a genuine old English hospitality, com 
bined with the simplicity of the land in which he dwelt." 
" He uniformly declined, from Americans, any deference to 
his rank, preferring to be regarded as simply a gentleman of 
the county which bears his family name." He died at his 
seat in Virginia, in 1846, in his eighty-fourth year. Marga 
ret, his widow, died in 1858, at the age of seventy-five. The 
present Baron is Lord Charles Snowden Fairfax, grandson 
of Lord Thomas. 

FAIRWEATHER, BENJAMIN, JEDEDIAH, and THOMAS. Set 
tled in New Brunswick in 1788, and received grants of lands. 
Thomas died at Norton in that Colony in 18*25, at the ao-e of 
seventy-seven, and Elizabeth, his widow, at the same place, 
in 1846, aged seventy -nine. Jedediah died at Norton in 
1831, at the age of ninety-six. 

FALES, DAVID. Of Dedham, Massachusetts. In 1763 he 
removed to Maine, upon the Waldo Patent, and within the 
limits of the present town of Thomaston ; where he practised 
as a physician, taught school, and surveyed lands. He was 
also employed by Mr. Flucker, the Secretary of Massachusetts, 
and son-in-law of General Waldo, as agent of lands embraced 
in the Patent. He wrote a remarkable fair hand, was me 
thodical in business, but slow, and very tardy in coming to the 
relief of a patient. In 1775 the Whigs, in the vicinity of his 
home, offered him the alternative of signing a Test of fidelity 
to the popular cause, or of riding on the " wooden horse." 



FANNING. 415 

He refused to side with the " Rebels," and escaped the rail : 
for his wife prepared a pailful of flip, and his sons became sure 
ties for his ii ood conduct. I find him in Maine in 1700, when, 
at Thornaston, his name appears as one of a committee to se 
lect the site for a meeting-house in Warren. 

FANNING, EDMUND. Of North Carolina. General in the 
British Army. Son of Colonel Phineas Fanning. Born on 
Long Island, New York. Graduated at Yale College ; stud 
ied law ; removed to North Carolina, and commenced practice. 
Appointed colonel in the militia in 1703, and two years later, 
clerk of the Superior Court. Subsequently, he was a man of 
considerable note in the Colony, and respectable men aver 
that he was remarkable " for all the vices that degrade the 
most abandoned and profligate minion." Among the public 
offices which he held, was that of Recorder of Deeds for the 
county of Orange ; and it is alleged, that to his abuses in this 
capacity, the war or rebellion of the Regulators in Governor 
Tryon s administration, is, in a good measure, to be attributed. 
The averment is, that, by his vicious character, " nearly all 
the estates in Orange were loaded with doubts as to their 
titles, with exorbitant fees for recording new and unnecessary 
deeds, and high taxes to support a government which supported 
his wickedness." This charge rests on very high authority ; 
and during the war of the Regulators against the Royal Gov 
ernment, neither the person nor property of Fanning were re 
spected. His losses were presented to the Assembly by Gov 
ernor Martin, the successor of Tryon, but that body not only 
peremptorily refused to consider the subject, but administered 
a rebuke to the Governor, for thus trifling " with the dignity 
of the House." It is not impossible that his unpopularity was 
greater than his offences deserved ; since neither the members 
of the Assembly, nor the people at large, were, at this junc 
ture, in a frame of mind to do exact justice to opponents. 
Fanning followed Governor Tryon to New York, and became 
liis secretary. In 1777 he raised a corps of four hundred and 
sixty Loyalists, which bore the name of the Associated Refu 
gees, or King s American Regiment, and of which he had com- 



416 FANNING. 

mand. To aid in the organization of this body, .500 were sub 
scribed at Staten Island, 310 in King s County, 219 in 
the town of Jamaica, and 2000 in the city of New York. 
"While stationed in Rhode Island, August, 1778, he had " a 
smart en^ao-ement with the enemy," said General Pigot, u and 

?T5 & J c5 

obliged them to retreat to their main body." In March of 
the following year, a part of his regiment, and other Loyalists, 
embarked in seven vessels, protected by three privateers, on an 
expedition, " to get stock," or cattle, at the eastward. The 
chronicle has it that they landed on Nantucket and brought 
off a number of hogs, a quantity of oil, and three vessels. 
On the 16th of June, the whole corps sailed for New York. 
While his regiment was on Long Island, some of his men 
entered a house, tied the owner of it to a bedpost, and then 
held a candle under the ends of his fingers, to torture him to 
disclose the hiding-place of his money. The general charge 

i/O O 

that " Farming s corps were rude and ill behaved," is sup 
ported by evidence. In 1779 the property of Colonel Fan 
ning in North Carolina was confiscated. In 1782 he was in 
office as Surveyor-General of New York. He went to Nova 
Scotia near the close of the war, and September 23d, 1783, 
was sworn in as Councillor and Lieutenant-Governor of that 
Colony. About the year 1786 he was appointed Lieutenant- 
Governor of Prince Edward Island ; and having served nearly 
nineteen years, was succeeded in 1805 by Des Barres, who is 
celebrated for his charts of parts of the American coast. 

Fanning was appointed Major-General in 1793, Lieutenant- 
General in 1799, and General in 1808. He died in Upper 
Seymour Street, London, in 1818. Whigs, as \VQ have seen, 
said that his character was bad. At the time of his decease, 
a friendly pen wrote : " The world did not contain a better 
man in all the various relations of life : as a husband, a parent, 
and a friend as a landlord and master, he was kind and in 
dulgent. He was much distinguished in the American war, 
and raised a regiment there, by which he lost a very large 
property." His only son, A. F. Fanning, a captain in the 
22d Foot, died in 1812. " Neither the General nor anv of 



FANNING. 417 

liis family ever recovered from that blow." Mrs. Fanning 
and three daughters survived. 

O 

FANNING, DAVID. Of North Carolina. He was horn in 
Virginia in 1755, and was bred to a trade. In 1775, to use 
his own words, lie was a planter " in the back part of the 
Southern Provinces." His first military service was per 
formed under Colonel Thomas Fletchell, in the affair with 
Major Andrew Williamson. In a memorial to the Commis 
sioners on Loyalists Claims, he states, that during the Revolu 
tion he had command of bodies of men from one hundred to 
nine hundred and fifty in number ; that he was engaged 
against " the Rebels " thirty-six times in North Carolina, 
and four times in South Carolina, all of which skirmishes 
and battles he planned ; that he was wounded twice, and 
made prisoner no less than on fourteen occasions ; that, at 
the peace, he went to Florida, where he settled two hun 
dred and fifty souls; that his property in North Carolina 
had been confiscated ; and that he and his family were in 
great distress. This paper is dated at St. John, New Bruns 
wick, in March, 1780. Of his course in the Revolution, 
another remarks : u Always well mounted and accompanied 
by a band of kindred spirits, he swept over the country like 
a Camanche chief, surprising parties of Whifijs when off 
their guard ; he often gave no quarter. In lying in ambush 
or pouncing upon them at their homes, he seized and murdered 
or tortured the obnoxious patriots, and then plundered and 
burnt their dwellings. By a series of bold adventures he took 
the town of Cross Creek, now Fayetteville, captured the Whig 
militia officers of the county of Chatham, when sitting in court- 
martial at Hillsborough, and by a sudden descent on Hills- 
borough, at dawn of day, about the middle of September, 
seized and carried off the Governor of the State." 

In 1799 Fanning removed from New Brunswick to Nova 
Scotia. In February, 1801, as appears by papers in his own 
handwriting, which are in my possession, he was under sen 
tence of death. He was a Freemason, and Oliver Arnold, 
Master of Lodge No. 21, King s County, petitioned Governor 



418 FANNING. F ANUEIL. 

Carleton to pardon him. By this document it seems that Fan 
ning was convicted on the testimony of a single witness ; and 
this fact is stated as a reason why mercy should be extended 
to him. The crime is not mentioned by Arnold, or in any of 
the other papers which I have examined ; but, from several 
expressions which occur, and from the manner of Farming s 
reference to Sarah London, or, as he calls her, " Sail Lon 
don," she must have accused him of violating her person, and 
have procured his conviction. He was pardoned. In 1804, 
his correspondence shows that he abused much abused a 
gentleman of St. John, who " contributed greatly in saving 
his life ; " while, subsequently, it affords ample evidence that 
he was often involved in quarrels with his neighbors, and in 
lawsuits with others. In truth, he was in trouble every 
where. In North Carolina he was declared an outlaw, and 
was one of the three who are excepted by name in the Act of 
General Pardon and Oblivion ; and not a Whig there or else 
where, as far as I know, ever spoke or wrote of him in kind 
ness ; while his fellow-Loyalists in New Brunswick and Nova 
Scotia often expressed their indignation at his words and 
deeds. In 1812, Fanning solicited military employment in 
the war with the United States, without success. Officers, 
however, who served with him in the Revolution, be it said 
in justice, testified to " his services and character as a brave 
soldier." He died at Digby, in 1825, at the age of seventy. 

FANNING, THOMAS. Of Suffolk County, New York. Ad 
dresser of Governor Try on, November, 1776 ; and deputed to 
present the submission of the committees of that county the 
month previous. In June, 1778, a party of Whigs from Con 
necticut seized him and carried him off. He was a kinsman, 
perhaps a brother, of Edmund. 

F ANUEIL, BENJAMIN. Of Boston. An eminent merchant. 
He was one of the consignees of the tea which was destroyed 
in that town in December, 1773. He died at Cambridge, 
Massachusetts, in 1785, aged eighty-four. 

FANUEIL, BENJAMIN, JR. Of Boston. He went to Eng 
land, and was in London, March, 1777. 



FARLEY. FAYERWEATHER. 419 

FARLKY, JOSEPH. Of Georgia. In the effort to reestab 
lish the Royal Government in 1779, he was appointed provost 
marshal. 

FARKINGTON, THOMAS. Of Groton, Massachusetts. Lieu 
tenant-Colonel in the Continental Army. In May, 1777, by 
order of General Heath, he was tried by a court-martial for 
" passing counterfeit money, knowing it to be such," found 
guilty, unanimously sentenced to be dismissed from the army, 
and rendered incapable of holding any military office under 
Congress. This done, he was committed to jail, to be dealt 
with by the civil authorities. 

FARNHAM, JOHN. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
A Tory marauder. In an affray in New Jersey, he attempted 
to shoot a young Whig into whose father s house he and a 
band of Tories and negroes had broken ; but was prevented 
by Lippincott, the murderer of Huddy. 

FARNSWORTH, DAVID. In 1778 he was tried as a spy, con 
victed of the offence, and executed at Hartford, Connecticut, 
on the 10th of November. A large amount of counterfeit 
Continental money was found in his possession. 

FAULKNER, THOMAS. Of North Carolina. Secretary of 
the Colony. Went to England, and died there in 1782. 

FAYERWEATHER, REV. SAMUEL. Of Rhode Island. Epis 
copal minister. He was son of Thomas Fayerweather of 
Boston, and graduated at Harvard University in 1743. Or 
dained a Congregationalist, he was settled at Newport, Rhode 
Island. His first service as an Episcopalian, after his return 
from England, was in South Carolina ; but the climate injured 
his health, and he applied to the Society for the Propagation 
of the Gospel for a mission at the North. He was accordingly 
transferred to the parish of St. Paul s, Rhode Island, in 17(30. 
In 1774 the Whigs of his flock objected to the reading of 
prayers for the King and Royal family ; and, as he could not 
dispense with them, as he thought, without the violation of 
his ordination vows, his church was closed. He preached 
occasionally, however, in private houses, without molestation. 
It is said, indeed, that personally he favored the popular cause. 



420 FEMALES. FENWICKE. 

He died in 1781, and was buried under the communion-table 
of his church. The University of Oxford conferred the de 
gree of A. M. in 1756. 

FEMALES. [See Women.~\ 

FENTOX, JOHN. Of New Hampshire. He was a captain 
in the British Army, but disposing of his commission, settled 
in New Hampshire, where he became a colonel in the militia, 
clerk in the Court of Common Pleas, and Judge of Probate 
for the county of Graft on. In 1775 he was also a member 
of the House of Assembly for the town of Plymouth, and 
was expelled. Enraged at the indignity, and at the measures 
of the Whigs generally, he gave vent to his passions, and fell 
into the hands of the people, who pursued him to the residence 
of Governor Wentworth with a field-piece, which they threat 
ened to discharge unless he was delivered up. Fenton surren 
dered, and was sent to the Committee of Safety at Exeter for 
trial. "Upon a full hearing of sundry complaints against" 
him in Provincial Congress, it was voted, that he was " an 
enemy to the liberties of America," and that he should " be 
confined in the jail at Exeter," and " be supported like a gen 
tleman, at the expense of the Colony, until further orders." 
By a subsequent vote it was ordered, that his place of con 
finement should be at the Whig camp. September 19, 1775, 
the Continental Congress instructed Washington to discharge 
him on his parole of honor, to proceed to New York and 
thence to Great Britain, and not to bear arms against the 
American people. Property confiscated, and banished, 1778. 

FENTON, LEWIS. A Tory robber and outlaw, who infested 
the pine barrens of New Jersey. He was originally a black 
smith, and learned his trade at Freehold, New Jersey. His 
first crime appears to have been the robbing of a tailor s shop ; 
when word was sent to him that, unless he returned his plun 
der, he should be hunted down and shot. He was killed in 
Monmouth County, New Jersey, in 1779, by a party who 
went in pursuit of him. 

FENWICKE, EDWARD. Of South Carolina. He was op 
posed to the measures of the Ministry in 1774, since he was 



FERGUSON. FERRIS. 421 

in London that year, and joined Franklin, Lee, and other 
patriots then in England, in a remonstrance against the pas 
sage of the bill for the Government of Massachusetts Bay. 
He married a daughter of John Stuart, Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs ; and, in 1776, petitioned the House of Assem 
bly to allow him to hold as property thirty negroes who, as 
he averred, Stuart designed to give him as a part of the mar 
riage portion of his wife. Stuart had then fled, and his effects 
had been seized. Fenwicke was a Congratulates of Corn- 
wallis on his success at Camden in 1780. In 1782 his estate 
was confiscated, and he was banished. In 1785, by Act of 
the General Assembly, his property was restored, and he was 
allowed to remain in the State one year. 

FERGUSON, HENRY HUGH. Of Pennsylvania. During 
the war he was made a commissary of prisoners. His wife 
was Elizabeth, a daughter of Doctor Graeme, the Collector 
of Philadelphia, and granddaughter of Sir William Keith, 
one of the proprietary Governors of Pennsylvania. In 1778, 
soon after he was attainted and proscribed, Mrs. Ferguson 
made a long statement to the Council, in which she gave a 
narrative of his conduct from September, 1775, (when, as 
appears, he embarked for Bristol, England,) until her appeal 
in his behalf. " As to my little estate," she remarked, " it is 
patrimonial, and left me in fee simple by my father." In 
1779 she appealed to the Council not to allow the sale of her 
property " in consequence of her husband s right by mar 
riage," setting forth, as she thought, " good and cogent rea 
sons " for her prayer. The estate was, however, confiscated ; 
but a part of it was restored to her by the Legislature in 1781. 
She separated from her husband, and died in 1801. 

FERRIS, JOSEPH. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He raised 
a company, joined Colonel Butler, and was a captain in the 
Rangers. During the war he was taken prisoner by a brother- 
in-law who was a Whig, but escaped from captivity. After 
the peace he went to Newfoundland, but removed to New 
Brunswick, where he settled. He was fond of visits to the 
States and to the scenes of his youth ; and sometimes met 

VOL. i. 36 



422 FERRIS. - FISHER. 

those whom he had opposed in skirmishes and battles. He 
lived in Eastport, Maine, after it was captured by the British 
forces in the war of 1812, but returned to New Brunswick 
on its being surrendered to the United States. He died at 
Indian Island, New Brunswick, in 1836, aged ninety-two. 
He enjoyed half-pay from the close of the Revolution until 
his decease, a period of fifty-three years. 

FERRIS, JOSHUA. Of New York. " An old offender," said 
Colonel Thomas, to the New York Convention, August, 1776, 
when sending him to that body ; " and has been sought for 
long since by the Committee of this county to answer for his 
repeated offences, particularly for being in arms against his 
country," &c. 

FEWTRELL, JOHN. Of South Carolina. He was a Judge 
of the Superior Court ; and was permitted to depart from the 
State. 

FINDLEY, HUGH. He and John Foxcroft were the two 
Postmasters-General of the thirteen Colonies, and were con 
tinued at the head of that Department until 1782, certainly, 
and probably until the peace. 

FINLEY, JAMES. Sergeant in Price s company of Riflemen. 
Tried by a general court-martial, at Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 
1775, " for expressing himself disrespectfully of the Conti 
nental Association, and drinking General Gage s health"; 
and sentenced to be deprived of his arms and accoutrements, 
to be put in a horse-cart with a rope around his neck, to be 
drummed out of the army, and rendered forever incapable of 
military service. 

FISHER, REV. NATHANIEL. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Epis 
copal minister. He was born at Dedham, Massachusetts, in 
1742, and graduated at Harvard University in 1763. In the 
early part of the Revolution he was imprisoned for his loyalty. 
He was employed by the Society for the Propagation of the 
Gospel in Foreign Parts, as a schoolmaster at Granville, 
Nova Scotia, soon after his release ; and in 1778, having 
been to England for ordination, he was stationed at Annap 
olis in that Province, as Assistant Rector. He returned to the 



FISHER. 423 

United States late in 1781, and was soon after admitted to 
citizenship in Massachusetts, on taking the oath of allegiance 
to that Commonwealth. In February, 1782, he entered upon 
his duties as Rector of St. Peter s Church, Salem. After a 
ministry of more than thirty years, he died in that city in 
December, 1812, on Sunday, a few minutes after returning 
to his house from performing divine service, at the age of 
seventy. His wife was Silence Baker, of Dedham, by whom 
he was the father of two sons and a daughter. " Two of his 
children were cut off in the bloom of youth and beauty," 
towards the close of his life, and " for a moment he seemed 
desolate and dismayed." It is written, that, " as a father and 
husband, he was affectionate and kind ; as a friend, faithful 
and sincere ; . . . and as a Christian, firm in his belief, and 
benevolent in his life." In person, he was strongly built, and 
of a laro;e frame. One of his sisters was the mother of the 

O 

statesman and orator, Fisher Ames. 

FISHER, MIERS. Of Philadelphia. Said John Adams, in 
1774 : " Dined with Mr. Miers Fisher, a young Quaker, and 
a lawyer. We saw his library, which is clever. But this 
plain Friend and his plain though pretty wife, with her T/iees 
and ThouS) had provided us the most costly entertainment: 
ducks, ham, chickens, pig, tarts, creams, custards, jellies, fools, 
trifles, floating islands, beer, porter, punch, wine, and a long 
&c. We had a large collection of lawyers at table," &c. In 
the rapidity of events, Mr. Fisher was left behind ; and in 
1777 he was apprehended and confined at Philadelphia ; and 
finally ordered, with other Loyalists of that city, to Virginia. 
He was distinguished in his profession, an eloquent advocate, 
and a lover of science. He died at Philadelphia in 1819, 
aged seventy-one. 

FISHER, SAMUEL R. Of Philadelphia. Brother of Miers 
Fisher. In 1779, a letter, addressed by him to his brother, 
Jabez M., was intercepted, and submitted by the Council to 
the Chief Justice, with the remark that it contained infor 
mation which appeared to call for legal reprehension and pun 
ishment. He was accordingly committed, and ordered to 



424 FISHER. 

recognize with a surety in .500. Hours were spent by the 
Chief Justice himself in the endeavor to prevail upon him to 
execute the required bond, but he absolutely refused. He 
was not, however, deprived of his liberty by the sheriff, until 
the Council issued a positive order to that officer to confine 
him. 

FISHER, JABEZ MAUD. Of Philadelphia. Brother of Samuel 
R. Fisher. He departed the State. In 1779 he was a mer 
chant in New York ; went to England, was a Loyal Addresser 
of the King, and died there the same year. In 1782, Messrs. 
Joshua Fisher & Sons, of Philadelphia, petitioned the Coun 
cil of Pennsylvania to grant Samuel R. Fisher, of that house, 
leave to go to England by way of New York, to assist in ad 
justing his concerns. The petition was rejected. 

FISHER, TURNER. Of Boston. Son of Wilfred Fisher. 
He accompanied the British troops from Boston to Halifax, 
and, entering the Royal Navy, became a sailing-master. After 
the Revolution, he married Esther, the daughter of Ezekiel 
Foster, of Machias, Maine, and settled in New Brunswick. 
He was in Boston about the time of the war of 1812, but his 
subsequent fate is unknown to his family. His son, Wilfred 
Fisher, Esq., is a merchant and magistrate of the island of 
Grand Menan, New Brunswick. His wife died, in November, 
1844, at the age of eighty-eight years, at the residence of her 
son. 

FISHER, WILFRED. Of Boston. At the evacuation of 
that town, he accompanied the British troops to Halifax, 
where he received an appointment which attached him to a 
corps of light-horse. He died at Halifax before the close of 
the war. He was proscribed and banished under the Act of 
1778, and his estate in Boston was confiscated. His son Wil 
fred was a Whig, and a ship-master. Captured by the Brit 
ish, he was carried to New York, and died there a prisoner, 
during the Revolution. 

FISHER, JOHN. Naval-officer, at Portsmouth, New Hamp 
shire. Salary, derivable from fees, ,200 per annum. Was 
proscribed by the Act of New Hampshire of 1778. He went 



FITCH. 425 

to England, and was secretary to Lord George Germain. 
His wife, Anna, sister of John Wentworth, the last Royal 
Governor of New Hampshire, died at Bath, England, in 
1811, aged sixty-six. 

FITCH, THOMAS. Of Connecticut. He graduated at Yale 
College in 1721, and devoted himself to the profession of the 
law. He held the offices of Councillor, Judge of the Superior 
Court, and Lieutenant-Governor ; and in 1754 was elected 
Governor. These various stations he filled with unsurpassed 
integrity and wisdom. His legal knowledge is said to have 
equalled, and perhaps exceeded, that of any other lawyer of 
Connecticut during the period of her Colonial history. In 
1765 he took the oath of office prescribed in the Stamp Act, 
and was driven into retirement in consequence the next year ; 
having occupied the Executive Chair for the whole period 
between 1754 and 1766. His successor was the Honorable 
William Pitkin. 

Copy of inscription on the monument of Governor Fitch, 
at Norwalk, Connecticut : " The Hon ble Thomas Fitch, 
Esq., Gov. of the Colony of Connecticut. Eminent and dis 
tinguished among mortals for great abilities, large acquire 
ments, and a virtuous character : a clear, strong, sedate 
mind : an accurate, extensive acquaintance with law, and 
civil government : a happy talent of presiding : close applica 
tion, and strict fidelity in the discharge of important truths : 
no less than for his employments, by the voice of the people, 
in the chief offices of state, and at the head of the colony. 
Having served his generation, by the will of God, fell asleep, 
July 18, Ann. Domini, 1774, in the 75th year of his age." 

FITCH, SAMUEL. Of Boston. An Addresser of Hutch- 
inson in 1774. In 1776 he went to Halifax with his family 
of six persons. In 1778 he was proscribed and banished. 
He held the office of Solicitor to the Board of Commission 
ers ; and, like most of his official associates, was included in 
the Conspiracy Act of 1779. He went to England, was a 
Loyalist Addresser of the King in* 1779, and was abroad in 
1783. 

36* 



426 FITCH. FITZSIMMONS. 

I conclude that the Samuel Fitch who graduated at Yale 
College in 1742, and died in 1784, was the subject of this 
notice. 

FITCH, ELEAZER, JR. Of Windham, Connecticut. Sheriff 
of Windham County. More than one hundred citizens of 
that county petitioned the House of Assembly, September, 
1776, for his removal from office, on account of many words 
and acts, which they designate, in opposition to the popular 
cause. Among them are the singular surnames of Devotion, 
Doughset, Greenslitt, Bibens. 

FITCH, BENJAMIN. Of Maine. Went to the Kennebec 
River in 1760, and was employed there by Dr. Sylvester 
Gardiner, as a millwright. Violent in his opposition to the 
Whigs, he was compelled to leave the country. He enlisted, 
"and was killed fighting for the king." His wife was Ann 
McCausland. 

FITZPATRICK, JAMES. Of Pennsylvania. A Tory ma 
rauder, known as " Captain Fitz." At first, a Whig, and in 
the Continental Army. He roamed the county of Chester, 
was a terror to the Whigs, and seemingly delighted in perils 
and escapes. His exploits were the theme of every tongue. 
At last, in 1778, when a reward of one thousand dollars had 
been offered for his apprehension, he entered a house to " levy 
his dues on the cursed Rebels," and was seized and overpow 
ered by Robert McPher and a girl named Rachel Walker. 
Conveyed to prison in Philadelphia, he broke his handcuffs 
twice in one night ; and, sent to another jail, he filed off his 
irons, and got out of his dungeon. He was hanged at last at 
Chester, Pennsylvania. 

FITZ-RANDOLPH, - . Of New Jersey. Lieutenant 
in the Loyal Militia. Killed near Elizabethtown, while acting 
with the Queen s Rangers. 

FITZSIMMONS, PETER. A merchant. At Newtown, New 
York, at some time in the war. In 1782 he opened a tavern 
there, which was much frequented by soldiers and Loyalists. 
He also kept a ferry. At the peace, he went to St. John, 
New Brunswick. 



FLEMING. FLOYD. 427 

FLEMING, JOHN. Printer, of Boston. Was proscribed and 
banished by the Act of 1778. He was copartner with Mien. 
Some of the books which they printed had a false imprint, 
and were palmed off as London editions, because Mien said, 
that books thus published met with a better sale. In 1767 
they commenced the " Boston Chronicle," a paper which, in 
the second year of its publication, espoused the Royal cause, 
and became extremely abusive of numbers of the most re 
spectable Whigs of Boston. To avoid the effects of popular 
resentment, Mien thought fit to leave the country. The 
"Chronicle" was the first paper published twice a week in 
New England ; and was suspended in 1770. Fleming found 
it prudent to retire from Boston in 1773, and embarked for 
England in that year with his family. He came to the United 
States more than once, subsequent to 1790, as the agent of a 
commercial house in Europe. His residence was in France 
for some years, and he died there. 

FLETCHALL, THOMAS. Of South Carolina. He was a 
colonel, and at the head of a considerable force of Loyalists 
in that State, during the difficulties with the Cunninghams 
in 1775 ; and signed the truce or treaty which was agreed 
upon between the Whigs and their opponents. In 1776 he 
was committed to prison in Charleston, by order of the Pro 
vincial Congress. After the surrender of Charleston, he was 
in commission under the Crown. In 1782 his estate was con 
fiscated. He appears to have been a person of much consid 
eration in South Carolina, previous to the Revolution ; and 
to have been regarded as of rather doubtful, or undecided pol 
itics, though the Whigs made him a member of an important 
standing committee, raised with the design of carrying out 

the views of the Continental Congress. 

& 

FLEWELLING, ABEL, and MORRIS. Of New York. Settled 
in New Brunswick at the peace, and were grantees of lands 
in St. John. Abel became a magistrate, and died at Mauger- 
ville in 1814, aged sixty-eight. 

FLOYD, RICHARD. Of New York. He was the eldest son 
of Hon. Richard Floyd, a colonel of New York militia, a 



428 FLOYD. FLUCKER. 

Judge of the Common Pleas, and a gentleman of wealth and 
reputation. His wife was Arrabella, a daughter of Judge 
David Jones, of Queen s County, New York. His children 
were Elizabeth, who married John Peter De Lancey, and was 
the mother of the wife of Cooper, the great American novel 
ist ; Anne, a younger daughter ; and one son, David Richard. 
The latter, in pursuance of the will of Judge Jones, and by 
legal authority, adopted the name of Jones ; he died in 1826, 
leavino- two sons, to wit : Brigadier-General Thomas Floyd 
Jones, and Major-General Henry Floyd Jones. Mr. Floyd s 
estate was confiscated ; and abandoning the country, he died 
at St. John, New Brunswick. His family was one of the 
most ancient in New York, and is distinguished in its annals. 
Descended from the same ancestor was the Whig General 
William Floyd, who signed the Declaration of Independence. 
The Floyds were of Welsh origin, and the first of the name 
emigrated in 1654, and settled at Brookhaven, Long Island, 
where many of his descendants continued until the Revolu 
tion. 

FLOYD, BENJAMIN. Of Brookhaven, Suffolk County, New 
York. In 1775 he circulated a paper for signatures, to sup 
port the Royal authority, in opposition to the proceedings of 
the Whigs, and obtained the names of about one hundred 
persons. A party of " Rebels," in 1778, entered his house 
at night, compelled a servant to show them in which room he 
was in bed, seized him, and carried him to Norwalk, Connec 
ticut. The next year, another party of about twenty, in 
whale-boats, robbed his dwelling of 600, and the most val 
uable part of his household goods. He was a major in the 
New York Militia. 

FLUCKER, THOMAS. Last Secretary of the Province of 
Massachusetts Bay. In 1765 he was member of a committee 
of the Council to consider and report what could be done to 
prevent difficulties in the proceedings of the courts of justice ; 
and, three years later, his name occurs in the State Papers, 
as appointed by the same body to assist in drafting an Address 
to the King. March 2d, 1774, when Lieutenant-Governor 



FLUCKER. FOLLIOT. 429 

Oliver was senseless and dying, John Adams records : 
" Flucker has laid in to be Lieutenant-Governor, and has 
persuaded Hutchinson to write in his favor. This will make 
a difficulty." Though unsuccessful, he was appointed a Man 
damus Councillor. Whig mechanics of Boston met at the 
Green Dragon tavern, and were so careful of their secrets 
that Colonel Paul Revere (who was one of them) says they 
swore on the Bible, every time they met, to discover nothing 
except to Hancock, Samuel Adams, Warren, and Church. 
The latter proved a traitor, and Secretary Flucker was the 
first to acquaint a person of Loyalist connections, who (a 
Whig at heart) told Revere, that all their transactions were 
communicated to General Gao;e. In 1776 Flucker was in 

O 

London, and a member of the " Brompton Row Tory Club," 
or Association of Loyalists, who met weekly for conversation 
and a dinner. He died in England suddenly, in 1783. He 
married Hannah, daughter of General Waldo, proprietor of 
the Waldo Patent, Maine, to whose heirs the domain de 
scended. The parts which belonged to Mrs. Flucker and her 
two brothers, were confiscated. Henry Knox, Chief of Ar 
tillery in the Revolution and Secretary of War in Washing 
ton s administration, who married Flucker s daughter, acquired 
a very large share of it on easy terms, settled at Thomaston 
and built an elegant mansion, in which he himself died in 
1806, and his wife in 1824. Mrs. Flucker remained in Eng 
land, but survived her husband only three years. 

FLUCKER, THOMAS, JR. Of Massachusetts. Son of 
Thomas Flucker. He graduated at Harvard University in 
1773, and in the Revolution was an officer in the British ser 
vice. By the University Catalogue, it appears that he and 
his father died the same year, 1783. 

FOLLIOT, GEORGE. Of New York. He was elected a 
member of the Provincial Congress for the city and county 
of New York, in 1775, but declined serving, and the vacancy 
was filled in June of that year. In 1776 he was an Addres 
ser of Lord and Sir William Howe. He was also appointed 
a member of the Committee of One Hundred, but refused to 



430 FORBES. -FORD. 

act. His estate of twenty-one acres was sold by the Com 
missioners of Confiscation, in 1784. 

FORBES, REV. ELI. Of Massachusetts. Congregational 
minister. He graduated at Harvard University in 1751, and 
was ordained at Brookfield the next year. He was dismissed 
in 1776, " on suspicion of entertaining Tory principles; " and 
was soon after installed over the First Parish in Gloucester. 
He died in 1804, aged seventy-seven. His first wife was a 
daughter of the Rev. Ebenezer Parkman of Westborough, 
by whom he was the father of two children, Eli and Polly. 
His second wife, who died in 1780, was Lucy, daughter of 
the Rev. Thomas Smith, of Falmouth, (now Portland,) 
Maine, and widow of Thomas Sanders, of Gloucester. 

FORBES, GILBERT. Gunsmith, of Broadway, New York. 
In 1776 he was arrested and put in irons, on the charge of 
being concerned in the plot of certain adherents of the Crown 
to murder a number of Whig officers, to blow up the maga 
zine, &c. When told that he had but a short time to live, he 
asked to be carried before Congress, and said he would con 
fess all he knew r . He is described as " a short, thick man, 
with a white coat/ 

FORD, WILLIAM. Captain of Loyalist refugees. In 1781, 
with thirty-eight men, " when the good people of Middle 
sex were assembled, and devoutly praying for their great 
and good ally," he surrounded their church, and took from 
thence " fifty notorious Rebels, their Reverend teacher, and 
their horses, forty in number." Though harrassed in return 
ing to his boats, he carried off " every Rebel and every 
horse." Three of his men were slightly wounded. This 
exploit was thought extremely meritorious in Loyalists cir 
cles ; and Ford s " bravery, coolness and alertness," were 
duly praised in an official report. 

FORD, ELISHA. Of Marshfield, Massachusetts. He was 
seized, carted to the liberty-pole in Duxbury, and compelled 
to sign a Recantation. He was afterwards in jail at Ply 
mouth, Massachusetts, and ordered by Resolve, June, 1776, 
to remain there at his own expense. 



FORD. -FOSTER. 431 

FORD, SAMUEL. Second Lieutenant of the Effinyliam gal 
ley. In 1778 he was tried for desertion to the Royal side 
during the siege of Fort Mifflin ; convicted, and sentenced to 
death. 

FORD, JOHN. Of New Jersey. Compelled to leave his 
residence to avoid the Whigs who molested him, he fled to the 
Royal forces on Staten Island, where he remained some years. 
In 1783 Sir Guy Carleton commissioned him to take charge 
of a company of Loyalists, who were emigrating from New 
York to Nova Scotia. He settled at St. John, New Bruns 
wick, and received the grant of a city lot ; hut removed to 
Hampton, and became one of the best farmers in that Colony. 
He died at Hampton in 1823, aged seventy-seven. 

FORREST, JAMES. Merchant, of Boston. An Addresser of 
Hutchinson in 1774. In 1775 he commanded, in Boston, the 
Loyal Irish Volunteers, a company raised to mount guard 
every evening, armed, and distinguished by a white cockade. 
Went to Halifax in 1776, with his family of six persons. 
Served as a volunteer in the battle of Germantown, 1777, and 
was wounded. Proscribed and banished, 1778. 

FORRESTER, GEORGE PEABODY. Died at Hampton, King s 
County, New Brunswick, in 1840, aged eighty-three years. 

FORRESTER, JOSEPH. At the peace, was one of the grantees 
of St. John, New Brunswick. In 1795 he was a member of 
the Loyal Artillery of that city. He died while at Boston in 
1804, aged forty-six. 

FORSTER, MOSES. In September, 1779, he was at Halifax, 
Nova Scotia, a stranger and in distress. As a Loyalist, he 
had been imprisoned on shore a year ; harrassed by a Whig 
committee ; driven from his family ; taken out of bed and 
conveyed one hundred and twenty miles to a guardship, and 
then transported. He had a wife and eight children ; and, 
at the above date, was about embarking for New York. 

FOSTER, THOMAS. Of Plymouth, Massachusetts. He 
represented that town in the General Court several years ; 
and in 1765 instructions were furnished him to govern his 
course on the exciting questions of the time. He accom- 



432 FOSTER. FOWLE. 

panied the British Army to Halifax in 1776. Aside from his 
political preferences, he was esteemed by his townsmen for his 
attention and fidelity to the municipal and civil concerns in 
trusted to his care. His father, Deacon John Foster, was also 
a representative from Plymouth, and pursued an independent 
line of conduct in that relation, never accepting of Executive 
favors. His son Thomas was a graduate of Harvard Univer 
sity, and instructed a school at Plymouth. His grandson 
Thomas was an officer of a bank at Charleston, South Caro 
lina, and died there in 1808, aged fifty-eight. Branches of 
this family settled in Middleborough and Kingston, Massa 
chusetts, and in Norfolk, Virginia. 

FOSTER, EDWARD. Of Boston. Addresser of Hutchinson, 
1774 ; went to Halifax, 1776 ; was proscribed and banished 
in 1778. He settled at Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, and man 
aged large iron-works there. He died in 1786, leaving 
thirteen children. 

FOSTER, EDWARD, JR. Of Boston. Son of Edward. 
Went to Halifax in 1776 ; was proscribed and banished in 
1778. About the year 1814 he settled in Union, Maine, 
and died there in 1822, aged seventy-two. 

FOWLE, ROBERT. Served an apprenticeship with his uncle, 
Daniel Fowle, of Portsmouth, and became his partner in the 
publication of the " New Hampshire Gazette," the only news 
paper in New Hampshire at the beginning of the Revolu 
tion. As the nephew was a Loyalist, and the uncle a Whig, 
their connection terminated in 1774; when Robert established 
himself as a printer at Exeter. The new paper currency, 
which he printed, having been counterfeited soon after, sus 
picion rested on him as a participant in the crime ; and his 
flight to the British lines in New York, and thence abroad, 
served to confirm the impression. Some years after the peace 
he returned to the United States, married the widow of his 
younger brother, and lived in New Hampshire until his 
decease. His father was John Fowle, first a silent partner of 
Rogers & Fowle, of Boston, and subsequently an Episcopal 
clergyman at Norwalk, Connecticut. The firm of Rogers 



FOWLER. 433 

& Fowle printed the first edition of the New Testament in 
the English language which was published in this country. 
Robert, the subject of this notice, received a pension from the 
British Government. 

FOWLER, JONATHAN. Of West Chester County, New 
York. Judge of the Superior Court. He was seized by a 
party of Whigs, who carried him to New Haven, where he 
signed an apology for protesting against Congress. At the 
peace, he went to Digby, Nova Scotia, and was a merchant 
and ship-owner. He soon died, and his family returned to 
the United States. 

FOWLER, CALEB. Of New York. In 1782 he was an en 
sign in the Loyal American Regiment. He settled in New 
Brunswick; received half-pay, and died on the river St. 
John. 

FOWLER, CALEB. Of West Chester County, New York. 
He was one of the Loyalist Protesters at White Plains, April, 
177"), who denounced Whig Congresses and Committees, and 
who pledged themselves "at the hazard of their lives and 
properties, to support the King and Constitution." He en 
tered the Royal service, and was a captain in the Loyal 
American Regiment. At the peace he retired to New Bruns 
wick on half-pay. He died near Fredericton. 

FOWLER. Of New York. Samuel was permitted to re 
turn to the State in 1784, on petition of Whigs. Of Massa 
chusetts. John, who, accompanied by his wife and two chil 
dren, arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, in the ship Union, 
in the spring of 1788. Of those whose places of residence are 
unknown, were William, who was a captain, and Gilbert, who 
was an ensign in the Loyal American Regiment ; Gabriel, who 
settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and died in that Colony in 
1832, at the age of seventy-five ; Daniel, who boasted of being 
a firm Loyalist, who settled in the same, and died in King s 
County in 1813, aged sixty-five ; Henry, who died in the same 
county in 1848, at the age of eighty-seven ; and another, who, 
a captain in De Lancey s Brigade, was killed on an incursion 
to Horseneck in 1780. Still again, Amos, Aaron, Andrew, 

VOL. i. 37 



434 FOUGHT. FOXCROFT. 

Josiali, and Jeremiah Fowler, in 1783, were petitioners for 
lands in Nova Scotia. 

FOUGHT, GEORGE. Of New York. He went to New 
Brunswick in 1783, and died at St. John in 1823, aged 
eighty-three. 

FOULIS, JAMES. Of South Carolina. Episcopal minister. 
Entered upon his duties in 1770 ; went to England in 1779. 

FOUNTAIN, STEPHEN. Of Stamford, Connecticut. He 
wrote a letter, addressed to " Darias Olmstead, at Norwalk, 
This with care," September, 1776 ; but the letter was really to 
his mother, brothers, and sister. He had a wife, and sent his 
love to her. He was an ignorant man ; and his letter is full 
of errors and exaggerations. Convicted the same year, by 
three Whig committees, of taking up arms, of corresponding 
with the British ships, and seducing many to espouse the Royal 
side, he was made prisoner, carried to Congress, and committed. 
He arrived at St. John, New Brunswick, with his wife, in 1783, 
in the ship Union. 

FOUNTAIN, JOHN. Went to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, in 
1783, where he had a fine vegetable and flower garden. The 
story is that he used to let the boys eat currants at a penny 
each. He removed to Deer Island, New Brunswick, and died 
there in 1829, aged eighty-five. 

FOXCROFT, JOHN. One of the two Postmasters-General of 
the Crown in the thirteen Colonies. He discharged the post- 
rider between New York and Boston, April, 1775, as he in 
formed the Whig Committee of the former city, because the 
mails had been stopped, the bags broken open, and many of the 
letters taken out and publicly read. "A Constitutional Post- 
office rose on the ruins of the Parliamentary one," in May of 
the same year. " The post, from New York for the eastward, 
sets out about nine o clock on Monday, about noon on Thurs 
day, and returns on Wednesdays and Saturdays." In 1776, 
we have three incidents ; thus, in February, the following let 
ter to Tuthil Hulbart, Boston : - 

"DEAR SIR, You will excuse my troubling you with the 
enclosed bill, which 1 beg you will receive in a sterling bill of 



FOXCROFT. FR ANCIS. 435 

exchange, if to be had, and remit it to Mr. Benson Fearon, 
Merchant, in London, advising me of it by the first opportu 
nity. I must not omit mentioning to you, that the first bill 
was remitted to Mr. Harry Lloyd, who never acknowledged 
the receipt of it ; and therefore it probably miscarried. Your 
negotiating this matter will lay me under a great obligation ; 
but in return, you know, if I can render you any service this 
way, you have only to command me. I have not had one 
line from you since the affair at Lexington ; nor from Siikey 
since she left us. Mrs. Foxcroft and my little girls are well. 
She joins me in sincere regards to you and family. 
" I am yours, as ever, 

" JOHN FOXCROFT." 

Next, in March, when the Provincial Congress allowed him 
to go on board the ships in New York harbor, to sort and count, 
for delivery, letters from abroad. Last, in November, when 
he was a prisoner in Philadelphia. In 1789 he was at liberty 
on parole, and in New York. After the war he was agent for 
the British packets in the last-named city, and died there in 
1790. 

FOXCROFT, THOMAS. Joint Postmaster-General with John. 
Went to England, and died there suddenly in 1785. Eliza 
beth, their sister, and wife of Benson Fearon, died in Eng 
land, 1801. 

FOY, EDWARD. Of Virginia. He entered the British 
Army in 1757, and was a captain in 1764. He accompanied 
Lord Dun more to New York, as his private secretary, in 
1770 ; and served in the same capacity when his Lordship 

was transferred to the government of Virginia. He returned 

& & 

to England in 1775 ; but probably came back to America a 
year or two afterward. 

FRANCIS, THOMAS. A negro slave, purchased by Philip 
Lott of Elihu Spencer, of New Jersey. He ran away to 
New York on 2d November, 1782, and was enlisted by Cap 
tain Thelwal into the Jamaica Rangers. He was reclaimed 
by the American Commissioners, in June, 1783 ; but Sir 
Guy Carleton refused to give him up, since he had joined 
him under the sanction of the Negro Proclamation. 



436 FRANKLAND. 

FRANKLAND, LADY AGNES. Of Massachusetts. Wife of Sir 
Charles Henry Frankland, Baronet. According to " Burke s 
Peerage," her maiden name was Agnes Brown ; others call her 
Ao-nes Surraj^e. The story told of her is romantic enough. 

<T? / O 

Sir Charles, who was a grandson of Frances, daughter of 
Oliver Cromwell, was appointed Collector of the Customs for 
the port of Boston, in 1741 ; and first saw Agnes at Marble- 
head, when she was about sixteen years of age, and a servant- 
girl at a tavern. She was of " matchless beauty," and, the 
Baronet becoming enamored with her, obtained the consent 
of her parents to take her to Boston, where he placed her at 
school, " clothed her in the best, and in every way sought to 
develop her body and mind." The end w r as, that he won her 
affections, and, as her humble rank presented obstacles to 
marriage, she consented to live with him as his mistress. 
This arrangement caused great commotion ; and Sir Charles 
bought an estate in Hopkinton, built a house upon it, and 
removed thither, with "his Agnes and some of his boon com 
panions." Some years afterwards he w r as appointed Consul- 
General to Portugal, and took Agnes with him. At the mo 
ment of the great earthquake at Lisbon, 1755, he was riding 
out ; " his horses were swallowed in the opening earth, and 
his carnage was covered with the ruins of falling buildings ; " 
and he himself expected to be crushed to death. While he 
lay buried, " the evils of his past career came forcibly to 
mind; and, if saved, he resolved to live a better life." Mean 
time his mistress was in search of him, found the spot, heard 
his voice, and offered a large reward for his rescue. The day 
after this fearful event, he led Agnes to the altar ; and the 
marriage ceremony was repeated in the Episcopal form, after 
his return to England. He came again to Boston, and pur 
chased an estate in Garden Court, North Square, near or 
adjoining the house of Governor Hutchinson, where he is said 
to have lived in much style. While Collector, he was often 
absent; and, finally, in 1759, was suspended for inattention to 
duty ; and William Sheaffe, who had often had charge of the 
business of the office, was appointed in his stead. The Bar- 



FRANKLAND. 437 

onet s mansion at Hopkinton (burned in 1858) attracted 
many visitors ; on going over it myself, I could hardly imag 
ine altered as it was that while he occupied it, he " main 
tained the splendor of an English nobleman ; " and the terms 
u elegant, very large and fine," often applied to it, seemed 
quite extravagant. He died at Bath, England, in 1765, and 
was succeeded by his brother Thomas, who, an Admiral of 
the White, married Susan, granddaughter of Chief Justice 
Illicit, of South Carolina. 

Lady Frankland, accompanied by her natural son, arrived 
in America from Bristol in 1768 ; and designed, probably, to 
remain. At Hopkinton, May, 1775 ; and, alarmed at the 
movements of the people, her Ladyship asked leave to remove 
to Boston. The Committee of Safety gave her liberty to pass 
to the capital with six trunks, one chest, three beds and bed 
ding for the same, six sheep, two pigs, one small keg of pickled 
tongues, some hay, three bags of corn, and such other goods 
as she should think proper to carry thither ; and gave her a 
written permit accordingly, signed by " Benjamin Church, Jr., 
Chairman." Thus protected, she set out on her journey with 
her attendants ; but was arrested by a party of armed men, 
who detained her person and her effects, until an order for 
the release of both was obtained." To prevent further annoy 
ance, the Provincial Congress furnished her with an escort ; 
and, by two resolves subsequently, allowed her to take seven 
trunks, all her beds and bedding, all her boxes and crates, a 
basket of chickens, two barrels and a hamper, two horses and 
chaises, one phaeton, some ham and veal, and sundry small 
bundles ; and required all persons who had any of her prop 
erty in possession to place the same, essentially, at her dispo 
sal. The " arms and ammunition," deposited in a chaise, a 
committee retained. These details are not trivial, because 
they show the spirit of the time. Lady Frankland was in 
Boston on the 17th of June, and gazed from her own house 
upon the conflict on Bunker s Hill. She returned to England. 
In 1782 she married John Drew, a. banker of Chichester ; and 
died at that place the year after, at about the age of fifty-five. 
37* 



438 FRANKLIN. 

FRANKLIN, WILLIAM. Last Royal Governor of New Jer 
sey. Natural son of Benjamin Franklin. Born about the 
year 1731. 

His father said of him : " Will, is now nineteen years of age, 
a tall, proper youth, and much of a beau. He acquired a 
habit of idleness, .... but begins of late to apply himself 
to business, and I hope will become an industrious man. He 
imagined his father had got enough for him, but I have as 
sured him that I intend to spend what little I have myself, if 
it please God that I live long enough ; and, as he by no means 
wants acuteness, he can see by my going on, that I mean to 
be as good as my word." He served as postmaster of Phil 
adelphia, and as clerk of the House of Assembly of Pennsyl 
vania. In the French war he was a captain, and gained praise 
for his conduct at Ticonderoga. Before the peace he went to 
England with his father. While there, Mr. Strahan wrote 
Mrs. Franklin: " Your son I really think one of the prettiest 
young gentlemen I ever knew from America. He seems to me 
to have a solidity of judgment, not very often to be met with 
in one of his years/ On the other hand, Rev. Jacob Bailey 
records (March 5, 1760) : " This morning waited upon the 
famous Mr. Benjamin Franklin, and received an invitation to 

dine His son dined with us, a barrister-at-law. He 

is a gentleman of good education, but has passed away the 
flower of his youth in too many extravagancies." 

While abroad, young Franklin visited Scotland, and became 
acquainted with the celebrated Earl of Bute, who recom 
mended him to Lord Fairfax, who secured for him, as is said, 
the appointment of Governor of New Jersey, in 1703, without 
the solicitation of himself or his father. Whatever the truth, 
John Penn, who was in England, said in a letter to Lord 
Stirling, that the business was managed so privately that 
" there was no opportunity of counteracting, or, indeed, do 
ing one single thing that might put a stop to this shameful 
affair. I make no doubt but the people of New Jersey will 
make some remonstrance upon this indignity put upon them. 
.... What a dishonor and disgrace it must be to a country 



FRANKLIN. 439 

to have such a man at the head of it, and to sit down con 
tented ! .... If any gentleman had been appointed, it would 
have been a different case," &c. 

The biographer of his Lordship remarks that the disgust at 
Franklin s appointment, "arose in part, probably, from the 
illegitimacy of his birth," but principally from his " time 
serving conduct and courtier-like propensities ; " and lie adds 
that the Governor " was originally a Whig, but became, cs 
virtutc offtcii, a Tory." 

Governor Franklin s first serious dispute with the Assembly 
appears to have been caused by his course in relation to the 
removal of the Treasurer of the Colony, who was a defaulter. 
On the llth of June, 1774, the Whigs of Essex County met 
in Convention, and adopted various resolutions expressive of 
their sentiments on the alarming state of affairs, which gave 
Governor Franklin much uneasiness. In January, 177"), he 
met the Assembly. A considerable part of his speech is de 
voted to the controversy between the Colonies and the mother 
country, and to warnings to the members against imitating the 
example of those whose course of conduct was likely to involve 
the country in afflictive calamities. 

The Governor and the Assembly parted in bad temper. 
An attempt was made to reduce his Excellency s salary from 
1200 to 1000, and in appropriating 60 for the payment 
of the rent of his house, the condition that he should reside 
either at Perth Amboy or Burlington was annexed to the 
grant. His situation was unhappy. All intercourse between 
himself and his father had now been suspended for more than 
a year ; and he was involved in a helpless quarrel with the 
delegates and the people of New Jersey. On the loth of 
February, 1775, he prorogued the Assembly. In March, a 
letter alleged to have been written by him to Lord Dartmouth, 
was laid before the House of Commons by Lord North, which 
in America caused much excitement ; and when the Assem 
bly of New Jersey met in the following month of May, a mes 
sage was sent to the Governor, requesting him to inform that 
body whether it was genuine, or whether it contained the 



440 FRANKLIN. 

substance of any letter which he had written relative to the 
measures adopted at the last session of the Assembly. In his 
answer, he explicitly denies its authenticity, and that no simi 
lar sentiments had been uttered by him in any communication 
to the King s ministers. But his message of reply is bitter and 
uncompromising throughout. " It has been my unhappiness 
almost every session during the existence of the present Assem 
bly," - is the opening remark, " that a majority of the mem 
bers of the House have suffered themselves to be persuaded to 
seize on every opportunity of arraigning my conduct, or foment 
ing some dispute, let the occasion be ever so trifling, or let me 
be ever so careful to avoid giving any just cause of offence. 
This, too, has been done with such an eagerness in the pro 
moters of it, as can only be accounted for on a supposition 
that they are cither actuated by unmanly private resentment, 
or by a conviction that their whole political consequence de 
pends upon a contention with their Governor." He concludes 
this ill-natured document with saying, that those who knew 
him best would do him the justice " to allow that no office 
of honor in the power of the Crown to bestow would ever in 
fluence him to forget or neglect the duty he owed his country, 
nor the most furious rage of the most intemperate zealots in 
duce him to swerve from the duty he owed his Majesty." 
The Assembly was prorogued on the 20th of May, (and on 
the day of transmitting this answer), to meet on the 20th of 
June following; but affairs had now reached a crisis, and 
Governor Franklin never communicated with that body again. 
Three days after the prorogation, the first Provincial Congress 
of New Jersey commenced their session at Trenton, and the 
Royal Government soon ceased to be respected, and to exist. 
A constitution was adopted in July, 1776 ; and William Liv 
ingston, a member of the first Continental Congress, became 
Franklin s successor. 

The deposed representative of Royalty was declared to be 
an enemy to his country, and ordered to be sent a prisoner to 
Connecticut. He was accordingly placed in the custody of a 
guard commanded by a captain, who had orders to deliver him 



FRANKLIN. 441 

to Governor Trumbull. The officer in charge halted at Hack- 
ensack, and was rebuked by Washington for his delay. The 
Commander-in-Chief was of the opinion, from circumstances 
communicated to him, that the fallen Governor designed to 
effect his escape ; that his refusal to sign the parole proposed 
by the Whig Convention of New Jersey, and a letter to Mrs. 
Franklin which had been intercepted, afforded sufficient rea 
sons for the exercise of great watchfulness and care. It ap 
pears that he was indulged in selecting the place of his con 
finement, and that he made choice of Connecticut. He was 
conveyed to East Windsor, and quartered in the house of Cap 
tain Ebenezer Grant. 1 In 1777 he requested liberty to visit 
his wife, who was a few miles distant and sick. In reply, he 
received the following letter : 

" Head- Quarters, July 25th. 1777. 

"Sin, I have this moment received yours of the 22d inst. 
by express. I heartily sympathize with you in your distress 
ing situation ; but, however strong my inclination to comply 
with your request, it is by no means in my power to supersede 
a positive Resolution of Congress, under which your present 
confinement took place. I have enclosed your letter to them ; 
and shall be happy, if it may be found consistent with pro 
priety, to concur with your wishes in a matter of so delicate 
and interesting a nature. I sincerely hope a speedy restora 
tion of Mrs. Franklin s health may relieve you from the anx 
iety her present declining condition must naturally give you. 
" I am, with due respect, 

" Sir, your most obedient servant, 

" G. WASHINGTON." 

Congress declined to allow the Governor to visit his wife, 
and he continued at East Windsor. This lady was born in 
the West Indies ; it is said that she was much affected by the 
severity of Doctor Franklin to her husband while he was a 
prisoner. She died in 1778, in her forty-ninth year, and it is 

l This building is still (1844) standing ; it is near the Theological Semi 
nary. 



442 FRANKLIN. 

inscribed on the monumental tablet erected to her memory in 
St. Paul s Church, New York, that, " Compelled to part from 
the husband she loved, and at length despairing of the sooth 
ing hope of his speedy return, she sunk under accumulated 
distresses," &c. 

In 1778, after the arrival in America of Sir Henry Clinton, 
an exchange was effected, and Governor Franklin was re 
leased. Little seems to be known of his proceeding during 
the remainder of the war. He served for a short period as 
President of the Board of Loyalists which was organized in 
New York ; but soon went to England. The adherents of 
the Crown were greatly alarmed at the distinction made be 
tween themselves and other subjects, in the articles of capitu 
lation of Cornwallis at Yorktown, and Franklin wrote to Lord 
George Germain, who was then Secretary for the American 
Department, on the subject. His Lordship, in answer, stated 
that " the alarm taken by the Loyal Refugees is not to be 
wondered at," and that, by command of his Majesty, he had 
directed Sir Henrv Clinton to make the strongest assurances 

/ O 

for their " welfare and safety." 

In AYest s picture of the " Reception of the American Loy 
alists by Great Britain, in the year 1783," Governor Frank 
lin and Sir William Pepperell are the prominent personages 
represented, and are placed at the head of the group of figures ; 
the first (in the words of the description or explanation) is a 
"son of Doctor Benjamin Franklin, who having his Majesty s 
commission of Governor of New Jersey, preserved his fidelity 
and loyalty to his Sovereign from the commencement to the 
conclusion of the contest, notwithstanding powerful incite 
ments to the contrary." 1 

In 1784, the father and son, after an estrangement of ten 
years, became reconciled to one another. The son appears to 
have made the first overture. Doctor Franklin, in acknowl 
edging the receipt of his letter, says in reply, on the 16th of 
August of that year : " I am glad to find that you desire to 

1 For the remainder of the description of this picture, see notice of Sir 
William Pepperell. 



FRANKLIN. 443 

revive the affectionate intercourse that formerly existed be 
tween us. It will be very agreeable to me; indeed nothing 
has ever hurt me so much, and affected me with such keen 
sensations, as to find myself deserted in my old age by my 
only son ; and not only deserted, but to find him taking up 
arms against me in a cause wherein my good fame, fortune, 
and life, were all at stake. You conceived, you say, that 
your duty to your king and regard for your country required 
this. I ought not to blame you for differing in sentiment 

/ "> 

with me in public affairs. We are all men, subject to errors. 
Our opinions are not in our power ; they are formed and gov 
erned much by circumstances, that are often as inexplicable as 
they are irresistible. Your situation was such, that few would 
have censured your remaining neuter, though there are nat 
ural duties which precede political ones, and cannot be extin 
guished by them. This is a disagreeable subject ; I drop it. 
And we will endeavor, as you propose, mutually to forget 
what has happened relating to it, as well as we can." 

The Doctor, I conclude, was never able to forget, entirely, 
the alienation which had happened between them. In a let 
ter to the Rev. Dr. Byles (1788), he said: "I, too, have 
a daughter, who lives with me, and is the comfort of my de 
clining years, while my son is estranged from me by the part 
he took in the late war, and keeps aloof, residing in England, 
w r hose cause he espoused; whereby the old proverb is exem 
plified : 

" My son is my son till he gets him a wife ; 
But my (laughter s my daughter all the days of her life." 

In his will, dated June 28, 1789, a few months before his 
own decease, he thus remembers his son William, late Gov 
ernor of the Jerseys : 

" I give and devise all the lands I hold or have a right to 
in the Province of Nova Scotia, to hold to him, his heirs and 
assigns forever. I also give to him all my books and papers 
which he has in his possession, and all debts standing against 
him on my account-books, willing that no payment for, nor 
restitution of, the same be required of him by my executors. 



444 FRANKS. 

The part he acted against me in the late war, which is of 
public notoriety, will account for my leaving him no more of 
an estate he endeavored to deprive me of." 

Though the part he acted against his father was of public 
notoriety, rumors reached the ears of the Commissioners of 
Loyalist Claims, that the disagreement between the Doctor 
and his son had been collusive, and was more politic than sin 
cere ; and the Governor was accordingly required to exhibit 
proofs of his loyalty and uniform attachment to the Royal 
cause. The commissioners themselves, probably, entertained 
no doubts on the subject, but examined the charge to satisfy 
the public, and to relieve the accused from what they believed 
to be an unfounded imputation. Among the witnesses who 
testified in his favor was Sir Henry Clinton. He made a 
schedule of his losses, which were by no means considerable. 
Indeed, Governor Franklin must have been poor. His per 
sonal estate was valued at only 1800, which sum the com 
missioners allowed him. He had several shares in back lands 
and grants, but as he was indebted to his father, and had con 
veyed to him all his real property in New York and New 
Jersey, the loss of his office and its emoluments, and the 
1800 above mentioned, comprised the principal items in his 
account, and for which he claimed compensation. Governor 
Franklin continued in England during the remainder of his 

^> t"? 

life. He enjoyed a pension, it is believed, of the amount 
of 800 per annum. He died in November, 1813, at the 
age of about eighty-two. Some years after the death of his 
first wife, he married a lady who was born in Ireland. His 
son, William Temple Franklin, who edited the works of 
Doctor Franklin, died at Paris, in May, 1823. 

FRANKS, DAVID. Of Pennsylvania. Commissary of Brit 
ish prisoners. In 1778, detected in endeavoring to transmit 
within the enemy s lines a letter which was deemed to con 
tain sentiments inimical to the Whig cause, General Arnold, 
who was then in command at Philadelphia, was directed by 
Congress to cause his immediate arrest and confinement in 
jail. It was resolved, also, that he should no longer perform 



FRAZER. 445 

the duties of Commissary ; and that Washington give infor 
mation of these proceedings to Sir Henry Clinton, with a 
view to the appointment of a successor. In January, 1779, he 
applied for leave to send his clerk, Patrick Rice, to New York, 
to settle his public accounts, which was granted. In 1780 he 
was ordered to depart the State ; but, as he delayed, on the 
18th of November a pass for himself and daughter to New 
York was sent from the Council, with the suggestion that 
compulsory measures would be adopted, on further disobe 
dience to the mandate of banishment. He replied on the 
21st, giving his reasons for remaining in Philadelphia so long ; 
and asked that his pass might be amended to include a ser 
vant-woman and his necessary baggage. He wrote again on 
the 22d, stating an excuse ; and on the 23d President Reed 
informed him that he was expected to set out on his journey 
the next day ; that his excuse, in the opinion of the Council, 
was a very frivolous one; and that no further indulgence 
would be allowed him by that body. 

FRAZER, CHARLES. Of South Carolina. After the fall 
of Charleston, in 1780, he was " town-major." Upon the 
application of an individual for rations, he issued an order, 
from which I extract sufficient to show its nature. Thus : 
" All difficulties with regard to provisions ought to have been 
considered before people entered into rebellion, or, in the 
course of these twelve months, while they have been allowed 
to walk about on parole. All militia prisoners and others on 
parole, are to keep their paroles and to remain in their houses. 
... . It is ordered that no person, now a prisoner on parole, 
in Charleston, shall have the liberty of exercising any pro 
fession, trade, mechanic art, business, or occupation ; and his 
his Majesty s subjects are hereby strictly enjoined and required 
not to employ such person or persons on any pretence." In 
1781 (July 26) he addressed the following note to the ill- 
fated Colonel Isaac Hayne : " Sir, I am charged by the 
commandant to inform you, that a council of general officers 
will assemble to-morrow, at ten o clock, in the hall of the 
Province, to try you." He wrote the next day to announce, 

VOL. i. 38 



446 FRAZER. 

that, instead of u a council," his case would be submitted to 
" a court of inquiry, composed of four general officers and 
five captains " ; and that he would be allowed materials for 
writing, and to select counsel. On the 29th of July, he ad 
dressed a third note, in which he said : " The Adjutant of 
the town will be so good as to go to Colonel Hayno, in the 
Provost s prison, and inform him, that . . . Lord Rawdon 
and Lieutenant-Colonel Nesbit Balfour have resolved upon his 
execution, on Tuesday, the 31st instant, at six o clock," in 
consequence of the decision of the court of inquiry, " for 
having been found under arms, and employed in raising a 
regiment to oppose the British Government, though he had 
become a subject, and had accepted the protection of that 
government after the reduction of Charleston." 

o 

FRAZER, JAMES. Of South Carolina. Physician. In 
1781 he was Acting Barrack-master of Charleston, and in 
July of that year promulgated an order forbidding persons 
u living under the Rebel Government " to let or lease any 
house without special license ; as it was intended to take all 
dwellings as might be wanted for the public service, "paying 
to the owners of those secured by the capitulation, a reason 
able rent for the same " ; by w r hich course the Loyalists 
would be " in possession of their own houses within a short 
space of time." He was also a British Deputy Commissary 
of Prisoners. It is stated on the best authority, that, having 
harangued the unfortunate Whigs under his care, to induce 
them to enlist in the Royal service, without the anticipated 
success, he pronounced this terrible sentence : " You shall be 
put on board of the prison-ships, where you cannot expect 
anything more but to perish miserably ; the rations hitherto 
allowed for the support of your wives and children, from this 
day, shall be withheld ; the consequence of which will be, 
they must starve in the streets." He lost his estate under the 
Confiscation Act of 1782. A Doctor James Frazer died at 
Charleston in 1803, possibly the same. 

FRAZER, JOHN. Of New York. Was born in Scotland, 
emigrated to New York some years prior to the Revolution, 



FRAZER. - FRENCH. 447 

went to Nova Scotia at the peace, and died at Shelburne in 
1840, aged eighty-eight. 

FRAZER, LEWIS. Settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and 
died in King s County in 1885, aged seventy-two ; Mary 
Harkley Frazer, his widow, who was horn in Charleston, 
South Carolina, died at St. John, New Brunswick, 1836, at 
the age of seventy-three. 

FRENCH, THOMAS. Of New York, and probahly of Long 
Island. Captain in De Lancey s First Battalion. 

The following marvellous incident seems to rest on o-ood 

o o 

authority: In 1779, when Colonel Cruger was ordered to 
evacuate Sunbury, French was directed to convey the inva 
lids to Savannah by inland navigation, in small vessels. On 
the passage, circumstances compelled him to land, and to 
fortify his camp, in front of which he placed four vessels, 
manned by forty seamen. His soldiers were one hundred 
and eleven in number ; and he had one hundred and thirty 
stand of arms. Colonel White, of Georgia, determined to 
capture him by stratagem ; and, to effect his purpose, kindled 
fires on shore in the manner of a camp, rode about giving 
orders in a tone of voice to be heard by French, and then 
went to him with a flag, and demanded him to surrender. 
White s party consisted of six persons; but French, believing 
that he led a large force, submitted himself prisoner of war, 
with his whole detachment, one hundred and thirty stand of 
arms, the vessels, and their crews. Four of the vessels were 
armed, and the largest mounted fourteen guns. After the ar 
ticles of capitulation were signed, White pretended that it was 
difficult to restrain his men ; and, to continue the deception, 
ordered his captives to go on shore unarmed, and to follow the 
guides, whom he would send to them, and by whom they would 
be conducted to Lincoln s army ; while he, with his troops, 
would follow in their rear. Most of French s men were 
Loyalists, and, dreading to fall into the hands of the Whig 
militia, this plan was gladly adopted. The prisoners ar 
rived safely in camp. 

FRENCH, JOSEPH. Of Jamaica, New York. He was 



448 FRENCH. FREY. 

elected to the Provincial Congress in 1775, but declined to 
take his seat on the ground that the majority of the free 
holders of that town were opposed to being represented in 
that body. In February, 1776, he was a close prisoner ; and 
in a communication to the Provincial Congress, stating his 
case and praying to be released, he remarked that he had 
been in confinement thirty-four days, three days in his own 
house, with twelve men and an officer to guard him when 
sick in bed. In 1777 Jamaica contributed ,219 to a corps of 
Loyalists raised in New York at the instance of Governor 
Tryon, which sum passed through the hands of Mr. French. 
In 1780 he was an Addresser of Governor Robertson. 

FRENCH, JAMES. Of New York. He accepted a com 
mission in De Lancey s First Battalion, and in 1782 was a 
captain. He went to St. John, New Brunswick, in 1783, 
was the grantee of a city lot, and received half-pay. He 
settled in the county of York, and was a magistrate for several 
years. He died in that county in 1820, aged seventy-five. 

FRENCH, . A Loyalist in arms, and of some note. 

He was killed in the battle of Bennington. 

FREY, HENDRICK. Of New York. He served the Crown 
during the war, and was a major. After the peace he re 
turned to his native State. In 1797 he and Brant met at 
Canajoharie, where, at a tavern, u they had a merry time of 
it during the livelong night. Many of their adventures 
were recounted, among which was a duel that had been 
fought by Frey, to whom Brant acted as second. The 
meeting of the Chief and the Major is described as " like 
that of two brothers." 

FREY, PHILIP R. Of Tryon (now Montgomery) County, 
New York. He entered the military service of the King, and 
was an ensign in the Eighth Regiment. He was engaged 
in the battle of Wyoming. He died at Palestine, Mont 
gomery (formerly Tryon) County, in 1823. His son, Samuel 
C. Frey, settled in Upper Canada, and communicated partic 
ulars of the sanguinary scenes at Wyoming, for Colonel 
Stone s use, in writing his " Life of Brant." The testimony 



FRINK. - FRYE. 449 

of the Freys is, that Brant was not present with Butler at 
Wyoming, and this, according to the son, the father steadily 
maintained through life. 

iT} 

FRINK, NATHAN. He was born at Pomfret, Connecticut. 
He entered the British military service, and was a captain of 
cavalry in the American Legion, and aide-de-camp to Arnold 
after his treason, and was engaged in the burning of Ne\v 
London. At the peace he went to St. John, New Brunswick, 
where he remained several years, but removed to St. Andrew, 
and finally to St. Stephen in the same Colony. Pie died at 
the latter place, December 4, 1817, aged sixty years. His 
wife, Hester, died at St. Stephen, February 22, 1824, at the 
age of sixty-five. His sister Alida married Schuyler, the 
oldest son of General Israel Putnam. Seven children sur 
vived him. His son James was a magistrate and ship-owner 
of St. Stephen, and married Martha G. Prescott, a niece of 
Roger Sherman. Captain Frink was educated for the bar. 
In New Brunswick he was a merchant and ship-owner ; and 
a magistrate of Charlotte County for about thirty years. He 
received half-pay as an officer. His family connections in 
the United States are highly respectable. It is believed that 
his political sympathies were originally adverse to the Royal 
cause, and that less intolerance, on the part of his Whig 
neighbors and friends, would have produced a different line 
of conduct on his part. 

FHYE, PETER. Of Salem, Massachusetts. Graduated at 
Harvard University in 1744. He was representative to the 
General Court, and being a member in 1768, was a Re- 
scinder. He was also a Judge of the Court of Common 
Pleas, Register of Probate, and Colonel of Militia in the 
County of Essex. His name appears among the Salem Ad 
dressers of Gage, June, 1774. He died in England, Feb 
ruary, 1820, aged ninety-seven years. The first husband of 
his daughter Love was Doctor Peter Oliver, a Massachusetts 
Loyalist ; and her second was Admiral Sir John Knight of 
the British Navy. Lady Knight died at her seat near London, 
in 1839. 

38* 



450 FRYE. - GAGE. 

FRYE, PETER PICKMAN. A soldier in the Continental 
Army. In May, 1777, he was sentenced to be shot at New 
York, for desertion, with the design of joining the Royal 
Army. 

FULTON, JAMES. Of New Hampshire. In 1778 lie was 
proscribed and banished. In 1782 he was a captain in the 
King s American Dragoons. James Fulton, Esq., a magis 
trate in the county of Halifax, died in Nova Scotia in 1826. 

FUSTNER, ANDREW GEORGE. In November, 1788, Wash 
ington wrote the President of the Council of Pennsylvania, 
that Fnstncr was a brother-in-law of Rankin of York 
County; that he went out of New York frequently as a spy, 
by way of Stark River, through New Jersey, and thence to 
Lancaster ; from which facts, means might be devised, per 
haps, to apprehend him. 

GABEL, JOHN. Was one of the first of the Loyalists who 
settled in New Brunswick, and died at St. John in 1810, aged 
eighty-four. 

GAGE, THOMAS. The first military and the last Royal 
Governor of Massachusetts. His father was the first Viscount 
Gage. He came to America with Braddock, in command of 
the 44th Regiment, and was wounded in the fatal eno;ao;ement 

O O O 

of the 9th of July. It is said that his indecision was the 
cause of the defeat. He was with Amherst in the expedition 
against Ticonderoga, and with Wolfe at Quebec. In 1761 
he was promoted to the rank of Major-General, and, two 
years later, was made Commander-in-Chief of the British 
forces in North America. In 1770 he was a Lieutenant- Gen 
eral. His home was in New York, and he lived in a large 
double house, surrounded with elegant gardens, on the site 
now occupied by the stores 67 and 69 Broad Street. In 1774 
he removed to Boston, and assumed the administration of civil 
and military affairs in Massachusetts. Sir William Howe 
was his successor in command of the army. His wife was 
Margaret, daughter of Peter Kemble, President of the Coun 
cil of New Jersey. He died in England, in 1787 ; his widow 
survived until 1824, and at her decease was ninety years of 
age. His son was the third Viscount Gage. 



GAINE. 451 

In 1848, General William II. Sunnier, who died at Jamaica 
Plain, Massachusetts, October, 1801, married Mary Dickin 
son Kemble, of New York, daughter of Peter Kemble, grand 
daughter of General Cadwallader, and niece of the subject of 
this notice. This lady survives, but has no child. A Resolve 
of the Legislature of Massachusetts in 1862, requested the 
Governor to receive the portrait of Governor Gage, bequeathed 
by General Sumner, and cause the same to be placed in the 
State Library. 

GAINE, HUGH. Printer and bookseller, of New York ; 
and publisher of the " New York Mercury." Died April 25, 
180T, aged eighty-one years. His political creed seems to 
have consisted of but one article, and that to kwp with the 
strongest party. At first he was a Whig, and when, in 1776, 
the British troops were about to take possession of New York, 
he retreated with his press to Newark ; but, in the belief that 
the Whigs would be subdued and the Revolution suppressed, 
he soon after privately withdrew from Newark, and returned 
to New York, where he printed under the protection of the 
King s Army, and devoted the " Mercury " to the support 
of the Royal cause. At the conclusion of the war, he peti 
tioned the Legislature of the State for liberty to remain in the 
city, which was granted ; but he discontinued the publication 
of his paper, and turned his attention to the printing and sell 
ing of books. He occupied a stand in Hanover Square more 
than forty years, and by close application to business, regu 
larity and punctuality, he acquired a handsome estate. As a 
citizen, he was moral and highly respectable. As a politician, 
his unstable course excited several poetical essays from a wit 
of the time ; among them is a versification of his petition to 
the new Government, already alluded to, of some three hun 
dred and fifty lines. The writer s manner may be judged of 
by the following extract. After relating the evils of his so 
journ at Newark, Gaine is made to speak thus of his return to 
New r York, and taking part witli the Loyalists: 

" As matters have gone, it was plainly a blunder, 
But then I expected the Whigs must knock under, 



452 GALE. 

And I always adhere to the sword that is longest, 

And stick to the party that s like to be strongest ; 

That you have succeeded is merely a chance ; 

I never once dreamt of the conduct of France ! 

If alliance with her you were promised at least 

You ought to have showed me your star in the East, 

Not let me go off uninformed as a beast. 

When your army I saw without stockings or shoes, 

Or victuals or money to pay them their dues, 

Excepting your wretched Congressional paper, 

That stunk in my nose like the snuff of a taper," &c. 

GALE, SAMUEL. Of Cumberland County, New Hamp 
shire Grants. He was born in England, in 1747, and was 
Avell educated. He came to America about the year 1770, 
as a paymaster in the British Army ; but, quitting the service, 
settled in the county above mentioned. In 1774 the infamous 
Crean Brush resigned as clerk of the Court, and he was ap 
pointed to the place. During the difficulties between the 
Whigs and Loyalists of Cumberland in 1775, as partic 
ularly related in the notice of W. Patterson, he does not 
appear to have conducted with wisdom or decorum. Accord 
ing to the account of the affair drawn up by the Whig Com 
mittee, he drew a pistol upon the multitude, who asked for a 

parley, and exclaimed, 4i d n the parley with such d d 

rascals as you are ; " and holding up his weapon, added, " 1 

will hold no parley with such d d rascals, but this." 

Collision soon followed, and human life was taken. An in 
vestigation followed. He was imprisoned first in his o\vn 
town, and next in Northampton, Massachusetts. Released at 
last, he repaired to New York, where he was joined by his 
family. In 1776 he was again seized and sent to jail in Fair- 
field, Connecticut, and while there wrote a long letter to John 
McKisson, in which he complains of the manner of his ar 
rest and of his subsequent treatment. I extract a single pas 
sage. " In this intolerable place," he said, " the wind, when 
cold, fairly chills every vein in my body. The smoke, when 
there is a fire, not only blinds, but nearly suffocates me ; and 
the continued smell of the room has, I fear, tended to rot mv 



GALLOWAY. 458 

very vitals. In the morning I have perpetually a sickness at 
the stomach ; about noon comes on a fever, which, in about 
three hours, is succeeded by an ague." Again, he said he 
wished for liberty on parole, that " I may finish my intended 
publication on Surveying, which, yon will know, is allowed 
by all parties to be a matter of great actual service to Amer 
ica." He went to Canada before the peace, and became Pro 
vincial Secretary, He accompanied Governor Prescott to 
England, to assist in adjusting some difficulties that had oc 
curred during his administration ; and while abroad, he wrote 
and published an " Essay on Public Credit," which Mr. Pitt 
is said to have approved. Mr. Gale returned to Canada after 
several years absence ; lived in retirement, and died in Farn- 
ham, in 182(5. His wife was Rebecca, daughter of Colonel 
Samuel Wells, of Brattleborough. 

GALLOWAY, JOSEPH. He was a son of Peter Galloway, 
and was born in Maryland about the year 1730. His family 
was respectable, and of good estate, and his education was 
probably the best that could be obtained in the Middle Col 
onies. He went early in life to Philadelphia, commenced the 
practice of the law, became eminent in his profession, and 
held many important trusts. He married the daughter of the 
Hon. Lawrence Growdon, who was for a long period Speaker 
of the Assembly of Pennsylvania, by which connection he 
enjoyed a considerable fortune. In 1764 Mr. Galloway was 
a member of the Assembly, and on the question of a change 
of the government from the Proprietary to the Royal form, 
as in some other Colonies, made an able speech in answer to 
the celebrated Dickinson, who opposed the petition. Both 
speeches were published. Galloway continued in the Assem 
bly for some years, and attained the Speaker s chair of that 
body. In 1774 he was elected a member of the Whig Con 
gress of the Continent, and took his seat, and was an active 
participant in its leading recommendations and measures. On 
the 20th of October, Congress adopted the celebrated measure 
of "Non-Importation, Non-Consumption, and Non-Exporta 
tion," and ordered that the several members subscribe their 



454 GALLOWAY. 

names to it. The signature of Mr. Galloway is among them ; 
and his name is to be found, also, to the " Address to the In 
habitants of the Province of Quebec." Near the close of the 
session he was appointed, with Mr. Adams and others, to 
revise the minutes of Congress. 

No man in Pennsylvania, at this time, was more in favor 
with the popular party. In the attack upon the proprietary 
rights, he had been regarded the leader ; and with Franklin, 1 
he was on terms of intimacy and confidence. His disaffection 
or disinclination to continue in the public councils soon be 
came manifest. By the proceedings of the House of Assembly 
of Pennsylvania, on the 12th of May, 1775, it appears, that 
" Joseph Galloway, Esq., having repeatedly moved in Assem 
bly to be excused from serving as a Deputy in the Continen 
tal Congress, the House this day took his motion in considera 
tion, and do hereby agree to excuse him from that service." 
In 1776 he abandoned the Whigs, and became one of the 
most virulent and proscriptive Loyalists of the time. His 
former friends often felt the force of his powers, and the evil 
effects of his influence with the agents of the Crown, both in 
America and England. He joined the Royal Army in New 
York soon after his defection, and continued there until June 
of 1778. As he prepared to embark for England, with his 
only daughter, he wrote his " ever dear and only sister," a 
parting letter, which is very affectionate in its tone, and in 
which he said : " I call this country ungrateful, because I 
have attempted to save it from the distress it at present feels, 
and because it has not only rejected my endeavors, but re 
turned me evil for good. I feel for its misery ; but I feel it 
is not finished its cup is not yet full still deeper distress 
will attend it." 

He was examined before Parliament, in 1779, on the in 
quiry into the conduct of Sir William Howe and General 
Burgoyne, and gave some very singular opinions. Thus, he 
said that four fifths of the whole American people, at the be- 

1 A will, executed by Franklin, some years prior to 1781, was left in 
his care. 



GALLOWAY. 455 

ginning of hostilities, were loyal or well affected to the Crown ; 
that if proper use had been made of men and means, the re 
bellion might have been speedily and happily terminated ; that 
in a military sense, America was not particularly strong : that 
the British troops were superior to their opponents, not in the 
open field, but in bush fighting ; and that such was the nature 
of the country, soldiers could carry provisions for nineteen 
days, on their backs. To all this, it was well replied, that 
though bred a lawyer, and used to business, he could be hard 
ly made to recollect anything which related to himself when 
a Whig and a member of the Continental Congress ; yet, that 
merely with the British Army for protection, and utterly ig 
norant of the profession of arms, he presumed to possess an 
accurate knowledge of the complicated business of the camp ; 
and to decide, in a manner which old and experienced com 
manders hesitated to do, upon all the great operations of war. 
Between this time and the peace, his pen was almost constant 
ly employed on subjects connected with the war, and its man 
agement on the part of officers of the Crown. In addition to 
an extensive correspondence with Loyalists who continued in 
America, he published " Observations on the Conduct of Sir 
William Howe ; a " Letter to Howe on his Naval Con 
duct " ; " Letters to a Nobleman on the Conduct of the War 
in the Middle Colonies " ; " Reply to the Observations of Gen 
eral Howe " ; " Cool Thoughts on the Consequences of Amer 
ican Independence " ; " Candid Examination of the Claims of 
Great Britain and her Colonies " ; and " Reflections on the 
American Rebellion." 

His estate, which he valued at 40,000, was confiscated by 
Pennsylvania, in pursuance of his proscription and attainder. 
A large part of his property was derived from his wife, and a 
considerable proportion of it was restored finally to his daugh 
ter. When the agency for prosecuting the claims of the 
Loyalists to compensation was formed, Mr. Galloway was ap 
pointed a member of the Board for Pennsylvania and Dela 
ware. But his own pretensions to consideration were disputed. 
The circumstance, that he had been a Whig and a member of 



456 GALLOWAY. 

the first Continental Congress, occasioned a jealousy among 
the adherents of the Crown, who had never changed sides, 
and the Commissioners made a minute investigation into his 
conduct. They examined numerous witnesses, among whom 
were General Gage, Lord Cornwallis, and Sir William Howe ; 
and they found and reported him to be " an active though not 
an early Loyalist," and of course entitled to compensation. 
A tract attributed to him, on the subject of " The Loyalist 
Claims for Losses," was published in 1788 ; from which, as the 
reader will remember, some extracts appear in the preliminary 
remarks of this volume. He died in England, September, 
1803, at the age of seventy-three years. 

His path was filled with vexations and troubles. He was a 
politician by nature ; and he had many qualities indispensable 
to success in political life. For some years prior to the Revo 
lution, he was the secret or open mover of many of the public 
issues that arose. In the alienation of friends he was unfor 
tunate. In 176G he connected himself with Goddard and 
Wharton, in publishing a newspaper called the " Pennsyl 
vania Chronicle." By the terms of the arrangement, he and 
Wharton were to furnish a share of the necessary capital, 
and Goddard was to print and manage the concern. And it 
is a singular fact connected with this matter, that the articles 
of copartnership provided for the admission of Franklin as a 
partner, should he choose to join them on his coming home 
from England, where he was then absent. But the philoso 
pher never availed himself of the opportunity ; the three part 
ners quarrelled, separated on the worst possible terms, and 
Goddard and Galloway filled the public prints with the vilest 
mutual abuse. The difficulty reached the ears of Franklin, 
and he thus wrote to his son William from London : " I cast 
my eye over Goddard s piece against our friend, Mr. Gallo 
way, and then lit my fire with it. I think such feeble, mali 
cious attacks cannot hurt him." The events of a few years 
produced strange changes in the relations of the several par 
ties here spoken of, and show the effects of civil war in a most 
striking manner. Galloway, as has been said, turned Loyal- 



GALLOWAY. 457 

ist, and Franklin renounced him; while Goddard, who made 
the " feehle and malicious attacks," was appointed to the sec 
ond office in the Continental Post-office Department, when 
Franklin was placed at its head. While, ao;ain, Goddard, 
soured and disaffected, on the retirement of Franklin from 
that service, because he was not named to succeed him, in 
curred the displeasure of the Whigs, and was the object of 
hate, and the victim of mobs. And yet again ; Franklin s 
only son, the Royal Governor of New Jersey, also became a 
Loyalist ; which entirely alienated his father, so that there 
was no intercourse between them for ten years. 

Galloway, after deserting the Whigs, was the mark at which 
many writers levelled their wit and their anger. Trumbull 
says of him, that " he began by being a flaming patriot, but 
being disgusted at his own want of influence and the greater 
popularity of others, he turned Tory, wrote against the meas 
ures of Congress, and absconded; " and, that "just before his 
escape, a trunk was put on board a vessel in the Delaware, to 
be delivered to " him, which, on opening, u he found contained 
only, as Shakspeare says, 

A halter gratis, and leave to hang himself. " 

Trumbull, in his " McFingal," still further discourses thus : 

" Did you not, in as vile and shallow way, 
Fright our poor Philadelphian, Galloway, 
Your Congress when the loyal ribald 
Belied, berated, and bescribbled ? 
What ropes and halters did you send, 
Terrific emblems of his end, 
Till, lest he d hang in more than effigy, 
Fled in a fog the trembling refugee V " 

The unhappy Loyalist deserved all that was said of him ; 
since it seems improbable that he changed sides from convic 
tion and from justifiable motives. A man of so great aptitude 
for the administration of affairs, of so mature judgment, of so 
much political experience, of so penetrating sagacity, of powers 
of mind that led his fellows in masses, can hardly stand excused, 
upon the most charitable view of his conduct that is possible. 

VOL. i. 39 



458 GALLOWAY. - GARDEN. 

GALLOWAY, - . Serjeant in the Queen s Rangers. 
Unhorsed and wounded in battle. He lamented the loss of 
the heel of his boot, which was shot away, says his com 
mander, more than his wound. 

GALLOPP, WILLIAM. He settled in Charlotte County, New 
Brunswick, and was a magistrate. He died in that county 
about the year 1800. 

GAMBLE, JAMES. Of North Carolina. Estate confiscated. 
Residence unknown. 

GAMBLE, DAVID. Belonged to the Eighth Pennsylvania 
Regiment, but deserted. In 1778 he was tried for this of 
fence, and for having in his possession counterfeit Continental 
money ; and was sentenced to suffer death. 

GANEY, MICAJAII. Of South Carolina. He lived on the 
Little Pedee ; and at the head of some Loyalists of that 
region, sallied out of swamps to distress the Whigs. Marion 
had required that he should obey his orders as brigadier of 
the district, but he refused. Yet, in 1781, when the Royal 
Army met with reverses, Ganey entered into a treaty of 
neutrality, which was renewed the year following. By the 
terms of the last arrangement, the Tory band were forgiven 
treason, secured in the possession of their property, and 
placed under the protection of the laws, on the condition of 
delivering up their plunder, and demeaning themselves as 
peaceable citizens of South Carolina ; while those who pre 
ferred to leave the country, were permitted to go within the 
British lines, and to carry off or sell their effects. He was 
considered an excellent partisan officer, and, in the judgment 
of some, able to cope with Marion himself. 

GARDEN, ALEXANDER. Of South Carolina. A Congrat- 
ulator of Cornwallis on his success at Cainden in 1780. In 
1782 his estate was confiscated, and he was banished. Doctor 
Garden fitted himself for professional pursuits at Edinburgh. 
He acquired a fortune. He was much devoted to the study 
of natural history, and was a valuable writer in that branch 
of science, especially in botany. He went to England in 
1783, and died in London in 1791, at the age of sixty-three 



HARDEN. GARDINER. 459 

years. He was doctor of medicine and of divinity, and a 
Fellow of the Royal Society. 

GARDEN, WILLIAM. He received employment under the 
Crown, after the Revolution ; and at the time of his decease 
was Assistant Deputy Commissary-General of the garrison at 
Fredericton, New Brunswick. He sank under the pressure 
of sickness and trouble ; and closed his life in the county of 
York, New Brunswick, in 1812, aged sixty-three. His 
daughter Jane, wife of William Thompson, of Toronto, 
Upper Canada, died at Woodstock, New Brunswick, in 18-48, 
in her sixty-second year. 

GAKDIXKR, SYLYKSTEH. Of Boston. Physician. De 
scended from the first emigrant of the name to the Narra- 
gansett country ; and born at South Kingston, Rhode Island, 
in 1707. He fitted himself for the practice of medicine in 
England and France ; entered upon and pursued a successful 
professional career in Boston. He acquired great wealth, and 
became proprietor of one twelfth part of the " Plymouth 
Purchase," so called, on the Kennebec River, Maine.. His 
efforts to settle this large domain were unceasing from the 
year 1753 to the Revolution. He was made perpetual mod 
erator of the proprietors at all their meetings ; he executed 
their plans; built mills, houses, stores, and wharves; cleared 
lands ; made generous offers to emigrants ; established an 
Episcopal mission ; and furnished the people of that region 
with their first religious instruction. And most of all this 
was accomplished with his own money. The evidence uni 
formly is, that he was a man of broad and liberal views, of 
great zeal, energy, and public spirit, In Boston he was held 
in much respect by all classes. Of the " Government Party," 
he entertained as guests, Sir William Pepperell, Governor 
Hutchinson, Earl Percy, Admiral Graves, Major Pitcairn, 
General Gage, Major Small, and others. An Addresser of 
the Royal Governors in 1774 and the year following, he 
became identified with the Royal cause. But, hard upon 
threescore and ten, he did not mean to quit his native 
country. He yielded to the counsels, to the u impetuosity " 



460 GARDINER. 

of a young wife, and was ruined. In 1776, at the evacua 
tion, lie abandoned all, and found temporary shelter at Hali 
fax. The vessel in which he embarked was destitute of com 
mon comforts, poorly supplied with provisions, and the cabin, 
which he and several members of his family occupied, was 
small and crowded with passengers. In 1778 his name ap 
peared in the Proscription and Banishment Act. He settled 
at Poole, England. 

In addition to his lands in Maine, he had a large property 
in Boston, both real and personal, most of which was con 
fiscated. 

In 1785 he returned to the United States. For a part of 
his losses, he petitioned Massachusetts for compensation. He 
had never borne arms, he said, nor entered into any associa 
tion, combination, or subscription, against the Whigs. When 
he quitted Boston, he stated, too, that he had in possession a 
valuable stock of drugs, medicines, paints, groceries, and dye 
stuffs, which, having a vessel fully equipped and entirely 
under his control, he could easily have carried off, but which 
he left, of choice, for the benefit of the country, which he 
knew was in need. The claim was acknowledged to the 
extent of giving his heirs tickets in the State Land Lottery, 
by which they obtained nearly six thousand acres in the 

J V V 

county of Washington, Maine. 

From the confiscation, Massachusetts derived, indeed, but 
little benefit. As relates to the property just mentioned, 
Washington, on taking possession of Boston, ordered the 
medicines, &c., in Doctor Gardiner s store to be transferred 
to the hospital department for the use of the Continental 
Army ; but the State authorities interfered, and required 
delivery to the Sheriff of Suffolk County. The result, how 
ever, was a vote of the Council complying with the requisition 
of the Commander-in-Chief. The Commonwealth received 
nothing from the lands on the Kennebec, because the Attor 
ney-General found his suit illegally prosecuted, and because 
peace was concluded while his second action was pending. 
As concerns the remaining part of Dr. Gardiner s estate, 



GARDINER. 401 

there is a strange story, namely : that it was nearly all 
absorbed in the payment of fictitious claims against him, 
which there was no one here to dispute. A gentleman of 
the highest respectability informs me that he was once walk 
ing with the Doctor s executor, when they were met by a 
man who had been allowed payment of an unjust demand, 
and who was asked by the executor, " How could you 
bring such a charge?" " La, Mr. Hallowell," was the reply, 
" I would not injure you for the world. The account was 
correct : 1 only omitted to say it was paid; it was dointj you no 
Ju.tnn ; everybody watt doing the same- ; and I was in want of 
the money. 1 The subject of this notice died at Newport, 
Rhode Island, suddenly, August 8, 1786, in his eightieth 
year, and his remains were interred under Trinity Church. 
In the Episcopal Church, Gardiner, Maine, there is a marble 
cenotaph to his memory. His first wife was Anne, daughter 
of Doctor John Gibbons of Boston ; his second, Abigail 
Eppes of Virginia ; his third, Catharine Goldthwaite. His 
children were six. First, John, born in Boston in 17ol ; 
bred to the law in England ; practised in the Courts of West 
minster Hall ; Attorney-General of St. Christopher s ; denied 
promotion by the British Government, because of his sym 
pathy for the Whigs ; returned to Massachusetts at the peace ; 
one of the leaders in the movement which transferred King s 
Chapel to the Unitarians ; settled in P o wn alb o rough, Maine, 
and was member of the General Court ; embarked at home 
for Boston, in 17D-3 ; wrecked on the passage and perished. 
Second, William, of whom presently. Third, Anne, who 
married the second son of the Earl of Altamont. Next, 
Hannah, the wife of Robert Ilallowell. Fifth, Rebecca, wife 
of Philip Dumarisque. Last, Abigail, who married Oliver 
Whipple, counsellor-at-law, Cumberland, Rhode Island, 
and subsequently of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. The 
husbands of Hannah and Rebecca are mentioned in these 
volumes. 

Under the provisions of Doctor Gardiner s will, nearly 
the whole of his estate in Maine passed to Hannah s only 
39* 



462 GARDINER. 

son, Hubert Hallowell, who, as one of the conditions of that 
instrument, added the name of Gardiner. John, as is stated, 
failed to become the principal heir, in consequence of his 
political and religious opinions ; and William " was not an 
efficient man." [See Robert Hallo-well. ] 

GARDINER, WILLIAM. Of Maine. Son of Doctor Syl 
vester Gardiner. Settled on his father s lands on the Ken- 
nebec, prior to the Revolution. He gave offence to the 
Whio s because he u would drink tea " : because he refused 

O 

to swear allegiance to their cause ; and because lie called them 
" Rebels." Arrangements were made to take him from his 
bed at night, and tar and feather him ; but a Whig, friendly 
to him, carried him to a place of safety. He was, however, 
made prisoner, tried, and sent to jail in Boston. In March, 
1778, he petitioned for release, and was soon after allowed 
to return home, where " he was regarded as a harmless man, 
and was suffered for the most part to remain unmolested, 
except by petty annoyances." He died unmarried at Gar 
diner, and his remains were interred " beneath the Episcopal 
vestry." 

GARDINER, NATHANIEL. Of Pownalborough, Maine. 
Kinsman of Doctor Sylvester Gardiner. A steady Loyalist, 
and distinguished for the use of both influence and fortune in 
behalf of distressed adherents to the Crown. For a year or 
two, the account of him is contradictory. By one of his 
own letters it appears that, in 1780, he was in command of 
an armed schooner called the Golden l y lppin ; was captured 
by " a detachment of General Wadsworth s Rebels," near the 
Penobscot ; and conveyed to jail in Falmoutli (now Port 
land). On the way, " he was taken to a gallows, and told that 
that was his place." He says he was allowed neither bed nor 
blanket; that he laid down on a plank floor full of spike- 
heads an inch high ; that neither food nor drink was ordered 
for him ; that had not his son brought him some money, he 
should have died of cruel treatment, Kept in prison four 
months, and robbed, he relates, of his clothes and pocket- 
book, he escaped, and went to New York. At the peace 



GARDINER. GARRETTSON. 463 

he removed to Shelburne, Nova Scotia. Before living in 
Maine, lie was a magistrate in Rhode Island. 

GARDINER, Ami AM. Of Long Island, New York. Colonel 
in the militia. In 1770 he tendered the oath of allegiance 
to the inhabitants of South and Easthampton. The same 
year he was taken prisoner by Colonel Livingston, and his 
case reported to Governor Trumbull of Connecticut. 

GARDNER, HENRY. Of Salem, Massachusetts. An Ad 
dresser of Gao-e on his arrival in 1774. He died at Maiden 

e 

in 1817, aged seventy-one. 

GARNETT, SAMUEL. Of Massachusetts. Was in London in 
1770, and addressed the King. Of the Massachusetts family, 
I conclude, were Patrick, who was an ensign in the Prince of 
Wales American Volunteers ; and Joseph, who settled in 
New Brunswick, was Master in Chancery, and Deputy Sur 
rogate, and died in St. Andrew in 1801. 

GARRETTSON, REV. FREEP.ORN. Minister of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. He Avas born in Maryland in 17-52, and 
was admitted to the ministry, " on trial," in 1770. The next 
year, while stationed in Virginia, he refused to take the oath 
of fidelity to the Whigs, and was told that he must leave the 
State or go to jail. But he was not then molested. In 1778, 
however, when preaching in Maryland, he was met by a man 
who seized his horse s bridle, and who beat him over the head 
and shoulders with a large stick. In the affray, Mr. Garrett- 
son s horse started off at full speed, but his assailant, who was 
also mounted, pursued, and, in passing him, struck a blow 
which, with the injury in falling to the ground, rendered him 
senseless. Again, in 1778, an officer waited upon him with a 
process, and threatened to confine him in prison. A year 
later, he was stationed in Delaware, " where he found him 
self an object of suspicion and molestation " ; and at Salis 
bury " he was informed that a mob had already collected, 
consisting of some of the first people in the county, with a 
determination to effect his imprisonment." lie escaped a 
second time ; but in Maryland, in 1780, while engaged in a 
religious service, he was seized by a party of about twenty 



4b 4 GARRISON. 

persons, and hurried off to jail, " where he had a dirty floor 
for a bed, and his saddle-bags for a pillow." His friends soon 
interposed, and the Governor released him. 

.In 1785 he went to Nova Scotia as a missionary; and 
while there, founded a Methodist society at Halifax. He re 
turned in 1787, preached several times in private houses in 
Boston, and then visited Rhode Island. From this period 
until 1817, he was actively employed in various parts of New 
Enojand and the Middle States, and became distinguished. 

O Z3 

For the ten years preceding his decease, he was on the list of 
" supernumaries." but yet he continued his labors as " a min 
ister at large." He died at New York in 1827, aged seventy- 
five. His widow, Catharine, daughter of Chancellor Robert 
R. Livingston, died in 1849, in her ninety-seventh year. He 
left one child, a daughter. 

GARRISON, JOSEPH. Of Massachusetts. He was born in 
1734. Notes from the family record, furnished me by two of 
his grandsons, show that he was in Nova Scotia as early, cer 
tainly, as 1773. Of his course during the Revolution little is 
known. Descendants admit his lovalty. He was in New 
Brunswick, probably, before the peace ; and is still remem 
bered in that Province as a skilful miner, and as the discov 
erer of the " Grand Lake Coal Mines," which of late years 
have been extensively worked. He died on the river St. 
John. Mary Palmer, who was born in Byfield, Massachu 
setts, in 1741, and to whom he was married in 1704, bore 
him five children previous to the war, and four between 1776 
and 1783, as follows : " Hannah (the eldest), who married 
John Lunt, lived at Eastport, Maine, some years, removed to 
the Penobscot, and died there about the year 1843 ; Eliza 
beth, or Betsey, who married William Simpson, and died at 
Kingston, New Brunswick, in 1845 ; Joseph, who died on 
Deer Island, New Brunswick, in 1819, aged fifty-two; Dan 
iel, who was drowned in the river St. John, about the year 
1798 ; Abijah, of whom presently ; Sarah, 1 who married 
Joseph Clark ; Nathaniel, who died at the city of St. John 
1 Lived on the river St. John in 1848. 



GARRISON GAY. 465 

in 1817; Silas; 1 and William, who died on the river St. 
John in 1843. 

Abijah, the third son, was born in Nova Scotia, within the 
limits of the present Province of New Brunswick, in 1778. 
He lived awhile at St. John, but removed to Newbnryport, 
Massachusetts, where he resided some years. Pie returned to 
his native Province, finally, and probably died there ; of his 
fate, however, persons of his lineage know nothing. Fanny 
Lloyd, his wife, was born on Deer Island, Passamaquoddy 
Bay, New Brunswick, in 1776, and had issue Mary Ann, 
Caroline, James Hotley, William Lloyd, and Elizabeth. The 
youngest son, William Lloyd Garrison, of Boston, who was 
born at Newburyport, December 10, 1805, and who, uni 
versally known for his labors to abolish slavery, is the sole 
survivor. 

GARRISON, JOHN. He became an inhabitant of New 
Brunswick, at the peace, and was a member of the House of 
Assembly for several years. His end was sad. He died on 
the river St. John in 1810. 

GATCIIEUS, JACOB. Of Philadelphia. Joined the British 
in that city, and went with the Royal Army to New York, 
in 1778. The next year he was captain of the privateer Im 
pertinent, was captured, and committed to prison. 

GATCIIELL, DENNIS. Of Maine. Whig at first, committee 
man, and captain in the militia. Repented, in 1779, of hav- 
ino- been " a furious and revengeful Rebel," and acknowledged 

& O e!5 

that he deserved no mercy from a sovereign he had so greatly 
abused, but still flattered himself with hopes of forgiveness. 
Possibly the Gatchells of the island of Grand Menan, Bay of 
Fundv, are of his lineage. His home, I conjecture, was near 
the mouth of the Kennebec. 

GAY, REV. EIJENE/ER, D.D. Minister, of Hingham, Mas 
sachusetts. In doubt as to his course in the Revolution, his 
name was omitted in the first edition of this work. He was 
born in 1696, graduated at Harvard University in 1714, and 
was ordained in 1718. He died in 1787, at the age of 
1 Lived on the river St. John in 1848. 



406 GAY. GEAKE. 

ninety, and in the sixty-ninth year of his ministry. The 
Rev. Doctor Cliauncey " pronounces him to have been one 
of the greatest and most valuable men in the country." 

GAY, MARTIN. Founder, of Boston. Son of the preced 
ing. An Addresser of Hutchinson in 1774, and of Gage in 
1775 ; was proscribed and banished in 1778. He went to 
Halifax in 1770, with his family. I suppose he returned; a 
gentleman of this name died at Boston in 1809, aged eighty- 
two. 

GAY, SAMUEL. Of Massachusetts. Son of Martin Gay. 
He was born in Boston, and graduated at Harvard University 
in 1775. Soon after the beginning of the Revolution, he 
abandoned his native country. He settled in New Brunswick, 
and was a member of the first House of Assembly organized 
in the Colony, and represented the county of Westmoreland 
several years. He was also a magistrate of that county, and 
Chief Justice of the Court of Common Pleas. He died at 
Fort Cumberland, New Brunswick, (where his father had a 
grant of land from the Crown,) January 21, 1847, in the 
ninety-third year of his age. The late Hon. Ebenezer Gay, 
of Hingham, Massachusetts, was his brother. 

GAYXOJI, JAMES, and PETER. Were grantees of St. John, 
New Brunswick, in 1783. James was a member of the 
Loyal Artillery in 1795, and died at St. John in 1823, at the 
age of seventy-two. 

GEAKE, SAMUEL. A Whig, who was taken prisoner by the 
British, corrupted, and induced to act as a spy. After enter 
ing the service of the enemy, he enlisted among his former 
friends, the better to accomplish his purpose of betraying 
them. His designs were ascertained, and he was arrested 
in 1778, tried, and condemned to die. He confessed his crime, 
but Washington spared his life, because the court-martial that 
tried him was irregularly constituted, and because his testi 
mony was deemed important against Hammell, formerly 
brigade-major to General James Clinton, who had also en 
tered into treasonable designs with the British. Geake, 
according to his confession, was to receive a commission of 



GEDDES. - GERRISII. 467 

lieutenant in a corps that ITaminell was to command, as soon 
as it could be raised from deserters from the American Army. 

GEDDES, CHARLES. Died at Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 1807, 
aged fifty-six. 

GELSTON, SAMUEL. Of Massachusetts. Physician. In 
January, 1776, he was held to answer before a joint committee 
of the Council and House. During the proceedings against 

t5 i S & 

him, it appears that he escaped from the custody of the mes 
senger, fled to Rhode Island, where he was apprehended and 
brought back. Early in February, the committee reported, 
that, by his own confession, he had contravened the Resolves 
of Congress, had supplied the enemy with various articles of 
provision ; and that, " by other evidence, it appeared he was 
unfriendly to the rights and liberties of the country." There 
upon ordered, that " the said Samuel Gelston be forthwith 
confined in some jail in this Colony," &c. In July of the same 
year he was at the Elizabeth Islands, in the custody of Bera- 
chiah Basset, who was directed, by a Resolve of the Legisla 
ture, to send him under a proper guard to the five justices in 
the county of Suffolk, appointed specially to inquire into the 
conduct of persons accused of enmity to the Whigs. 

GERRISH, MOSES. Of Massachusetts. He graduated at 
Harvard University in 1762. In the Revolution, he was at 
tached to the commissary department of the Royal Army. 
After the peace, he, Thomas Ross, and one Jones, obtained 
license of occupation of the island of Grand Menan, New 
Brunswick, and its dependencies, and on condition of procur 
ing forty settlers, a schoolmaster, and a minister, within seven 
years from the date of the license, were to receive a grant of 
the whole from the British Crown. They commenced the set 
tlement of the island, and sold several lots in anticipation of 
their own title, but failed to fulfil the conditions, and did not 
obtain the expected grant. Jones returned to the United 
States, but Gerrish and Ross continued at Grand Menan. 
Gerrish was an able man. A gentleman who knew him long 
and intimately, remarks, that "-he would spread more good 
sense on a sheet of paper than any person of my acquaint- 



408 GEYER. GILBERT. 



His powers wore not, however, devoted to any regu 
lar pursuit. He never acquired any considerable property, 
" yet always seemed to have enough." He " did nothing, 
yet was always about something." He was a magistrate at 
Grand Menan for many years, and until his decease, in 1880, 
at the age of eighty years. 

GEYER, FREDERICK WILLIAM. Merchant. Of Boston. 
Proscribed and banished in 1778 ; citizenship restored in 1789, 
by Act of the Legislature. In business with his son, No. 13 
Union Street, Boston, in 1794. Died at Walpole, New Hamp 
shire, in 1808. A daughter, who died near London in 1854i 
at the age of about eighty-eight, married Mr. Marryatt, and 
was the mother of the late Captain Marryatt of the British 
Navy, and author of numerous popular \vorks of fiction. 

GIDXEY, JOSHUA. Of a place near Poughkeepsie, New 
York. He was imprisoned for his agency in spiking cannon 
in the vicinity of King s Bridge, but was released finally, and 
allowed to return to his family. Subsequently, he raised and 
commanded a company of Loyalists. At the peace, accom 
panied by his family of six persons, he went from New York 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
town lot. His losses in consequence of his loyalty were esti 
mated at c670. He soon abandoned Shelburne and settled 
in New Brunswick, where he was a Judge of the Court of 
Common Pleas. He died about the year 1880, aged eighty- 
eight. 

GIDXEY, JOSEPH. Of White Plains, New York. He was 
the owner of the land on which the battle of White Plains was 
fought, and conducted the British Army thither. At the 
peace, accompanied by his family, he went from New York 
to Shelburne, Nova Scotia, where the Crown granted him one 
water lot. His losses in consequences of his loyalty were esti 
mated at c1800. He removed to Digby Neck in the same 
Province, and died at Bridgetown in 1811, aged seventy-three. 
Joshua was a half-brother. 

GILBERT, THOMAS. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. His an 
cestor, John Gilbert, as is supposed, came from Devonshire, 



GILBERT. 469 

England, at an age somewhat advanced, and lived first, with 
his family, at Dorchester. He died previous to 1(554, but 
Winnifred, his widow, was then living. He, witli Henry 
Andrews, were the two first representatives from Tannton to 
the General Court at Plymouth, in 16o ( J. His sons, Thomas 
and John, removed with him to Tannton, and were among the 
first proprietors of that town. Of Thomas, Governor Win- 
throp gravely records, that, 

u 8th mo. August 18, 1686 : Thomas Gilbert brought be 
fore ns ; he was drunk at Serjeant Baulson s, and the con 
stable being sent for he struck him. He was kept in prison 
all night, and the next day his father, John Gilbert, and his 
brother, John Gilbert of Dorchester, undertook in 40 that 
John Gilbert the younger would appear at Court to answer 
for him, and perform the order of the Court, &c. The reason 
was, that he was to go to England presently, and not known 
to have been in any way disordered, and was his father s 
oldest son, who was a grave, honest gentleman, &c. They 
did undertake, also, that he should acknowledge his fault 
openly to the constable," &c. 

Thomas went to England, as he intended, and never re 
turned, but died there in 1676. His wife, Jane, who was a 
daughter of Hugh Rossiter, and his children, remained at 
Taunton. His marriage is supposed to have been the first 
that occurred in that town. The name of his oldest son was 
Thomas, who was the immediate ancestor of Thomas Gilbert, 
the Loyalist, who is the subject of this notice, and who, on 
his mother s side, was descended from Governor William Brad 
ford, the second chief magistrate of Plymouth Colony. In 
174r>, the Thomas, of whom we are now to speak, was a 
captain at the memorable siege and reduction of Louisburg, 
under Sir William Pepperell. In the French war of IToo, he 
was a lieutenant-colonel in the Massachusetts forces under 
Brigadier-General Ruggles. He was engaged in the attempt 
against Crown Point; and after the fall of Colonel Ephraim 
Williams, in the battle with the French, under Baron Dieskau, 
at Lake George, he succeeded to the command of the regiment. 

O 7 O 

VOL. i. 40 



470 GILBERT. 

In the Revolutionary controversy lie took an early and 
decided stand in behalf of the Crown. At this time he was 
a member of the House of Representatives, a justice of the 
quorum, and a colonel in the militia. In 1774 a large body 
of the people proceeded to Freetown, to desire him not to 
accept of the office of sheriff under the new laws, and to in 
form him that if he acted under the commission which it 
was reported he had received, he " must abide by the con 
sequences. Soon after he was at Dartmouth ; and a party 
of about a hundred assaulted the house in which he was a 
loci o er ; but with the help of the family he prevented their 
entrance. In the autumn of 1774 the commotions in Bristol 
County had become so great that an armed force was deemed 
requisite, by General Gage, to keep the people in subjection 
to the king s authority ; and, at his request, Colonel Gilbert 
raised and commanded a body of three hundred Loyalists. 
In March, 1775, he wrote the following letter to the Hon. 
James Wallace, Esquire, commander of his Majesty s ship 
Rose, Newport, which was intercepted, and which appears 
to have been the second addressed by him to that officer. 

u Honorable Sir: Since writing the lines on the 21st by 
Mr. Phillips, many insults and threats are, and have been 
made against those soldiers which have taken our arms and 
train, and exercise in the King s name ; and on Monday next 
the Captains muster at the south part of the town, when we 
have great reason to fear thousands of the Rebels will attack 
them, and take our lives, or the King s arms, or perhaps both. 
1, Sir, ask the favor of one of His Majesty s Tenders, or some 
other vessel of force, might be at or near Bowers , in order, if 
any of our people should be obliged to retreat, they may be 
taken on board. Nothing but the last extremity will oblige 
them to quit the ground." 

These proceedings attracted immediate attention, and pro 
duced great indignation. In April, 1775, the Congress of 
Massachusetts unanimously declared that " Colonel Thomas 
Gilbert is an inveterate enemy to his country, to reason, to 
justice, and the common rights of mankind ; " and, that " who- 



GILBERT. 471 

ever had knowingly espoused his cause, or taken up arms for 
its support, does, in common with himself, deserve to be in 
stantly cut off from the benefit of commerce with, or counte 
nance of, any friend of virtue, America, or the human race." 
These words are explicit enough ; and contain as full and as 
comprehensive denunciation as can be found in the records 
of any deliberative body during the controversy. And Con 
gress, in further speaking of him, use the term, "Gilbert 
and his banditti." 

A few days after the passage of these resolutions of bitter 
censure, Colonel Gilbert fled to the ./fcw, which vessel was 
still at Newport, Rhode Island, and thence to Boston. On 
the 4th of May, 177f), he wrote to his sons, from Boston, 
thus : - 

" On the 27th of April, I left the ship, took passage on 
board a packet sloop on the first instant, in health arrived 
here, where I expect to stay till the Rebels are subdued, which 
I believe will not be long first, as the ships and troops are 
daily expected. My greatest fears are, you will be seduced 
or compelled to take arms with the deluded people. Dear 
sons, if these wicked sinners, the Rebels, entice you, believe 
them not, but die by the sword rather than be hanged as 
Rebels, which will certainly be your fate sooner or later if you 
join them, or be killed in battle, and will be no more than you 
deserve. I wish you in Boston, and all the friends to govern 
ment. The Rebels have proclaimed that those friends may 
have liberty, and come in ; but as all their declarations have 
hitherto proved, I fear, i alse, this may be so. Let Ruggles 
know his father wants him here. You may come by water 
from Newport. If here, the King will give you provisions 
and pay you wages ; but by experience you know neither 
your persons nor estates are safe in the country, for as soon as 
you have raised anything, they [the Rebels] will rob you of it, 
as they are more savage and cruel than heathens, or any other 
creatures, and, it is generally thought, than devils. You will 
put yourselves out of their power as soon as possible. This is 
from vour affectionate father." 



472 GILBERT. 

In 1770 Colonel Gilbert accompanied the Royal Army to 
Halifax ; and in 1778 he was proscribed and banished. He 
continued with the King s troops during the war, " often em 
ployed, and constantly rendering every service in his power, 
for the suppression of the Rebellion." In 1783 he went to 
Nova Scotia, and on the lljth of November of that year he 
was at Conway, in the county of Annapolis, and a petitioner 
to Governor Parr for a grant of lands. At a subsequent pe 
riod, he settled in New Brunswick, and died on the river St. 
John, near the year 1796, aged about eighty-two. On retir 
ing from service, at the close of the French war, Colonel Gil 
bert declined to receive half-pay. He held no commission in 
the Revolution, and was consequently entitled to no allow 
ance as a disbanded officer : but he received compensation as 
a Loyalist for his losses. 

GILBERT, THOMAS, JR. Of Berkley, Massachusetts. Son 
of Francis. He fled to Boston in 1775, and joined his father ; 
but it is believed did not accompany him to Halifax. In 1778 
he was proscribed and banished. During the war he continued 
with the Royal troops, and was active in his endeavors to sup 
press the popular movement. He settled in New Brunswick 
after the war, and died on the river St. John. 

GILBERT, BRADFORD. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. 
Brother of Thomas, Jr. In 1778 he was proscribed and 
banished. He settled in New Brunswick in 1783, and re 
ceived the grant of a lot in the city of St. John. In 1795 
he was a member of the St. John Loyal Artillery, and in 
1803 an alderman of the city. He died at St. John in 1814, 
aged sixty-eight. Ann, his widow, died in 1853, in her nine 
tieth year. 

GILBERT, PEREZ. Of Freetown, Massachusetts. Brother 
of Bradford. He was proscribed and banished. He settled 
in New Brunswick with his father and brothers, and died in 
that Colony. 

GILBERT, FRANCIS. He was Naval Officer of New Bruns 
wick, and died at St. John in 1821, aged eighty-two. 

GILBERT, SAMUEL. Of Berkley, Massachusetts. He was 



GILFROY. GILP1X. 47:] 

a brother of Colonel Thomas, and went with him to Halifax 
in 177 ). In 1778 lie was proscribed and banished. lie lived 
in New "Brunswick for a time after the Revolution, but finally 
returned to the United States. 

GILFKOY, JOHN. Boatswain of the Montgomery, armed 
ship of the State of Pennsylvania. Tried for mutiny, (in 
1778,) and for joining the side of the Crown, in Philadelphia : 
found guilty, and sentenced to death. 

GILT AX, WILLIAM. Of Monmouth County, New Jersey. 
A Torv marauder. When about to stab an aged Whig of 
the name of Russell, into whose house he had broken, he was 
shot by Russell s son, who lay wounded on the floor. 

GTLL, THOMAS. Of Delaware. Died in York County, 
New Brunswick, in 18:>:>, aged seventy-seven. Mary, his 
widow, a native of Newport, Rhode Island, died in the same 
county, 1837, at the age of eighty-one. 

GILLIES, AKCHIIULD. Died at Carleton, New Brunswick, 
in 1821, aged sixty-six. 

OILMAN, PETEK. Of Gihnanton, New Hampshire. He 
was son of Major John Oilman, and was born in 1704. He 
commanded a regiment in the French war ; was Speaker of 
the Assembly ; and member of the Council of New Hamp 
shire. Ordered, November, 177."), by the Provincial Congress, 
that he confine himself to the town of Exeter, and not depart 
thence without leave of that body or the Committee of Safety. 
He died in 1788, aged eighty-four. 

OiLMorii, ROIJEKT. He was banished and attainted, and 
his estate Avas confiscated. In 17 ( .*4 he represented to the 
British Government, that, at the time of his banishment, debts 
were due to him in America, which he had been unable to 
recover. I suppose this person to have belonged to New 
Hampshire, and the same who was proscribed by .Vet of that 
State in 1778. 

GiLnx, THOMAS. Of Philadelphia. In 1777 he was con 
fined in that city for being inimical to the Whig cause, and 
ordered to Virginia a prisoner. He died in exile at Winches 
ter, March, 1778. 

40* 



474 GIRTY. 

GIIITY, SIMON. Of Pennsylvania. Indian Interpreter. 
Was born out of wedlock. His father was a sot ; his mother 
a bawd. He figures in the difficulties of Doctor Conolly and 
his party, with the authorities of Pennsylvania, in 1774. 
Girty s